Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 111–144 | Cite as

Deglaciation and Human Colonization of Northern Europe

Article

Abstract

Few places worldwide experienced Late Glacial ecological shifts as drastic as those seen in the areas covered by, or adjacent to, the massive ice sheets that blanketed much of the northern hemisphere. Among the most heavily glaciated regions, northern Europe underwent substantial ecological shifts during and after the Last Glacial Maximum. The climatically unstable Pleistocene–Holocene transition repeatedly transformed far-northern Europe, placing it among the last regions to be colonized by Paleolithic societies. As such, it shares paleoenvironmental and archaeological analogues with other once glaciated areas where human populations, entrenched in periglacial environments prior to glacier retreat, spread into newly deglaciated territories. Perhaps most significant for northern Europeans were post-glacial effects of the Younger Dryas and Preboreal periods, as shifts in climate, plant, and animal communities elicited several adaptive responses including innovation, exploration, and the eventual settlement of once glaciated landscapes. This paper is a detailed review of existing archaeological and paleoecological evidence pertaining to the Late Upper Paleolithic of northern Europe, and offers theoretical observations on human colonization models and ecological responses to large-scale stadial and interstadial events.

Keywords

Northern Europe Late Upper Paleolithic Deglaciation Younger Dryas Human colonization 

References

  1. Aaris-Sørensen, K., Mühldorff, R., & Petersen, E. B. (2007). The Scandinavian reindeer (Rangifer) after the Last Glacial Maximum: Time, seasonality, and human exploitation. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34(6), 914–923.Google Scholar
  2. Abramova, Z. A., Grigorieva, G. V., & Zaitseva, G. (2006). The age of Upper Paleolithic sites in the Middle Dnieper River basin of Eastern Europe. Radiocarbon, 43(2B), 1077–1084.Google Scholar
  3. Alley, R. B., Meese, D. A., Shuman, C. A., Gow, A. J., Taylor, K. C., Grootes, P. M., et al. (1993). Abrupt increase in Greenland snow accumulation at the end of the Younger Dryas event. Nature, 362, 527–529.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, B. G. (1968). Glacial geology of northern Nordland, north Norway. Norwegian Geological Survey, 320, 1–74.Google Scholar
  5. Andersen, K. K., Svensson, A., Johnsen, S. J., Rasmussen, S. O., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., et al. (2006). The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005, 15–42 ka. Part 1: Constructing the time scale. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 3246–3257.Google Scholar
  6. Andrén, T., Björck, S., Andrén, E., Conley, D., Zillén, L., & Anjar, J. (2011). The development of the Baltic Sea basin during the last 130 ka. In J. Harff, S. Björck, & P. Hoth (Eds.), The Baltic Sea basin (pp. 75–98). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Anikovich, M. V., Anisyutkin, N. K., & Vishnyatskii, L. B. (2007a). Uzlovye problemy perekhod k verkhnemu paleolitu v Evrazii. St. Petersburg: Russian Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  8. Anikovich, M. V., Sinitsyn, A. A., Hoffecker, J. F., Holliday, V. T., Popov, V. V., Lisitsyn, S. N., et al. (2007b). Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans. Science, 315(5809), 223–226.Google Scholar
  9. Anundsen, K. (1996). The physical conditions for earliest settlement during the last deglaciation in Norway. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 207–217.Google Scholar
  10. Baales, M. (2002). Der spätpaläolithische Fundplatz Kettig: Untersuchungen zur Siedlungsarchäologie der Federmesser-Gruppen am Mittelrhein. Mainz: Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums.Google Scholar
  11. Ballin, T. B., & Saville, A. (2003). An Ahrensburgian-type tanged point from Shieldaig, Wester Ross, Scotland, and its implications. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 22(2), 115–131.Google Scholar
  12. Bang-Andersen, S. (1996a). The colonization of southwest Norway: An ecological approach. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 219–234.Google Scholar
  13. Bang-Andersen, S. (1996b). Coast/inland relations in the Mesolithic of southern Norway. World Archaeology, 27(3), 427–443.Google Scholar
  14. Bang-Andersen, S. (2003). Southwest Norway at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition: Landscape development, colonization, site types, settlement patterns. Norwegian Archaeological Review, 36(1), 5–25.Google Scholar
  15. Barton, R. N. (1999). The Late Glacial colonization of Britain. In J. Hunter & I. Ralston (Eds.), Archaeology of Britain (pp. 13–34). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Barton, R. N., Jacobi, R. M., Stapert, D., & Street, M. J. (2003). The Late Glacial reoccupation of the British Isles and the Creswellian. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18(7), 631–643.Google Scholar
  17. Barton, R. N., & Roberts, A. J. (1996). Reviewing the British late Upper Palaeolithic: New evidence for chronological patterning in the Late Glacial record. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 15(3), 245–265.Google Scholar
  18. Barton, R. N., Roberts, A. J., & Roe, D. A. (1991). The Late Glacial in northwest Europe: Human adaptation and environmental change at the end of the Pleistocene. Oxford: Council for British Archaeology Report No. 77.Google Scholar
  19. Berglund, B. E., Håkansson, S., & Lagerlund, E. (1976). Radiocarbon-dated mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) finds in south Sweden. Boreas, 5, 177–191.Google Scholar
  20. Bergman, I., Olofsson, A., Hörnberg, G., Zackrisson, O., & Hellberg, E. (2004). Deglaciation and colonization: Pioneer settlements in northern Fennoscandia. Journal of World Prehistory, 18(2), 155–177.Google Scholar
  21. Bjerck, H. B. (1989). Mesolithic site types and settlement patterns at Vega, northern Norway. Acta Archaeologica, 60, 1–32.Google Scholar
  22. Bjerck, H. B. (1995). The North Sea continent and the pioneer settlement of Norway. In Man and sea in the Mesolithic: Coastal settlement above and below present sea level (pp. 131–144). Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 53.Google Scholar
  23. Björck, S. (1995). A review of the history of the Baltic Sea, 13.0–8.0 ka BP. Quaternary International, 27, 19–40.Google Scholar
  24. Björck, S. (1996). Late Weichselian/early Preboreal development of the Øresund Strait: A key area for northerly mammal immigration. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 123–134.Google Scholar
  25. Björck, S., Walker, M. J., Cwynar, L. C., Johnsen, S., Knudsen, K. L., Lowe, J. J., et al. (1998). An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region based on the Greenland ice-core record: A proposal by the INTIMATE group. Journal of Quaternary Science, 13(4), 283–292.Google Scholar
  26. Blackwell, P. G., & Buck, C. E. (2003). The Late Glacial human reoccupation of northwestern Europe: New approaches to space–time modeling. Antiquity, 77(296), 232–240.Google Scholar
  27. Blades, B. (2001). Aurignacian lithic economy: Ecological perspectives from southwestern France. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  28. Blockley, S. P. E., Donahue, R. E., & Pollard, A. M. (2000). Radiocarbon calibration and Late Glacial occupation in northwest Europe. Antiquity, 74(283), 112–121.Google Scholar
  29. Blockley, S. M., & Gamble, C. S. (2012). Europe in the Younger Dryas: Animal resources, settlement, and funerary behavior. In M. I. Eren (Ed.), Hunter-gatherer behavior: Human response during the Younger Dryas (pp. 179–193). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  30. Blockley, S. P., Lane, C. S., Hardiman, M., Rasmussen, S. O., Seierstad, I. K., Steffensen, J. P., et al. (2012). Synchronisation of palaeoenvironmental records over the last 60,000 years, and an extended INTIMATE event stratigraphy to 48,000 b2k. Quaternary Science Reviews, 36, 2–10.Google Scholar
  31. Bodu, P., Chehmana, L., & Debout, G. (2007). Le Badegoulien de la moitié nord de la France: Un état des connaissances. Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, 104(4), 661–679.Google Scholar
  32. Bokelmann, K. (1979). Rentierjäger am Gletscherrand in Schleswig-Holstein? Ein Diskussionsbeitrag zur Erforschung der Hamburger Kultur. Offa, 36, 12–22.Google Scholar
  33. Bokelmann, K., Heinrich, D., & Menke, B. (1983). Fundplätze des Spätglazials am Hainholz-Esinger Moor, Kreis Pinneberg. Offa, 40, 199–239.Google Scholar
  34. Bos, A. A., van Geel, B., van der Pflicht, J., & Bohncke, S. J. P. (2007). Preboreal climate oscillations in Europe: Wiggle-match dating and synthesis of Dutch high-resolution multi-proxy records. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26(15–16), 1927–1950.Google Scholar
  35. Boulton, G. S., Dongelmans, P., Punkari, M., & Broadgate, M. (2001). Palaeoglaciology of an ice sheet through a glacial cycle: The European ice sheet through the Weichselian. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(4), 591–625.Google Scholar
  36. Bowen, D. Q., Phillips, F. M., McCabe, A. M., Knutz, P. C., & Sykes, G. A. (2002). New data for the Last Glacial Maximum in Great Britain and Ireland. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21(1), 89–101.Google Scholar
  37. Bratlund, B. (1996). Archaeozoological comments on Final Paleolithic frontiers in south Scandinavia. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24): 23–33.Google Scholar
  38. Burdukiewicz, J. M. (1986). The Late Pleistocene shouldered point assemblages in Western Europe. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  39. Burdukiewicz, J. M., & Schmider, B. (2000). Analyse comparative des pointes à cran hambourgiennes du Bassin de l’Oder et des pointes à cran magdaléniennes du Bassin parisien. In B. Valentin, P. Bodu, & M. Christensen (Eds.), L’Europe centrale et septentrionale au Tardiglaciaire: Confrontation des modèles régionaux de peuplement (pp. 97–108). Actes de la Table-ronde internationale de Nemours, 141516 Mai 1997. Nemours: APRAIF.Google Scholar
  40. Carr, S. (1999). The micromorphology of Last Glacial Maximum sediments in the southern North Sea. Catina, 35, 123–145.Google Scholar
  41. Clark, P. U., Dyke, A. S., Shakun, J. D., Carlson, A. E., Clark, J., Wohlfahrt, B., et al. (2009). The Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 325(5941), 710–714.Google Scholar
  42. Clark, C. D., Evans, D. J. A., Khatwa, A., Bradwell, T., Jordan, C. J., Marsh, S. H., et al. (2004). Map and GIS database of glacial landforms and features related to the last British Ice Sheet. Boreas, 33, 359–375.Google Scholar
  43. Clausen, I. (1996). Alt Düvenstedt LA 121, Schleswig-Holdstein occurrence of the Ahrensburgian culture in soils of the Alleröd Interstadial: A preliminary report. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 99–110.Google Scholar
  44. Clausen, I. (1999). Alt Duvenstedt, Kr. Rendsburg-Eckernförde: Jungpaläolithische Stationen LA 120A und LA 121. Offa, 53, 372–373.Google Scholar
  45. Clausen, I. (2004). The reindeer antler axe of the Allerød period from Klappholz LA 63, Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg/Germany: Is it a relic of the Federmesser, Bromme or Ahrensburg culture? In T. Terberger, & B.V. Eriksen (Eds.), Hunters in a changing world: Environment and archaeology of the PleistoceneHolocene transition (ca. 110009000 BC) in northern central Europe (pp. 141–164). Rahden/Westf.: Marie Leidorf.Google Scholar
  46. Clausen, I., & Hartz, S. (1988). Fundplätze des Spätglazials am Sorgetal bei Alt-Duvenstedt, Kreis Rendsburg-Eckernförde. Offa, 45, 17–41.Google Scholar
  47. Coard, R., & Chamberlain, A. T. (1999). The nature and timing of faunal change in the British Isles across the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. The Holocene, 9(3), 372–376.Google Scholar
  48. Davies, S. W. (2001). A very model of a modern human industry: New perspectives on the origins and spread of the Aurignacian in Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 67, 195–217.Google Scholar
  49. de Molyn, Josèph Ch. M. (1954). The Bromme culture: Notes on Denmark’s most ancient culture. Quartär, 6, 109–117.Google Scholar
  50. Debout, G., Olive, M., Bignon, O., Bodu, P., Chehmana, L., & Valentin, B. (2012). The Magdalenian in the Paris Basin: New results. Quaternary International, 272, 176–190.Google Scholar
  51. d’Errico, F., Banks, W. E., Vanhaeren, M., Laroulandie, V., & Langlais, M. (2011). PACEA geo-referenced radiocarbon database. PaleoAnthropology, 2011, 1–12.Google Scholar
  52. Dewez, M. (1987). Le Paléolithique supérieur récent dans les grottes de Belgique, Publications d’Histoire de l’Art et d’Archéologie de l’Université Catholique de Louvain 57. Louvain-La-Neuve: Institut Supérieur d’Archéologie et d’Histoire de l’Art.Google Scholar
  53. Eriksen, B. V. (2002). Reconsidering the geochronological framework of Late Glacial hunter-gatherer colonization of southern Scandinavia. In B. V. Eriksen & B. Bratlund (Eds.), Recent studies in the Final Paleolithic of the European Plain (pp. 25–41). Højbjerg: Jutland Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  54. Fagnart, J. P. (1997). La fin des temps glaciaires dans le Nord de la France: Approches archéologique et environnementale des occupations humaines du Tardiglaciaire. Mémoires de la Société Préhistorique Française 24. Paris: Société Préhistorique Française.Google Scholar
  55. Fagnart, J. P., & Coudret, P. (2000). Le Tardiglaciaire dans le Nord de la France. In B. Valentin, P. Bodu, & M. Christensen (Eds.), L’Europe centrale et septentrionale au Tardiglaciaire: Confrontation des modèles regionaux de peuplement. Actes de la Table-ronde internationale de Nemours, 141516 Mai 1997. Nemours: APRAIF.Google Scholar
  56. Fiedel, S. J. (1999). Older than we thought: Implications of corrected dates for Paleoindians. American Antiquity, 64(1), 95–115.Google Scholar
  57. Fischer, A. (1991). Pioneers in deglaciated landscapes: The expansion and adaptation of late Paleolithic societies in southern Scandinavia. In N. Barton, A. J. Roberts & D. A. Roe (Eds.), The Late Glacial in northwest Europe: Human adaptation and environmental change at the end of the Pleistocene (pp. 100–121). Oxford: Council for British Archaeology Report No. 77.Google Scholar
  58. Gamble, C., Davies, W., Pettitt, P., & Richards, M. (2004). Climate change and evolving human diversity in Europe during the Last Glacial. The Royal Society, 359(1442), 243–254.Google Scholar
  59. Grimm, S. B. (2012). Maps of Late Glacial NW-Europe NW–EU 10W–20E 45–60N–120m 5. http://web.rgzm.de/572.0.html. Accessed 11 November 2012.
  60. Grimm, S.B., Jensen, D. S., & Weber, M.-J. (2012). A lot of good points: Havelte points in the context of Late Glacial tanged points in northwestern Europe. In M. T. Niekus, R. N. E. Barton, M. Street, & T. Terberger (Eds.), A mind set on flint: Studies in honour of Dick Stapert (pp. 251–266). Groningen: Groningen Archaeological Studies 16.Google Scholar
  61. Grimm, S. B., & Weber, M.-J. (2008). The chronological framework of the Hamburgian in the light of old and new 14C dates. Quartär, 55, 17–40.Google Scholar
  62. Grosswald, M. G. (1980). Late Weichselian ice sheets of northern Eurasia. Quaternary Research, 13(1), 1–32.Google Scholar
  63. Grosswald, M. G. (1998). Late Weichselian ice sheets in Arctic and Pacific Siberia. Quaternary International, 45, 3–18.Google Scholar
  64. Guslitser, B. I., & Pavlov, P. (1993). Man and nature in northeastern Europe in the Middle and Late Pleistocene. In O. Soffer & N. Praslov (Eds.), From Kostenki to Clovis (pp. 113–123). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  65. Guthrie, D. (1990). Frozen fauna of the Mammoth steppe: The story of Blue Babe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  66. Haflidason, H., de Alvaro, M. M., Nygard, A., Sejrup, H. P., & Laberg, J. S. (2007). Holocene sedimentary processes in the Andøya Canyon system, north Norway. Marine Geology, 246(2–4), 86–104.Google Scholar
  67. Hanebuth, T. J. J., Stattegger, K., & Bojanowski, A. (2009). Termination of the Last Glacial Maximum sea-level lowstand: The Sunda-Shelf data revisited. Global and Planetary Change, 66(1), 76–84.Google Scholar
  68. Hoffecker, J. F., Kuz’mina, I. E., Syromyatnikova, E. V., Anikovich, M. V., Sinitsyn, A. A., Popov, V. V., et al. (2010). Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(5), 1073–1089.Google Scholar
  69. Holm, J. (1996). The earliest settlement of Denmark. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 43–59.Google Scholar
  70. Holtedahl, H., & Bjerkli, K. (1982). Late Quaternary sediments and stratigraphy on the continental shelf off Møre-Trøndelag, West Norway. Marine Geology, 45(3), 179–226.Google Scholar
  71. Houmark-Nielsen, M., & Kjær, K. H. (2003). Southwest Scandinavia, 40–15 kyr BP: Palaeogeography and environmental change. Journal of Quaternary Science, 18(8), 769–786.Google Scholar
  72. Housley, R. A., Gamble, C. S., Street, M., & Pettitt, P. (1997). Radiocarbon evidence for the Late Glacial human recolonisation of northern Europe. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 63, 25–54.Google Scholar
  73. Ivy-Ochs, S., Kerschner, H., Kubik, P. W., & Schlüchter, C. (2006). Glacier response in the European Alps to Heinrich Event 1 cooling: The Gschnitz stadial. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21(2), 115–130.Google Scholar
  74. Jacobi, R. M. (1991). The Creswellian, Creswell and Cheddar. In R. Barton, A. J. Roberts, & D. A. Roe (Eds.), The Late Glacial in northwest Europe: Human adaptation and environmental change at the end of the Pleistocene (pp. 128–140). Oxford: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 77.Google Scholar
  75. Jacobi, R. (2004). The Late Upper Palaeolithic collection from Gough’s Cave, Cheddar, Somerset and human use of the cave. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 70, 1–92.Google Scholar
  76. Jacobi, R. M., & Roberts, A. J. (1992). A new variant on the Creswellian angle-backed blade. Lithics: Newsletter of the Lithic Studies Society, 13, 33–39.Google Scholar
  77. Johansen, L., & Stapert, D. (2004). Oldeholtwolde: A Hamburgian family encampment around a hearth. Lisse: A. A. Balkema.Google Scholar
  78. Kindgren, H. (1996). Reindeer or seals? Some Late Paleolithic sites in central Bohuslän. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 191–205.Google Scholar
  79. Knudsen, C., Larsen, G. E., Sejrup, H. P., & Stalsberg, K. (2006). Hummocky moraine landscape on Jæren, SW Norway: Implications for glacier dynamics during the last Deglaciation. Geomorphology, 77, 153–168.Google Scholar
  80. Laberg, J. S., Eilersten, R. S., Salomonsen, G. R., & Vorren, T. O. (2007). Submarine push moraine formation during the early Fennoscandian Ice Sheet Deglaciation. Quaternary Research, 67(3), 453–462.Google Scholar
  81. Lambeck, K. (1999). Shoreline displacement in southern–central Sweden and the evolution of the Baltic Sea since the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 156, 465–486.Google Scholar
  82. Landvik, J. Y., Bondevik, S., Elverhøi, A., Fjeldskaar, W., Mangerud, J., Siegert, M. J., et al. (1998). The Last Glacial Maximum of Svalbard and the Barents Sea area: Ice sheet extent and configuration. Quaternary Science Reviews, 17(1–3), 43–75.Google Scholar
  83. Larsen, E., Lyså, A., Demidov, I., Funder, S., Houmark-Nielsen, M., Kjær, K., et al. (1999). Age and extent of the Scandinavian ice sheet in northwest Russia. Boreas, 28(1), 115–132.Google Scholar
  84. Larsson, L. (1991). The Late Palaeolithic in southern Sweden: Investigations in a marginal region. In N. Barton, A. J. Roberts & D. A. Roe (Eds.), The Late Glacial in northwest Europe: Human adaptation and environmental change at the end of the Pleistocene (pp. 122–127). Oxford: Council for British Archaeology Report No. 77.Google Scholar
  85. Larsson, L. (1996). The colonization of south Sweden during the deglaciation. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 144–155.Google Scholar
  86. Larsson, L. (1999). Perspectives on the colonisation of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Folia Quaternaria, 70, 175–196.Google Scholar
  87. Léotard, J., & Otte, M. (1988). Occupation paléolithique final aux grottes de Presles. Fouilles de 1983–1984 (Aiseau-Belgique). In M. Otte (Ed.), De la Loire a l’Oder: Les civilisations du Paléolithique final dans le Nord-Ouest européen, Actes du Colloque de Liège décembre 1985 (pp. 180–215). Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 444(i).Google Scholar
  88. Liljegren, R., & Ekström, J. (1996). The terrestrial Late Glacial fauna in south Sweden. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 135–155.Google Scholar
  89. Lister, A. M. (1991). Late Glacial mammoths in Britain. In N. Barton, A. J. Roberts, &, D. A. Roe (Eds.), The Late Glacial in northwest Europe: Human adaptation and environmental change at the end of the Pleistocene (pp. 51–59). Oxford: Council for British Archaeology Report No. 77.Google Scholar
  90. Litt, T., Behre, K. E., Meyer, K. D., Stephan, H. J., & Wansa, S. (2007). Stratigraphische Begriffe für das Quartär des norddeutschen Vereisungsgebietes. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart, 56(1–2), 7–65.Google Scholar
  91. Litt, T., Brauer, A., Goslar, T., Merkt, J., Balaga, K., Müller, H., et al. (2001). Correlation and synchronisation of Lateglacial continental sequences in northern central Europe based on annually laminated lacustrine sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(11), 1233–1249.Google Scholar
  92. Litt, T., Schmincke, H.-U., & Kromer, B. (2003). Environmental response to climatic and volcanic events in central Europe during the Weichselian Lateglacial. Quaternary Science Reviews, 22(1), 7–32.Google Scholar
  93. Litt, T., & Stebich, M. (1999). Bio- and chronostratigraphy of the Lateglacial in the Eifel region, Germany. Quaternary International, 61(1), 5–16.Google Scholar
  94. Löhr, H. (1979). Der Magdalénien-Fundplatz Alsdorf, Kreis Aachen-Land: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der funktionalen Variabilität jungpaläolithischer Stationen. University of Tübingen: Unpublished dissertation.Google Scholar
  95. Lowe, J. J., Rasmussen, S. O., Björck, S., Hoek, W. Z., Steffensen, J. P., Walker, M. J., et al. (2008). Synchronisation of palaeoenvironmental events in the North Atlantic region during the Last Termination: A revised protocol recommended by the INTIMATE group. Quaternary Science Reviews, 27(1), 6–17.Google Scholar
  96. Lundqvist, J., & Wohlfarth, B. (2001). Timing and east–west correlation of south Swedish ice marginal lines during the Late Weichselian. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20(10), 1127–1148.Google Scholar
  97. Lunkka, J. P., Saarnisto, M., Gey, V., Demidov, I., & Kiselova, V. (2001). Extent and age of the Last Glacial Maximum in the southeastern sector of the Scandinavian ice sheet. Global and Planetary Change, 31(1), 407–425.Google Scholar
  98. Madsen, B. (1983). New evidence of late Paleolithic settlement in east Jutland. Journal of Danish Archaeology, 2(1), 12–31.Google Scholar
  99. Mangerud, J., Andersen, S. T., Berglund, B. E., & Donner, J. J. (1974). Quaternary stratigraphy of Norden: A proposal for terminology and classification. Boreas, 3, 109–128.Google Scholar
  100. Mangerud, J., & Landvik, J. Y. (2007). Younger Dryas cirque glaciers in western Spitsbergen: Smaller than during the Little Ice Age. Boreas, 36, 278–285.Google Scholar
  101. Marks, L. (2012). Timing of the Late Vistulian (Weichselian) glacial phases in Poland. Quaternary Science Reviews, 44, 81–88.Google Scholar
  102. Matiskainen, H. (1996). Discrepancies in deglacation chronology and the appearance of Man in Finland. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 251–262.Google Scholar
  103. Mellars, P. A. (1994). The Upper Paleolithic revolution. In B. Cunliffe (Ed.), The Oxford illustrated prehistory of Europe (pp. 42–78). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Mellett, C. L., Hodgson, D. M., Plater, A. J., Mauz, B., Selby, I., & Lang, A. (2013). Denudation of the continental shelf between Britain and France at the glacial–interglacial timescale. Geomorphology, 203, 79–96.Google Scholar
  105. Meltzer, D. J. (2002). What do you do when no one’s been there before? Thoughts on the exploration and colonization of new lands. The First Americans: The Pleistocene colonization of the New World, 27, 27–58.Google Scholar
  106. Meltzer, D. J. (2003). Lessons in landscape learning. In M. Rockman & J. Steele (Eds.), Colonization of unfamiliar landscapes: The archaeology of adaptation (pp. 222–241). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. Meltzer, D. J. (2004a). Peopling of North America. In A. Gillespie, S. Porter, & B. Atwater (Eds.), The quaternary period in the United States (pp. 539–563). New York: Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  108. Meltzer, D. J. (2004b). Modeling the initial colonization of the Americas: Issues of scale, demography, and landscape learning. In C. M. Barton, G. A. Clark, D. R. Yesner, & G. A. Pearson (Eds.), The settlement of the American continents: A multidisciplinary approach to human biogeography (pp. 123–137). Tuscon: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  109. Miller, R. (2012). Mapping the expansion of the Northwest Magdalenian. Quaternary International, 272, 209–230.Google Scholar
  110. Mortensen, M. F., Birks, H. H., Christensen, C., Holm, J., Noe-Nygaard, N., Odgaard, B. V., et al. (2011). Lateglacial vegetation development in Denmark: New evidence based on macrofossils and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(19), 2534–2550.Google Scholar
  111. Nygård, A., Serjrup, H. P., Halfidason, H., Cecchi, M., & Ottesen, D. (2004). Deglaciation history of the southwestern Fennoscandian ice sheet between 15 and 13 14C BP. Boreas, 33(1), 1–17.Google Scholar
  112. Odess, D., & Rasic, J. T. (2007). Toolkit composition and assemblage variability: The implications of Nogahabara I, northern Alaska. American Antiquity, 72(4), 691–717.Google Scholar
  113. Otte, M. (1984). Paléolithique supérieur en Belgique. In D. Cahen & P. Haesaerts (Eds.), Peuples chasseurs de la Belgique préhistorique dans leur cadre natural (pp. 157–179). Brussels: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique.Google Scholar
  114. Otte, M. (1990). The northwestern European Plain around 18,000 BP. In O. Soffer & C. Gamble (Eds.), The world at 18,000 BP, Vol. 1: High latitudes (pp. 54–68). London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  115. Paasche, Ø., Dahl, S. O., Bakke, J., Løvlie, R., & Nesje, A. (2007). Cirque glacier activity in Arctic Norway during the last deglaciation. Quaternary Research, 68(3), 387–399.Google Scholar
  116. Parfitt, S. A., Barendregt, R. W., Breda, M., Candy, I., Collins, M. J., Coope, G. R., et al. (2005). The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe. Nature, 438(7070), 1008–1012.Google Scholar
  117. Paus, Å. (1988). Late Weichselian vegetation, climate and floral migration at Sadnvikvatnet, north Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Boreas, 17(1), 113–139.Google Scholar
  118. Pavlov, P., & Indrelid, S. (1999). Human occupation in northeastern Europe during the period 35,000–18,000 BP. In W. Roebroeks (Ed.), Hunters of the Golden Age: The Mid Upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia 30,000–20,000 BP (pp. 165–172). Leiden: University of Leiden Press.Google Scholar
  119. Pavlov, P., Roebroeks, W., & Svendsen, J. I. (2004). The Pleistocene colonization of northeastern Europe: A report on recent research. Journal of Human Evolution, 47(1), 3–17.Google Scholar
  120. Pavlov, P., Svendsen, J. I., & Indrelid, S. (2001). Human presence in the European Arctic nearly 40,000 years ago. Nature, 413(6851), 64–67.Google Scholar
  121. Pettitt, P. (2009). The rise of modern humans. In C. Scarre (Ed.), The human past: World prehistory and the development of human societies (2nd ed., pp. 125–173). London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  122. Pigeot, N., & Valentin, B. (2003). Les chronologies de la Préhistoire dans le Bassin Parisien au Tardiglaciaire: Acquis récents, questions et bilan. In F. Widemann & Y. Taborin (Eds.), Chronologies géophysiques et archéologiques du Paléolithique supérieur/Geophysical and archaeological chronologies for the Upper Palaeolithic. Comptes rendus du colloque international de Ravello, 38 Mai 1994/Proceedings of the international colloquium of Ravello (3rd8th May 1994), Archaeologia, storia, cultura, 3 (pp. 327–343). Bari: Edipuglia.Google Scholar
  123. Pitul’ko, V. V. (1999). Ancient humans in Eurasian Arctic ecosystems: Environmental dynamics and changing subsistence. World Archaeology, 30(3), 421–436.Google Scholar
  124. Pitul’ko, V. V., Nikolsky, P. A., Girya, E., Basilyan, A. E., Tumskoy, V. E., Koulakov, S. A., et al. (2004). The Yana RHS site: Humans in the Arctic before the Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 303(5654), 52–56.Google Scholar
  125. Rasmussen, S. O., Andersen, K. K., Svensson, A. M., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M., Clausen, H. B., et al. (2006). A new Greenland Ice Core Chronology for the Last Glacial Termination. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111(D6), D06102.Google Scholar
  126. Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Blackwell, P. G., Ramsey, C. B., et al. (2013). IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon, 55(4), 1869–1887.Google Scholar
  127. Renard, C. (2011). Continuity or discontinuity in the Late Glacial Maximum of southwestern Europe: The formation of the Solutrean in France. World Archaeology, 43(4), 726–743.Google Scholar
  128. Richter, J. (1990). Diversität als Zeitmaß im Spätmagdalénien. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 20, 249–257.Google Scholar
  129. Riede, F. (2011). Adaptation and niche construction in human prehistory: A case study from the southern Scandinavian Late Glacial. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1566), 793–808.Google Scholar
  130. Riede, F., & Edinborough, K. (2012). Bayesian radiocarbon models for the cultural transition during the Allerød in southern Scandinavia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(3), 744–756.Google Scholar
  131. Riede, F., Grimm, S. B., Weber, M.-J., & Fahlke, J. M. (2010). Neue Daten für alte Grabungen: Ein Beitrag zur spätglazialen Archäologie und Faunengeschichte Norddeutschlands. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 40(3), 297–316.Google Scholar
  132. Rockman, M. (2003). Knowledge and learning in the archaeology of colonization. In M. Rockman & J. Steele (Eds.), Colonization of unfamiliar landscapes: The archaeology of adaptation (pp. 3–24). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  133. Roebroeks, W., Mussi, M., Svoboda, J., & Fennema, K. (1999). Hunters of the Golden Age: The Mid Upper Paleolithic of Eurasia 30,000–20,000 BP. Leiden: University of Leiden Press.Google Scholar
  134. Rust, A. (1937). Das altsteinzeitliche Rentierjägerlager Meiendorf. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag.Google Scholar
  135. Rust, A. (1943). Die alt- und mittelsteinzeitlichen Funde von Stellmoor. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag.Google Scholar
  136. Rust, A. (1958). Die jungpaläolithischen Zeltanlagen von Ahrensburg, Offa-Bücher 15. Neumünster: Karl Wachholtz Verlag.Google Scholar
  137. Sano, K., Meier, A., & Heidenreich, S. M. (2011). Bois Laiterie revisited: Functional, morphological and technological analysis of a Late Glacial hunting camp in northwestern Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(7), 1468–1484.Google Scholar
  138. Schmider, B. (1971). Les industries lithiques du Paléolithique supérieur en Ile-de-France. VIe supplément à ‘Gallia Préhistoire’. Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
  139. Schmider, B. (1990). The last Pleniglacial in the Paris Basin (22,500–17,000 BP). In O. Soffer & C. Gamble (Eds.), The world at 18,000 BP, Vol. 1: High latitudes (pp. 40–53). London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  140. Schmider, B. (1992). Marsangy: Un campement des derniers chasseurs magdaléniens, sur les bords de l’Yonne, ERAUL 55. Liège: Université de Liège.Google Scholar
  141. Schmitt, L., Larsson, S., Burdukiewicz, J., Ziker, J., Svedhage, K., Zamon, J., et al. (2009). Chronological insights, cultural change, and resource exploitation on the west coast of Sweden during the Late Palaeolithic/Early Mesolithic transition. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 28(1), 1–27.Google Scholar
  142. Schmitt, L., Larsson, S., Schrum, C., Alekseeva, I., Tomczak, M., & Svedhage, K. (2006). Why they came: The colonization of the coast of western Sweden and its environmental context at the end of the last glaciation. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 25(1), 1–28.Google Scholar
  143. Sejrup, H. P., Nygård, A., Hall, A. M., & Haflidason, H. (2009). Middle and Late Weichselian (Devensian) glaciation history of southwestern Norway, North Sea and eastern UK. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(3), 370–380.Google Scholar
  144. Shumkin, V. (2006). Initial colonization of the Arctic zone. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 5(1), 319–322.Google Scholar
  145. Soffer, O. (1985). The Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  146. Soffer, O. (1990). The Russian Plain at the Last Glacial Maximum. In O. Soffer & C. Gamble (Eds.), The world at 18,000 BP, Vol. 1: High latitudes (pp. 228–252). London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  147. Stapert, D. (1985). A small Creswellian site at Emmerhout (province of Drenthe, the Netherlands). Palaeohistoria, 27, 1–65.Google Scholar
  148. Stapert, D., & Johansen, L. (2001). The Creswellian site at Zeijen (prov. of Drenthe, the Netherlands): An encampment with a probable tent ring. In W. H. Metz, B. L. van Beek, & H. Steegstra (Eds.), Patina: Essays presented to Jay Jordan Butler on the occasion of his 80th birthday (pp. 503–526). Amsterdam: Groningen.Google Scholar
  149. Steffensen, J. P., Andersen, K. K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., et al. (2008). High-resolution Greenland ice core data show abrupt climate change happens in few years. Science, 321(5889), 680–684.Google Scholar
  150. Street, M., Baales, M., Cziesla, E., Hartz, S., Heinen, M., Jöris, O., et al. (2001). Final Palaeolithic and Mesolithic research in reunified Germany. Journal of World Prehistory, 15(4), 365–453.Google Scholar
  151. Street, M., Baales, M., & Weninger, B. (1994). Absolute Chronologie des späten Paläolithikums und des Frühmesolithikums im nördlichen Rheinland. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 24, 1–28.Google Scholar
  152. Street, M., & Terberger, T. (1999). The last Pleniglacial and the human settlement of central Europe: New information from the Rhineland site Wiesbaden-Igstadt. Antiquity, 73(280), 259–272.Google Scholar
  153. Street, M., & Terberger, T. (2000). The German Upper Palaeolithic 35,000–15,000 BP: New dates and insights with emphasis on the Rhineland. In W. Roebroeks, M. Mussi, J. Svoboda, & K. Fennema (Eds.), Hunters of the Golden Age. The Mid Upper Palaeolithic of Eurasia 30,00020,000 BP (pp. 281–297). Leiden: University of Leiden Press.Google Scholar
  154. Stuart, A. J. (2005). The extinction of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) in Europe. Quaternary International, 126, 171–177.Google Scholar
  155. Stuart, A. J., Kosintsev, P. A., Higham, T. F. G., & Lister, A. M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature, 431(7009), 684–689.Google Scholar
  156. Stuart, A. J., Sulerzhitsky, L. D., Orlova, L. A., Kuzmin, Y. V., & Lister, A. M. (2002). The latest woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) in Europe and Asia: A review of the current evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21(14), 1559–1569.Google Scholar
  157. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., & Reimer, R. (1993). Radiocarbon calibration program, revision 3.0. Radiocarbon, 35, 215–230.Google Scholar
  158. Svendsen, J. I., Astakhov, V. I., Bolshiyanov, D., Demidov, I., Dowdeswell, J. A., Gataullin, B., et al. (1999). Maximum extent of the Eurasian ice sheets in the Barents and Kara Sea region during the Weichselian. Boreas, 28(1), 234–242.Google Scholar
  159. Svendsen, J. I., Alexanderson, H., Astakhov, V. I., Demidov, I., Dowdeswell, J. A., Funder, S., et al. (2004). Late Quaternary ice sheet history of northern Eurasia. Quaternary Science Reviews, 23(11), 1229–1271.Google Scholar
  160. Svensson, A., Andersen, K. K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Davies, S. M., et al. (2006). The Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005, 15–42 ka, Part 2: Comparison to other records. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25(23–24), 3258–3267.Google Scholar
  161. Taute, W. (1968). Die Stielspitzen-Gruppen im nördlichen Mitteleuropa: Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der späteren Altsteinzeit, Fundamenta—Mongraphien zur Urgeschichte A/5. Köln: Böhlau.Google Scholar
  162. Taylor, T. (2008). Prehistory vs. archaeology: Terms of engagement. Journal of World Prehistory, 21(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  163. Terberger, T. (1996). The early settlement of northeast Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 111–122.Google Scholar
  164. Terberger, T., & Lübke, H. (2007). Between East and West: Hamburgian in Northeastern Germany? In M. Kobusiewicz & J. Kabaciński (Eds.), Studies in the Final Palaeolithic settlement of the Great European Plain (pp. 53–65). Poznań: Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology, Polish Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  165. Terberger, T., & Street, M. (2002). Hiatus or continuity? New results for the question of Pleniglacial settlement of central Europe. Antiquity, 76(293), 691–698.Google Scholar
  166. Thommesen, T. (1996). The early settlement of northern Norway. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 235–240.Google Scholar
  167. Trotignon, F. (1984). Les industries lithiques badegouliennes. In F. Trotignon, T. Poulain, A. Leroi-Gourhan, & J. Allain (Eds.), Études sur l’abri Fritsch (Indre), Supplément à ‘Gallia préhistoire’ 19 (pp. 13–100). Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
  168. Ukkonen, P., Aaris-Sørensen, K., Arppe, L., Clark, P. U., Daugnora, L., Lister, A. M., et al. (2011). Woolly mammoth (Mammoth primigenius Blum.) and its environment in northern Europe during the last glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(5), 693–712.Google Scholar
  169. Valentin, B. (1995). Les groupes humains et leurs traditions au Tardiglaciaire dans le Bassin Parisien, Unpublished Dissertation. Paris: Université Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne I.Google Scholar
  170. van Raden, U. J., Colombaroli, D., Gilli, A., Schwander, J., Bernasconi, S. M., van Leeuwen, J., et al. (2012). High-resolution Late Glacial chronology for the Gerzensee Lake record (Switzerland): δ18O correlation between a Gerzensee-Stack and NGRIP. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.05.017.
  171. Vang Petersen, P., & Johansen, L. (1993). Sølbjerg I–An Ahrensburgian site on a reindeer track through eastern Denmark. Journal of Danish Archaeology, 10, 20–37.Google Scholar
  172. Vang Petersen, P., & Johansen, L. (1996). Tracking Late Glacial reindeer hunters in eastern Denmark. In L. Larsson (Ed.), The earliest settlement of Scandinavia and its relationship with neighbouring areas. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 8(24), 75–88.Google Scholar
  173. Velichko, A. A., Isayeva, L. L., Makeyev, V. M., Matishov, G. G., & Faustova, M. A. (1984). Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Arctic shelf and reconstruction of the Eurasian ice sheets. In A. A. Velichko (Ed.), Late Quaternary environments of the Soviet Union (pp. 35–41). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  174. Velichko, A. A., Kononov, Y. M., & Faustova, M. A. (1997). The last glaciation of Earth: Size and volume of ice-sheets. Quaternary International, 41, 43–51.Google Scholar
  175. Vinther, B. M., Clausen, H. B., Johnsen, S. J., Rasmussen, S. O., Andersen, K. K., Buchardt, S. L., et al. (2006). A synchronized dating of three Greenland ice cores throughout the Holocene. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (19842012), 111(D13), D13102.Google Scholar
  176. Vorren, T. O., & Plassen, L. (2002). Deglaciation and paleoclimate of the Andfjord area, North Norway. Boreas, 31(2), 97–125.Google Scholar
  177. Walker, M. C., Björck, S., Lowe, J. J., Cwynar, L., Johnsen, S., Knudsen, K., et al. (1999). Isotopic ‘events’ in the GRIP ice core: A stratotype for the Late Pleistocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 18(10), 1143–1150.Google Scholar
  178. Walker, M. C., Bohncke, S. P., Coope, G. R., O’Connell, M., Usinger, H., & Verbruggen, C. (1994). The Devensian/Weichselian Late Glacial in northwest Europe (Ireland, Britain, North Belgium, the Netherlands, northwest Germany). Journal of Quaternary Science, 9(2), 109–118.Google Scholar
  179. Weber, M.-J. (2006). Typologische und technologische Aspekte des Fundplatzes Le Tureau des Gardes 7 (Seine-et-Marne, Frankreich): Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung des Magdalénien im Pariser Becken. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 36, 159–178.Google Scholar
  180. Weber, M.-J. (2012). From technology to tradition: Re-evaluating the HamburgianMagdalenian relationship. Untersuchungen und Materialien zur Steinzeit in Schleswig-Holstein und im Ostseeraum 5. Neumünster: Wachholtz.Google Scholar
  181. Weber, M.-J., Grimm, S. B., & Baales, M. (2011). Between warm and cold: Impact of the Younger Dryas on human behavior in Central Europe. Quaternary International, 242(2), 277–301.Google Scholar
  182. Weißmüller, W. (1997). Eine Korrelation der δ18O-Ereignisse des grönländischen Festlandeises mit den Interstadialen des atlantischen und des kontinentalen Europa im Zeitraum von 45 bis 14 ka. Quartär, 47(48), 89–112.Google Scholar
  183. Weninger, B., Jöris, O., & Danzeglocke, U. (2013). The Monrepos Radiocarbon Calibration and Paleoclimate Research Package (CALPAL). Monrepos Archäologisches Forschungszentrum und Museum für menschliche Verhaltensevolution.Google Scholar
  184. Weninger, B., Schulting, R., Bradtmöller, M., Clare, L., Collard, M., Edinborough, K., et al. (2008). The catastrophic final flooding of Doggerland by the Storegga slide tsunami. Documenta Praehistorica, 35, 1–24.Google Scholar
  185. Wohlfarth, B., Bjorck, S., Funder, S., Houmark-Nielsen, M., Ingólfsson, O., Lunkka, J., et al. (2008). Quaternary of Norden. In Episodes (Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 73–81). Lund: University of Lund.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyAdelphi UniversityGarden CityUSA
  2. 2.Landesamt für Denkmalpflege im Regierungspräsidium StuttgartEsslingen am NeckarGermany

Personalised recommendations