Journal of World Prehistory

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 113–180 | Cite as

Shell Middens, Ships and Seeds: Exploring Coastal Subsistence, Maritime Trade and the Dispersal of Domesticates in and Around the Ancient Arabian Peninsula

Original Paper

Abstract

The Arabian Peninsula occupies a critical position at the intersect of several major Old World landmasses. Inland aridity and a major coastal perimeter have long made maritime activities critical to Arabia’s cultural trajectory. A wealth of recent studies, not previously synthesised, suggest not only that the peninsular littoral offered a rich resource base for thousands of years of human occupation in the region, but also that Arabia witnessed some of the world’s earliest seafaring and maritime exchange activities, and played a role in Bronze Age maritime trade that has often been underestimated. Maritime activities were closely linked to developments in agriculture, which not only fuelled trade and exchange, but were also impacted on by the dispersal of domesticates along early maritime corridors. While regional specialisation has to some degree prevented consideration of the maritime prehistory of the peninsula as a whole, it is clear that there are interesting parallels, as well as important differences, between cultural trajectories in different parts of the peninsula.

Keywords

Persian Gulf Red Sea Oman Yemen Arabia Livestock Crops Boats Incense Land of Punt 

References

  1. Adelaar, A. (2009). Towards an integrated theory about the Indonesian migrations to Madagascar. In P. N. Peregrine, I. Peiros, & M. Feldman (Eds.), Ancient human migrations: A multidisciplinary approach (pp.149–172). Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  2. Ajithprasad, P. (2004). Holocene adaptations of the Mesolithic and Chalcolithic settlements in north Gujarat. In Y. Yasuda & V. S. Shinde (Eds.), Monsoon and civilization (pp. 115–132). New Delhi: Lustre Press/Roli Books.Google Scholar
  3. Alley, R. B., & Ágústdóttir, A. M. (2005). The 8 k event: Cause and consequences of a major Holocene abrupt climate change. Quaternary Science Review, 24, 1123–1149.Google Scholar
  4. Alley, R. B., Mayewski, P. A., Sowers, T., Stuiver, M., Taylor, K. C., & Clark, P. U. (1997). Holocene climatic instability: A prominent, widespread event 8200 years ago. Geology, 25(6), 483–486.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews, F. W. (1952). The flowering plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Arbroath, Scotland: T. Buncle & Co.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous. (2004). Houses dating to 5,000 BC discovered in UAE. Current World Archaeology, 3, 6.Google Scholar
  7. Arnold, J. E. (1995). Transportation innovation and social complexity among maritime hunter-gatherer communities. American Anthropologist, 97(4), 733–747.Google Scholar
  8. Asouti, E., & Fuller, D. Q. (2008). Trees and woodlands in South India: An archaeological perspective. Walnut Creek, Ca: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bailey, G. (2004). World prehistory from the margins: The role of coastlines in human evolution. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in History and Archaeology, 1(1), 39–50.Google Scholar
  10. Bailey, G. (2009). The Red Sea, coastal landscapes, and hominin dispersals. In M. Petraglia & J. Rose (Eds.), The evolution of human populations in Arabia: Palaeoenvironments, prehistory and genetics. Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Baines, J., & Malek, J. (1980). Atlas of ancient Egypt. New York: Facts on File.Google Scholar
  12. Bard, K. A., Fattovich, R., & Ward, C. (2007). Sea port to Punt: New evidence from Marsā Gawāsīs, Red Sea (Egypt). In J. Starkey, P. Starkey & T. J. Wilkinson (Eds.), Natural resources and cultural connections of the Red Sea (pp. 143–148). Oxford: BAR International Series 1661.Google Scholar
  13. Barnett, T. (1999). The emergence of food production in Ethiopia. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  14. Beech, M. J. (2002). Fishing in the ‘Ubaid: A review of fish-bone assemblages from early prehistoric coastal settlements in the Arabian Gulf. Journal of Oman Studies, 12, 25–40.Google Scholar
  15. Beech, M. (2003a). Archaeobotanical evidence for early date consumption in the Arabian Gulf. In The date palm: From traditional resource to green wealth (pp. 11–32). Abu Dhabi: The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.Google Scholar
  16. Beech, M. (2003b). Archaeobotanical evidence for early date consumption in the Arabian Gulf. In ECSSR (Ed.), The date palm: From traditional resource to green wealth (pp. 11–31). Abu Dhabi: The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.Google Scholar
  17. Beech, M. J. (2003). The development of fishing in the UAE: A zooarchaeological perspective. In D. T. Potts, H. Al Naboodah & P. Hellyer (Eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the UAE. London: Trident Press.Google Scholar
  18. Beech, M. J. (2004). In the land of the ichthyophagi: Modelling fish exploitation in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from the 5th millennium BC to the Late Islamic Period. Oxford: BAR International Series 1217.Google Scholar
  19. Beech, M. J., & al-Husaini, M. (2005). Preliminary report on the vertebrate fauna from site H3, Sabiyah: An Arabian Neolithic/’Ubaid site in Kuwait. In Archaeozoology of the Near East VI: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Archaeozoology of Southwestern Asia and Adjacent Areas (pp. 124–138). Groningen: ARC-Publicaties 123.Google Scholar
  20. Beech, M. J., Cuttler, R., Moscrop, D., Kallweit, H., & Martin, J. (2005). New evidence for the Neolithic settlement of Marawah Island, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 35, 37–56.Google Scholar
  21. Beech, M., & Shepherd, E. (2001). Archaeobotanical evidence for early date consumption on Dalma Island, United Arab Emirates. Antiquity, 75, 83–89.Google Scholar
  22. Betts, A., van der Borg, K., de Jong, A., McClintock, C., & van Strydonck, M. (1994). Early cotton in North Arabia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 21, 489–499.Google Scholar
  23. Biagi, P. (1994). A radiocarbon chronology for the aceramic shell-middens of coastal Oman. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 5, 17–31.Google Scholar
  24. Biagi, P. (2006). The shell-middens of the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf: Maritime connections in the seventh millennium BP? Adumatu, 14, 7–16.Google Scholar
  25. Biagi, P., & Kazi, M. (1995). A Mesolithic site near Thari in the Thar Desert (Sindh, Pakistan). Ancient Sindh, 2, 7–12.Google Scholar
  26. Biagi, P., & Nisbet, R. (1992). Environmental history and plant exploitation at the aceramic sites of RH5 and RH6 near the mangrove swamp of Qurm (Muscat–Oman). Bulletin de la Societé Botanique Française, 139, 571–578.Google Scholar
  27. Biagi, P., & Nisbet, R. (2006). The prehistoric fisher-gatherers of the western Arabian Sea: A case of seasonal sedentarization? World Archaeology, 38(2), 220–238.Google Scholar
  28. Biagi, P., Torke, W., Tosi, M., & Uerpmann, H.-P. (1984). Qurum: A case study of coastal archaeology in northern Oman. World Archaeology, 16(1), 43–61.Google Scholar
  29. Blau, S. (1999). Of water and oil: Exploitation of natural resources and social change in eastern Arabia. In C. Gosden & J. Hather (Eds.), The prehistory of food: Appetites for change (pp. 83–98). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Blench, R. (1996). The ethnographic evidence for long-distance contacts between Oceania and East Africa. In J. Reade (Ed.), The Indian Ocean in antiquity (pp. 417–438). London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  31. Blench, R. M. (2000). A history of donkeys, wild asses and mules in Africa. In R. M. Blench & K. C. MacDonald (Eds.), The origins and development of African livestock: Archaeology, genetics, linguistics and ethnography (pp. 339–354). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  32. Blench, R. (2003). The movement of cultivated plants between Africa and India in prehistory. In K. Neumann, A. Butler, & S. Kahlheber (Eds.), Food, fuel and fields: Progress in African archaeobotany (pp. 273–292). Koln: Heinrich Barth Institut.Google Scholar
  33. Blench, R. (2006). Archaeology, language and the African Past. Lanham: Alta Mira Press.Google Scholar
  34. Blench, R. (2007). New palaeozoogeographical evidence for the settlement of Madagascar. Azania, 42, 69–82.Google Scholar
  35. Blench, R. (2009). New evidence for the Austronesian impact on the East African coast. In A. Anderson, J. Barrett, & K. Boyle (Eds.), Global origins and development of seafaring. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs (in press).Google Scholar
  36. Boardman, S. (2000). Archaeobotany. In D. W. Phillipson (Ed.), Archaeology of Axum, Ethiopia, 1993–7. Volume II. (pp. 363–369, 412–414). London: The Society of Antiquaries.Google Scholar
  37. Boivin, N., Blench, R., & Fuller, D. Q. (2009). Archaeological, linguistic and historical sources on ancient seafaring: A multidisciplinary approach to the study of early maritime contact and exchange in the Arabian Peninsula. In M. D. Petraglia & J. I. Rose (Eds.), The evolution of human populations in Arabia: Palaeoenvironments, prehistory and genetics. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Bökönyi, S. (1997). Zebus and the Indian wild cattle. Anthropozoologica, 25–26, 647–654.Google Scholar
  39. Bonnet, C., & Valbelle, D. (2000). Edifices et rites funéraires à Kerma. Paris: Errance.Google Scholar
  40. Bradbury, L. (1996). Kpn-boats, Punt trade, and a lost emporium. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 33, 37–60.Google Scholar
  41. Bradley, D. G., Loftus, R. T., Cunningham, P., & MacHugh, D. E. (1998). Genetics and domestic cattle origins. Evolutionary Anthropology, 79, 79–86.Google Scholar
  42. Braudel, F. (1995). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean world in the age of Philip II (Vol. I). Berkeley: University of California Press. (S. Reynolds, Trans.).Google Scholar
  43. Bronk Ramsey, C. (2005). Oxcal 3.10. Computer Program. http://c14.arch.ox.ac.uk/
  44. Buccellati, G., & Buccellati, M. K. (1983). Terqa: The first eight seasons. Les annales archéologiques arabes syriennes, 33(2), 47–67.Google Scholar
  45. Burstein, S. M. (2002). Kush, Axum and the ancient Indian Ocean trade. In T. Bács (Ed.), A tribute to excellence: Studies offered in honor of Ernö Gaál, Ulrich Luft, and Lásló Török (pp. 127–137). Budapest: Studia Aegyptiaca XVII.Google Scholar
  46. Caneva, I., & Gautier, A. (1994). The desert and the Nile: Sixth millennium pastoral adaptations at Wadi el Kenger (Khartoum). Archéologie du Nil moyen, 6, 65–92.Google Scholar
  47. Cappers, R. (2006). Roman foodprints at Berenike: Archaeobotanical evidence of subsistence and trade in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. L.A.. California: Costen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  48. Carter, R. (2001). Saar and its external relations: New evidence for interaction between Bahrain and Gujarat during the early second millennium BC. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 12, 183–201.Google Scholar
  49. Carter, R. (2005). The history and prehistory of pearling in the Persian Gulf. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 48(2), 139–209.Google Scholar
  50. Carter, R. (2006). Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BC. Antiquity, 80, 52–63.Google Scholar
  51. Carter, R., & Crawford, H. E. W. (2003). The Kuwait-British archaeological expedition to as-Sabiyah: Report on the fourth season’s work. Iraq, LXV, 77–90.Google Scholar
  52. Casson, L. (1989). The ‘Periplus Maris Erythraei’: Text with introduction, translation, and commentary. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Cattani, M., & Bökönyi, S. (2002). Ash-Shumah: An early Holocene settlement of desert hunters and mangrove foragers in the Yemeni Tihamah. In S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, & J. Zarins (Eds.), Essays on the Late Prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (pp. 31–53). Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.Google Scholar
  54. Chanchala, S. (2002). Botanical remains. In D. P. Tewari (Ed.), Excavations at Charda (pp. 166–194). Lucknow: Jarun Prakashan.Google Scholar
  55. Chandramohan, P., Jena, B. K., & Sanil Kumar, V. (2001). Littoral drift sources and sinks along the Indian coast. Current Science, 81(3), 292–297.Google Scholar
  56. Charles, M. (1993). Botanical remains. In A. Green (Ed.), Abu Salabikh excavations volume 4. The 6G Ash-Tip and its contents: cultic and administrative discard from the temple? (pp. 203–207). The British School of Archaeology in Iraq.Google Scholar
  57. Charpentier, V. (1996). Archaeology of the Erythraean Sea: Craft specialization and resource optimizations as part of the coastal economy on eastern coastlands of Oman during the 4th and 3rd millennia BC. In G. E. Afanas’ev, S. Cleuziou, J. R. Lukacs, & M. Tosi (Eds.), The prehistory of Asia and Oceania. Colloquia 16 (pp. 181–192). Forlil: UISPP.Google Scholar
  58. Charpentier, V. (2002). Archéologie de la côte des icthyophages: Coquilles, squales et cétacés du site IV-IIIe millénaire de Ras al-Jinz. In S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, & J. Zarins (Eds.), Essays of the late prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (pp. 73–99). Rome: Serie Orientale Roma XCIII.Google Scholar
  59. Chaudhuri, K. N. (1990). Asia before Europe: Economy and civilization of the Indian Ocean from the rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Clapham, A. J., & Rowley-Conwy, P. A. (2007). New discoveries at Qasr Ibrim, Lower Nubia. In R. Cappers (Ed.), Fields of change: Progress in African archaeobotany (pp. 157–164). Groningen: Groningen Archaeological Studies 5.Google Scholar
  61. Clason, A. T. (1978). Late Bronze Age-Iron Age zebu cattle in Jordan? Journal of Archaeological Science, 5, 91–93.Google Scholar
  62. Cleuziou, S. (1992). The Oman peninsula and the Indus civilization: A reassessment. Man and Environment, 17(2), 94–103.Google Scholar
  63. Cleuziou, S. (1996). The emergence of oases and towns in eastern and southern Arabia. In G. E. Afanas’ev, S. Cleuziou, J. R. Lukacs, & M. Tosi (Eds.), The prehistory of Asia and Oceania. Colloquia 16 (pp. 159–165). Forli: UISPP.Google Scholar
  64. Cleuziou, S. (2002) The early Bronze Age of the Oman Peninsula: from chronology to the dialectics of tribe and state formation. In. S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi & J. Zarins (Eds.) Essays on the late prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (pp. 191–246), Seie Orientale Roma XCIII. Rome: Instituto Italiano per L’Africa e L’Oriente.Google Scholar
  65. Cleuziou, S. (2003). Early Bronze Age trade in the Gulf and the Arabian Sea: The society behind the boats. In D. T. Potts, H. Al Naboodah & P. Hellyer (Eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates: Proceedings of the First International Conference of the UAE. London: Trident Press.Google Scholar
  66. Cleuziou, S., & Costantini, L. (1980). Premiers éléments sur l’agriculture protohistorique de l’Arabie orientale. Paléorient, 6, 255–261.Google Scholar
  67. Cleuziou, S., & Costantini, L. (1982). A l’origine des oasis. La Recherche, 137, 1179–1182.Google Scholar
  68. Cleuziou, S., & Méry, S. (2002). In-between the great powers: The Bronze Age Oman peninsula. In S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, & J. Zarins (Eds.), Essays on the late prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (pp. 273–316). Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.Google Scholar
  69. Cleuziou, S., & Tosi, M. (1989). The southeastern frontier of the ancient Near East. In K. Frifelt & P. Serenson (Eds.), South Asian archaeology 1985 (pp. 15–48). Curzon Press: London.Google Scholar
  70. Cleuziou, S., & Tosi, M. (1994). Black boats of Magan: Some thoughts on Bronze Age water transport in Oman and beyond from the impressed bitumen slabs of Ras al-Junayz. In A. Parpola & P. Koskikallio (Eds.), South Asian archaeology 1993. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.Google Scholar
  71. Cleuziou, S., & Tosi, M. (1997). Evidence for the use of aromatics in the early bronze age of Oman: Period III at RJ-2 (2300–2200 BC). In A. Avanzini (Ed.), Profumi d’Arabia (pp. 57–81). Roma: Saggi di Storia Antica 11.Google Scholar
  72. Cleuziou, S., & Tosi, M. (2001). Ras al-Jinz and the prehistoric coastal cultures of the Ja’alān. Journal of Oman Studies, 11, 19–73.Google Scholar
  73. Cleuziou, S., & Tosi, M. (2007). In the shadow of the ancestors: The prehistoric foundations of the early Arabian civilization in Oman. Oman: Ministry of Heritage and Culture.Google Scholar
  74. Connah, G. (2005). Holocene Africa. In C. Scarre (Ed.), The human past: World prehistory and the development of human societies. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  75. Connan, J., Carter, R., Crawford, H., Tobey, M., Charrié-Duhaut, A., Jarvie, D., et al. (2005). A comparative geochemical study of bituminous boat remains from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and RJ-2, Ras al-Jinz (Oman). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 16, 21–66.Google Scholar
  76. Cooke, M., Fuller, D. Q., & Rajan, K. (2005). Early historic agriculture in southern Tamil Nadu: Archaeobotanical research at Mangudi, Kodumanal and Perur. In U. Franke-Vogt & J. Weisshaar (Eds.), South Asian Archaeology 2003: Proceedings of the European Association for South Asian Archaeology Conference, Bonn, Germany, 7th–11th July 2003 (pp. 329–334). Aachen: Linden Soft.Google Scholar
  77. Cooney, G. (2003). Introduction: Seeing land from the sea. World Archaeology, 35(3), 323–328.Google Scholar
  78. Costantini, L. (1983). The beginning of agriculture in the Kachi Plain: The evidence from Mehrgarh. In B. Allchin (Ed.), South Asian archaeology 1981. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Costantini, L. (1985). Considerazioni su alcuni reperti di palma da dattero e sul ceurto di origine e l’area du coltivazione della Phoenix dactylifera L. In G. Gnoli & L. Lanciotti (Eds.), Orientalia Joseph Tuddi Memoriae Dicata (pp. 209–217). Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Orient.Google Scholar
  80. Costantini, L. (1990). Harappan agriculture in Pakistan: The evidence of Naursharo. In M. Taddei (Ed.), South Asian archaeology 1987 (pp. 321–332). Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  81. Crassard, R. (2008). La préhistoire du Yémen: Diffusions et diversités locales, à travers l’étude d’industries lithiques du Hadramawt. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series S1842.Google Scholar
  82. Crawford, H. (1998). Dilmun and its neighbours. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Crawford, G. (2006). East Asian plant domestication. In M. Stark (Ed.), Archaeology of Asia (pp. 77–95). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  84. Curtis, M. C. (2008). New perspectives for examining change and complexity in the Northern Horn of Africa during the 1st Millennium BC. In P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, & Z. Teka (Eds.), The archaeology of ancient Eritrea (pp. 329–348). Asmara: The Red Sea Press.Google Scholar
  85. D’Andrea, A. C. (2008). Tef (Eragrostis tef) in ancient agricultural systems of highland Ethiopia. Economic Botany, 62, 547–566.Google Scholar
  86. D’Andrea, A. C., Kahlheber, S., et al. (2007). Early domesticated cowpea (Vigna ungiuculata) from Central Ghana. Antiquity, 81, 686–698.Google Scholar
  87. D’Andrea, A. C., Klee, M., & Casey, J. (2001). Archaeobotanical evidence for pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in sub-Saharan West Africa. Antiquity, 75, 341–348.Google Scholar
  88. D’Andrea, A. C., Manzo, A., Harrower, M. J., & Hawkins, A. L. (2008a). The Pre-Aksumite and Aksumite settlement of NE Tigrai, Ethiopia. Journal of Field Archaeology, 33, 151–176.Google Scholar
  89. D’Andrea, A. C., Schmidt, P. R., & Curtis, M. C. (2008b). Paleoethnobotanical analysis and agricultural economy in early first millennium BCE sites around Asmara. In P. R. Schmidt, M. C. Curtis, & Z. Teka (Eds.), The archaeology of ancient Eritrea (pp. 207–216). Asmara: The Red Sea Press.Google Scholar
  90. Das Gupta, A., & Pearson, M. (Eds.). (1987). India and the Indian Ocean, 1500–1800. Calcutta and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. De Langhe, E., & De Maret, P. (1999). Tracking the banana: Its significance in early agriculture. In C. Gosden & J. Hather (Eds.), The prehistory of food: Appetites for change (pp. 377–396). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. de Moulins, D., Phillips, C. S., & Durrani, N. (2003). The archaeobotanical record of Yemen and the question of Afro-Asian contacts. In K. Neumann, A. Butler & S. Kahlheber (Eds.), Food, fuel and fields: Progress in African archaeobotany (pp. 213–228): Africa Praehistorica 15.Google Scholar
  93. de Vartavan, C., & Asensi Amorós, V. (1997). Codex of ancient Egyptian plant remains. London: Triade Exploration.Google Scholar
  94. Deckers, K., & Riehl, S. (2007). An evaluation of botanical assemblages from the third to second millennium B.C. in northern Syria. In C. Kuzucuoğlu & C. Marro (Eds.), Sociétés humaines et changement climatique à la fin du troisième millénaire: Une crise a-t-elle eu lieu en haute (pp. 481–502). Paris: Du Boccard.Google Scholar
  95. Dixon, D. M. (1969). The transplantation of Punt incense trees in Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 55, 55–65.Google Scholar
  96. Drechsler, P. (2007). Spreading the neolithic over the Arabian Peninsula. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 37, 93–109.Google Scholar
  97. During Caspers, E. (1971). New archaeological evidence for maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the Late Protoliterate period. East and West, 21, 22–55.Google Scholar
  98. During Caspers, E. (1979). Sumer, coastal Arabia and the Indus Valley in protoliterate and early dynastic eras: Supporting evidence for a cultural linkage. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 22(2), 121–135.Google Scholar
  99. During Caspers, E. (1984). Sumerian trading communities residing in Harappan society. In B. B. Lal & S. P. Gupta (Eds.), Frontiers of the Indus civilization, Wheeler commemoration volume (pp. 363–370). New Delhi: Indian Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  100. During Caspers, E. (1989). Some remarks on Oman. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 19, 13–32.Google Scholar
  101. Durrani, N. (2005). The Tihamah coastal plain of South-West Arabia in its regional context c. 6000 BC–AD 600. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  102. Edens, C. (1992). Dynamics of trade in the ancient Mesopotamian “world system”. American Anthropologist, 94(1), 118–139.Google Scholar
  103. Edens, C. (1993). Indus-Arabian interaction during the Bronze Age: A review of evidence. In G. L. Possehl (Ed.), Harappan civilization: A recent perspective (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Oxford & IBH.Google Scholar
  104. Edens, C., & Wilkinson, T. (1998). Southwest Arabia during the Holocene: Recent archaeological developments. Journal of World Prehistory, 12(1), 55–119.Google Scholar
  105. Eidem, J., & Højlund, F. (1993). Trade or diplomacy? Assyria and Dilmun in the eighteenth century. World Archaeology, 24(3), 441–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ekstrom, H., & Edens, C. M. (2003). Prehistoric agriculture in highland Yemen: New results from Dhamar. Bulletin of the American Institute of Yemeni Studies, 45, 23–35.Google Scholar
  107. Enzel, Y., Ely, L., Mishra, S., Ramesh, R., Amit, R., Lazar, B., et al. (1999). High resolution Holocene environmental changes in the Thar Desert, northwestern India. Science, 284, 125–127.Google Scholar
  108. Erlandson, J. M. (2001). The archaeology of aquatic adaptations: Paradigms for a new millennium. Journal of Archaeological Research, 9(4), 287–350.Google Scholar
  109. Fabre, D. (2005). Seafaring in ancient Egypt. London: Periplus.Google Scholar
  110. Facey, W. (2004). The Red Sea: The wind regime and location of ports. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project I (pp. 6–17).Google Scholar
  111. FAO. (1997). Review of the state of the world fishery resources: Marine fisheries. Rome: Marine Resources Service, FAO.Google Scholar
  112. Fattovich, R. (1997). The Near East and Eastern Africa. In J. O. Vogel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of precolonial Africa: Archaeology, history, languages, cultures and environments (pp. 484–489). Walnut Creek (CA): Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  113. Fattovich, R. (1999). The development of urbanism in the northern Horn of Africa in ancient and medieval times. In P. Sinclair (Ed.), The development of urbanism in Africa from a global perspective. www.arkeologi.uu.se.
  114. Fattovich, R. (2005). The archaeology of the Horn of Africa. In W. Raunig & S. Wenig (Eds.), Afrikas Horn. Akten der ersten internationalen Littman-Konferenz 2. bis 5. Mai 2002 Munchen (pp. 3–29). Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag.Google Scholar
  115. Faulkner, R. O. (1941). Egyptian seagoing ships. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 26, 3–9.Google Scholar
  116. Finucane, B., Manning, K., & Toure, M. (2008). Late Stone Age subsistence in the Tilemsi Valley, Mali: Stable isotope analysis of human and animal remains from the site of Karkarichinkat Nord (KN05) and Karkarichinkat Sud (KS05). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 27, 82–92.Google Scholar
  117. Flavin, K., & Shepherd, E. (1994). Fishing in the Gulf: Preliminary investigations at an Ubaid site, Dalma (UAE). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 24, 115–134.Google Scholar
  118. Fleitman, D., Burns, S. J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., et al. (2003). Holocene forcing of the Indian monsoon recorded in a stalagmite from Southern Oman. Science, 300, 1737–1739.Google Scholar
  119. Forster, P., & Matsumura, S. (2005). Did early humans go north or south? Science, 308, 965–966.Google Scholar
  120. Francaviglia, V. M. (1989). Obsidian sources in ancient Yemen. In A. De Maigret (Ed.), The Bronze Age culture of Khawlan at-Tiyal and al-Hada (Yemen Arab Republic) (pp. 129–134). Rome: IsMEO.Google Scholar
  121. Franke-Vogt, U. (2001). The Southern Indus Valley during the later 2nd and 1st millennia B.C. In R. Eichmann & H. Parzinger (Eds.), Migration und Kulturtransfer. Der Wandel vorder- und zentralasiatischer Kulturen im Umbruch vom 2. zum 1. vorchristlichen Jahrtausend (pp. 247–290). Bonn: Rudolph-Habelt.Google Scholar
  122. Frankfort, H. (1951). The birth of civilization in the Near East. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Frifelt, K. (2002). Bat, a centre in third millennium Oman. In S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, & J. Zarins (Eds.), Essays on the late prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (pp. 101–110). Rome: Istituto Italiano per L’Africa e l’Oriente.Google Scholar
  124. Frisch, J. E., Drinkwater, R., Harrison, B., & Johnson, S. (2003). Classification of the southern African sanga and East African shorthorned zebu. Animal Genetics, 28, 77–83.Google Scholar
  125. Fuchs, G. (1989). Rock engravings in the Wadi el-Barramiya, Eastern Desert of Egypt. African Archaeological Review, 7, 127–153.Google Scholar
  126. Fuller, D. Q. (1998). Palaeoecology of the Wadi Muqaddam: A preliminary report on the significance of the plant and animal remains. Sudan and Nubia, 2, 52–60.Google Scholar
  127. Fuller, D. Q. (2002). Fifty years of Archaeobotanical studies in India: Laying a solid foundation. In S. Settar & R. Korisettar (Eds.), Indian archaeology in retrospect,Vol III. Archaeology and interactive disciplines, publications of the Indian council for historical research (pp. 247–364). New Dehli: Manohar.Google Scholar
  128. Fuller, D. Q. (2003a). African crops in prehistoric South Asia: A critical review. In K. Neumann, A. Butler, & S. Kahlheber (Eds.), Food, fuel and fields. Progress in African archaeobotany (pp. 239–271). Köln: Heinrich-Barth Institut.Google Scholar
  129. Fuller, D. Q. (2003b). An agricultural perspective on Dravidian historical linguistics: Archaeological crop packages, livestock and Dravidian crop vocabulary. In P. Bellwood & C. Renfrew (Eds.), Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis (pp. 191–213). Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  130. Fuller, D. Q. (2004). Early Kushite agriculture: Archaeobotanical evidence from Kawa. Sudan & Nubia, 8, 70–74.Google Scholar
  131. Fuller, D. Q. (2005). Crop cultivation: The evidence. In K. Shillington (Ed.), Encyclopedia of African history (pp. 326–328). New York: Fitzroy Dearborn.Google Scholar
  132. Fuller, D. Q. (2006). Agricultural origins and frontiers in South Asia: A working synthesis. Journal of World Prehistory, 20, 1–86.Google Scholar
  133. Fuller, D. Q. (2007a). Non-human genetics, agricultural origins and historical linguistics in South Asia. In M. Petraglia & B. Allchin (Eds.) The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia (pp. 393–443). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  134. Fuller, D. Q. (2007b). Contrasting patterns in crop domestication and domestication rates: Recent archaeobotanical insights from the Old World. Annals of Botany, 100, 903–924.Google Scholar
  135. Fuller, D. Q. (2008). The spread of textile production and textile crops in India beyond the Harappan zone: An aspect of the emergence of craft specialization and systematic trade. In T. Osada & A. Uesugi (Eds.), Linguistics, archaeology and the human past. Occasional Paper 3 (pp. 1–26). Kyoto: Indus Project, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature.Google Scholar
  136. Fuller, D. Q., Boivin, N. L., & Korisettar, R. (2007a). Dating the Neolithic of South India: New radiometric evidence for key economic, social and ritual transformations. Antiquity, 81(313), 755–778.Google Scholar
  137. Fuller, D. Q., & Harvey, E. (2006). The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: Identification, processing and evidence for cultivation. Environmental Archaeology, 11(2), 241–268.Google Scholar
  138. Fuller, D. Q., MacDonald, K. C., & Vernet, R. (2007b). Early domesticated pearl millet in Dhar Nema (Mauritania): Evidence of crop processing waste as ceramic temper. In R. Cappers (Ed.), Fields of change. Progress in African archaeobotany (pp. 71–76). Groningen: Barkhuis & Gronigen University Library.Google Scholar
  139. Fuller, D. Q., & Madella, M. (2001). Issues in Harappan archaeobotany: Retrospect and prospect. In S. Settar & R. Korisettar (Eds.), Indian archaeology in retrospect, vol. II. Protohistory (pp. 317–390). New Delhi: Manohar.Google Scholar
  140. Gadd, C. J. (1932). Seals of ancient Indian style found at Ur. Proceedings of the British Academy, 18, 3–22.Google Scholar
  141. Gamble, J. S. (1922). A manual of Indian timbers (Second Edition ed.). London: Sampson Low.Google Scholar
  142. Garcea, E. A. A. (2004). An alternative way towards food production: The perspective from the Libyan Sahara. Journal of World Prehistory, 18(2), 107–154.Google Scholar
  143. Gasse, F. (2000). Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the last glacial maximum. Quaternary Science Review, 19, 189–211.Google Scholar
  144. Gaur, A. S., & Sundaresh, (2007). Evidence of shoreline shift on the northern Saurashtra coast: Study based on the submerged temple complex at Pindara. Current Science, 92(6), 733–735.Google Scholar
  145. Gauthier, A. (2001). The Early to Late Neolithic archaeofaunas from Nabta and Bir Kiseiba. In F. Wendorf & R. Schild (Eds.), Holocene settlement of the Egyptian Sahara. Volume 1. The archaeology of Nabta Playa (pp. 609–635). New York: Kluwewr/Plenum.Google Scholar
  146. Gauthier, A., & Van Neer, W. (1989). Animal remains from the Late Paleolithic sequence at Wadi Kubbania. In A. Close (Ed.), The prehistory of Wadi Kubbaniya, Vol. 2, stratigraphy. Paleoeconomy, and environment (pp. 119–161). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  147. Ghafour, A. (1984). Rhizophoraceae. In S. I. Ali & M. Qasir (Eds.) Flora of Pakistan (Vol 158). Karachi: Department of Botany, University of Karachi. [also available on-line through http://www.efloras.org/].
  148. Giumlia-Mair, A., Keall, E. J., Shugar, A. N., & Stock, S. (2002). Investigation of a copper-based hoard from the Megalithic site of al-Midamman, Yemen: An interdisciplinary approach. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 195–209.Google Scholar
  149. Grigson, C. (1996). Early cattle around the Indian Ocean. In J. Reade (Ed.), Indian Ocean in antiquity (pp. 66–74). London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  150. Haaland, R. (1992). Fish, pots and grain: Early and mid-Holocene adaptations in the central Sudan. African Archaeological Review, 10, 43–64.Google Scholar
  151. Haernick, E. (2002). Textile remains from Eastern Arabia and new finds from Shakoura (Bahrain) and ed-Dur (Umm al-Qawain, UAE). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 13, 246–254.Google Scholar
  152. Hall, R. (1996). Empires of the Monsoon: A history of the Indian Ocean and its invaders. London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  153. Hanotte, O., Bradley, D. G., Ochieng, J. W., Verjee, Y., Hill, E. W., & Rege, J. E. O. (2002). African pastoralism: Genetic imprints of origins and migrations. Science, 296, 336–339.Google Scholar
  154. Harrower, M. (2006). Environmental versus social parameters, landscape, and the origins of irrigation in Southwest Asabia (Yemen). PhD Thesis. Columbus: Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  155. Harrower, M. (2008a). Hydrology, ideology, and the origins of irrigation in ancient southwest Arabia. Current Anthropology, 49(3), 497–510.Google Scholar
  156. Harrower, M. (2008b). Mapping and dating incipient irrigation in Wadi Sana, Hadramawt (Yemen). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 38, 187–202.Google Scholar
  157. Harvey, S. P. (2003). Interpreting Punt: Geographic, cultural and artistic landscapes. In D. O’Connor & S. Quirke (Eds.), Mysterious lands (pp. 81–92). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  158. Hassan, F. A. (1997). Holocene palaeoclimates of Africa. African Archaeological Review, 14(4), 213–230.Google Scholar
  159. Hayden, B. (1990). Nimrods, piscators, pluckers, and planters: The emergence of food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 9, 31–69.Google Scholar
  160. Hayden, B. (1995). A new overview of domestication. In T. D. Price & A. B. Gebauer (Eds.), Last hunters, first farmers. New perspectives on the prehistoric transition to agriculture (pp. 273–299). Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of Advanced Research Press.Google Scholar
  161. Helms, M. W. (1988). Ulysses’ sail: An ethnographic odyssey of power, knowledge, and geographical distance. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  162. Hendricks, S., & Vermeer, P. (2000). Prehistory: From the Palaeolithic to the Badarian culture. In I. Shaw (Ed.), The Oxford history of ancient Egypt (pp. 17–43). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Hepper, F. N. (1969). Arabian and African frankincense. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 55, 66–72.Google Scholar
  164. Hiebert, F. T., & Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. (1992). Central Asia and the Indo-Iranian borderlands. Iran, 30, 1–15.Google Scholar
  165. Horton, M. C. (1997). Mare Nostrum—a new archaeology in the Indian Ocean? Antiquity, 71, 753–755.Google Scholar
  166. Houlihan, P. F. (1996). The animal world of the Pharaohs. London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  167. Hourani, G. F. (1995). Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in ancient and medieval times. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Revised and expanded by J. Carswell ed.).Google Scholar
  168. Howard-Carter, T. (1987). Dilmun: At sea or not at sea? Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 39(1), 54–117.Google Scholar
  169. Ibeagha-Awemu, E. M., Jann, O. C., Weimann, C., & Erhardt, G. (2004). Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships among West/Central African cattle breeds. Genetics Selection Evolution, 36, 637–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Jesse, F. (2003). Early ceramics in the Sahara and the Nile Valley. In K. K. Krzyzankiak & M. Kobusiewicz (Eds.), Cultural markers in the later prehistory of Northeastern Africa and recent research (pp. 35–50). Poznan: Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan Archaeological Museum.Google Scholar
  171. Kallweit, H. (2002). Remarks on the late Stone Age in the UAE. In D. T. Potts, H. al-Naboodah & P. Hellyer (Eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the UAE (pp. 56–63). London.Google Scholar
  172. Keall, E. J. (2004). Possible connections in antiquity between the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the Horn of Africa. In P. Lunde & A. Porter (Eds.), Trade and travel in the Red Sea region: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project I (pp. 43–55).Google Scholar
  173. Keay, J. (2006). The spice route: A history. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  174. Kemp, B. J., & Vogelsang-Eastwood, G. (2001). The ancient textile industry at Amarna. London: Egyptian Exploration Society.Google Scholar
  175. Kennedy, J. (2008). Pacific bananas: Complex origins, multiple dispersals? Asian Perspectives, 47(1), 75–94.Google Scholar
  176. Kenoyer, J. M. (2007). Indus and Mesopotamian trade networks: New insights from shell and carnelian artifacts. In E. Olijdam & R. H. Spoor (Eds.), Intercultural relations between South and Southwest Asia. Studies in Commemoration of E.C. L. During-Caspers (1934–1996) (Vol. S1826, pp. 19–28). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  177. Khalidi, L. (2007). The formation of a southern Red Sea landscape in the late prehistoric period: Tracing cross-Red Sea culture-contact, interaction and maritime communities along the Tihama coastal plain, Yemen, in the third to first millennium BC. In J. Starkey, P. Starkey, & T. Wilkinson (Eds.), Natural resources and cultural Connections of the Red Sea. Oxford: BAR International Series 1661.Google Scholar
  178. Khalidi, L. (2009). Holocene obsidian exchange in the Red Sea region. In M. Petraglia & J. Rose (Eds.), Footprints in the sand: Tracking the evolution and history of human populations in Arabia. New York: Springer (in press).Google Scholar
  179. Kislev, M. E., Hartmann, A., & Galili, E. (2004). Archaeobotanical and archaeoentomological evidence from a well at Atlit-Yam indicates colder, more humid climate on the Israeli coast during the PPNC period. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 1301–1310.Google Scholar
  180. Kitchen, K. A. (1993). The land of Punt. In T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah, & A. Okpoko (Eds.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns (pp. 587–608). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  181. Kitchen, K. A. (2002). Egypt, Middle Nile, Red Sea and Arabia. In S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, & J. Zarins (Eds.), Essays on the late prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (pp. 383–401). Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.Google Scholar
  182. Kitchen, K. A. (2005). Ancient peoples of the Red Sea in pre-Classical antiquity. In J. Starkey (Ed.), People of the Red Sea: Proceedings of the Red Sea Project II (pp. 7–14). Oxford: Bar International Series 1395.Google Scholar
  183. Kobashi, T., Severinghaus, J. P., Brook, E. J., Barnola, J.-M., & Grachev, A. M. (2007). Precise timing and characterization of abrupt climate change 8200 years ago from air trapped in polar ice. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1212–1222.Google Scholar
  184. Köhler-Rollefson, I. (1996). The one-humped camel in Asia: Origin, utilization and mechanisms of dispersal. In D. Harris (Ed.), The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  185. Kumar, P., Freeman, A. R., Loftus, R. T., Gaillard, C., Fuller, D. Q., & Bradley, D. G. (2003). Admixture analysis of South Asian cattle. Heredity, 91, 43–50.Google Scholar
  186. Kutzbach, J. E. (1981). Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: Climate experiment with Earth’s orbital parameters for 9000 years ago. Science, 214, 59–61.Google Scholar
  187. Lahiri, N. (1999). The archaeology of Indian trade routes up to c. 200 BC: Resource use, resource access and lines of communication. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  188. Lahr, M. M., & Foley, R. (1994). Multiple dispersals and modern human origins. Evolutionary Anthropology, 3, 48–60.Google Scholar
  189. Lambeck, K. (1996). Shoreline reconstructions for the Persian Gulf since the last glacial maximum. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 142, 43–57.Google Scholar
  190. Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. (1972). Trade mechanisms in Indus-Mesopotamian interrelations. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 92(2), 222–229.Google Scholar
  191. Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., & Tosi, M. (1973). Sahri-i Sokhta and Tepe Yahya: Tracks on the earliest history of the Iranian plateau. East and West, 23, 21–57.Google Scholar
  192. Lawler, A. (2002). Report of oldest boat hints at early trade routes. Science, 296, 1791–1792.Google Scholar
  193. Legge, A. J., & Rowley-Conwy, P. A. (2000). The exploitation of animals. In A. M. T. Moore, G. C. Hillman, & A. J. Legge (Eds.), Village on the Euphrates. From foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra (pp. 425–471). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  194. Lesur, J. (2007). Chasse et élevage dans la Corne de l’Afrique entre le Néolithique et les temps historiques. BAR Cambridge monographs in African archaeology 68. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  195. Lézine, A.-M., Saliège, J.-F., Mathieu, R., Tagliatela, T.-L., Mery, S., Charpentier, V., et al. (2002). Mangroves of Oman during the late Holocene: Climatic implications and impact on human settlements. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 11, 221–232.Google Scholar
  196. Lézine, A.-M., Saliège, J.-F., Robert, C., Wertz, F., & Inizian, M.-L. (1998). Holocene lakes from Ramlat as-Sab’atayn (Yemen) illustrate the impact of monsoon activity in southern Arabia. Quaternary Research, 50, 290–299.Google Scholar
  197. Lézine, A.-M., Tiercelin, J.-J., Robert, C., Saliège, J.-F., Cleuzious, S., Inizan, M.-L., et al. (2007). Centennial to millennial-scale variability of the Indian monsoon during the early Holocene from a sediment, pollen and isotope record from the desert of Yemen. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 243, 235–249.Google Scholar
  198. Lightfoot, D. R. (2000). The origin and diffusion of qanats in Arabia: New evidence from the northern and southern peninsula. The Geographical Journal, 166(3), 215–226.Google Scholar
  199. Lucas, A. (1930). Cosmetics, perfume and incense in Ancient Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 16, 41–53.Google Scholar
  200. MacDonald, K. C., Vernet, R., Fuller, D. Q., & Woodhouse, J. (2003). New light on the Tichitt Tradition: A preliminary report on survey and excavation at Dhar Nema. In P. Mitchell, A. Haour, & J. Hobart (Eds.), Researching Africa’s past. New contributions from British archaeologists (pp. 73–80). Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology.Google Scholar
  201. Mackay, E. J. H. (1931). Further links between ancient Sind, Sumer and elsewhere. Antiquity, 5(20), 459–473.Google Scholar
  202. Mackay, E. J. H. (1948). Early Indus civilisations (2nd ed.). London: Luzac & Co.Google Scholar
  203. Madella, M., & Fuller, D. Q. (2006). Paleoecology and the Harappan civilisation of South Asia: A reconsideration. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 1283–1301.Google Scholar
  204. Magee, P. (2004). The impact of southeast Arabian intra-regional trade on settlement location and organization during the Iron Age II period. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 15, 24–42.Google Scholar
  205. Magee, P. (2005). The chronology and environmental background of Iron Age settlement in Southeastern Iran and the question of the origin of the Qanat irrigation system. Iranica Antiqua, 40, 217–231.Google Scholar
  206. Magee, P., & Carter, R. (1999). Agglomeration and regionalism: Southeastern Arabia between 1400 and 1100 BC. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 10, 161–179.Google Scholar
  207. Magnavita, C. (2006). Ancient humped cattle in Africa: A view from the Chad Basin. African Archaeological Review, 23, 55–84.Google Scholar
  208. Manning, K. (2008). Mobility strategies and their social and economic implications for Late Stone Age Sahelian pastoral groups: A view from the lower Tilemsi valley, Eastern Mali. Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 23(2), 125–145.Google Scholar
  209. Marks, A. E. (1991). The place of Shaqadud in the late prehistory of the central Nile Valley. In A. E. Marks & A. Mohammed-Ali (Eds.), The Late prehistory of the eastern Sahel: The Mesolithic and Neolithic of Shaqadud, Sudan (pp. 237–260). Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press.Google Scholar
  210. Marshall, J. (Ed.). (1931). Mohenjo-daro and the Indus civilization. London: Arthur Probsthain.Google Scholar
  211. Marshall, F. (1989). Rethinking the role of Bos indicus in Sub-Saharan Africa. Current Anthropology, 30, 235–240.Google Scholar
  212. Marshall, F. (2000). The origins and spread of domestic animals in East Africa. In R. M. Blench & K. C. MacDonald (Eds.), The origins and development of African livestock: Archaeology, genetics, linguistics and ethnography (pp. 191–221). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  213. Marshall, F., & Hildebrand, E. (2002). Cattle before crops: the beginnings of food production in Africa. Journal of World Prehistory, 16, 99–143.Google Scholar
  214. Martin, L. (2000). Mammalian remains from the eastern Jordanian Neolithic, and the nature of caprine herding in the steppe. Palaeorient, 25, 87–104.Google Scholar
  215. Mason, K. (Ed.). (1946). Western Arabia and the Red Sea. London: Naval Intelligence Division.Google Scholar
  216. Mathur, U. B., Pandey, D. K., & Bahadur, T. (2004). Falling Late Holocene sea-level along the Indian coast. Current Science, 87(4), 439–440.Google Scholar
  217. Matthews, R. (2005). The rise of civilization in Southwest Asia. In C. Scarre (Ed.), The human past: World prehistory and the development of human societies (pp. 432–471). London: Thames & Hudson.Google Scholar
  218. Mbida, C. M., Van Neer, W., Doutrelepont, H., & Vrydaghs, L. (2000). Evidence for banana cultivation and animal husbandry during the first millennium BC in the forest of southern Cameroon. Journal of Archaeological Science, 27, 151–162.Google Scholar
  219. McCorriston, J. (1997). The fiber revolution: Textile extensification, alienation, and social stratification in ancient Mesopotamia. Current Anthropology, 38, 517–549.Google Scholar
  220. McCorriston, J. (2006). Breaking the rain barrier and the tropical spread of Near Eastern agriculture into southern Arabia. In D. J. Kennett & B. Winterhalder (Eds.), Behavioral ecology and the transition to agriculture (pp. 217–264). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  221. McCorriston, J., & Martin, L. (2009). Southern Arabia’s early pastoral population history: Some recent evidence. In M. Petraglia & H. Rose (Eds.), The evolution of human populations in Arabia: Palaeoenvironments, prehistory and genetics. Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  222. McGrail, S. (2004). Boats of the world: From the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  223. Meadow, R. (1987). Faunal exploitation patterns in eastern Iran and Baluchistan: A review of recent investigations. In G. Gnoli & L. Lanciotti (Eds.), Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Memoriae Dicata (pp. 881–916). Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente.Google Scholar
  224. Meeks, D. (2003). Locating Punt. In D. O’COnnor & S. Quirke (Eds.), Mysterious lands (pp. 53–80). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  225. Méry, S. (2000). Les céramiques d’Oman et l’Asie Moyenne: Une archéologie des échanges à l’Age du Bronze. Paris: CRA.Google Scholar
  226. Meyer, C., Todd, J. M., & Beck, C. W. (1991). From Zanzibar to Zagros: A copal pendant from Eshnunna. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 29, 6–297.Google Scholar
  227. Miller, J. I. (1968). The spice trade of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  228. Miller, N. F. (1991). The near east. In W. A. Van Zeist, K. Wasylikowa, & K.-E. Behre (Eds.), Progress in Old World palaeoethnobotany (pp. 133–160). Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.Google Scholar
  229. Mitchell, P. (2005). African connections: Archaeological perspectives on Africa and the wider world. Walnut Creek: Altamira.Google Scholar
  230. Moulherat, C., Tengberg, M., Haquet, J.-F., & Mille, B. (2002). First evidence of cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: Analysis of mineralized fibres from a copper bead. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 1393–1401.Google Scholar
  231. Munro, R. N., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2007). Environment, landscapes and archaeology of the Yemeni Tihama. In J. Starkey, P. Starkey, & T. J. Wilkinson (Eds.), Natural resources and cultural connections of the Red Sea (pp. 13–33). Oxford: BAR (International Series 1661).Google Scholar
  232. Murray, M. A. (2000). Fruits, vegetables, pulses and condiments. In P. Nicholson & I. Shaw (Eds.), Ancient Egyptian materials and technology (pp. 609–655). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  233. Naidu, P. D. (1996). Onset of an arid climate at 3.5 ka in the tropics: Evidence from monsoon upwelling record. Current Science, 71(9), 715–718.Google Scholar
  234. Neef, R. (1991). Plant remains from archaeological sites in lowland Iraq: Tell el-Oueili. In J. L. Huot (Ed.), Oueili: Travaux de 1985 (pp. 321–329). Paris: Editions Recherches sur les Civilisations.Google Scholar
  235. Neilson, K. (1986). Incense in ancient Israel. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  236. Nesbitt, M., & Summers, G. D. (1988). Some recent discoveries of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) at excavations in Turkey and Iran. Anatolian Studies, 38, 85–97.Google Scholar
  237. Neumann, K. (1989). Holocene vegetation of the eastern Sahara: Charcoal from prehistoric sites. African Archaeological Review, 7, 97–116.Google Scholar
  238. Neumann, K. (2005). The romance of farming: Plant cultivation and domestication in Africa. In A. B. Stahl (Ed.), African archaeology: A critical introduction (pp. 249–275). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  239. Oates, J., Davidson, T. E., Kamilli, D., & McKerrell, H. (1977). Seafaring merchants of Ur? Antiquity, 51, 221–235.Google Scholar
  240. Oppenheim, A. L. (1954). Seafaring merchants of Ur. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 74(1), 6–17.Google Scholar
  241. Orlando, L., Mashkour, M., Burke, A., Douady, C. J., Eisenmen, V., & Hanni, C. (2006). Geographic distribution of an extinct equid (Equus hydruntinus: Mammalia, Equidae) revealed by morphological and genetical analyses of fossils. Molecular Ecology, 15(8), 2083–2093.Google Scholar
  242. Parker, A. G., Davies, C., & Wilkinson, T. J. (2006a). The early to mid-Holocene moist period in Arabia: Some recent evidence from lacustrine sequences in eastern and south-western Arabia. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 36, 243–255.Google Scholar
  243. Parker, A. G., Eckersly, L., Smith, M. M., Goudie, A. S., Stokes, S., Ward, S., et al. (2004). Holocene vegetation dynamics in the northeastern Rub’ al-Khali desert, Arabian Peninsula: A phytolith, pollen and carbon isotope study. Journal of Quaternary Science, 19(7), 665–676.Google Scholar
  244. Parker, A. G., Goudie, A. S., Stokes, S., White, K., Hodson, M. J., Manning, M., et al. (2006b). A record of Holocene climate change from lake geochemical analyses in southeastern Arabia. Quaternary Research, 66, 465–476.Google Scholar
  245. Parpola, A. (1977). The Meluhha village: Evidence of acculturation of Harappan traders in late third millennium Mesopotamia? Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 20(2), 129–165.Google Scholar
  246. Pearson, M. (2003). The Indian Ocean. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  247. Pelling, R. (2005). Garamantean agriculture and its significance in a wider North Africa context: The evidence of plant remains from the Fazzan Project. The Journal of North African Studies, 10(3–4), 397–411.Google Scholar
  248. Peters, J. (1991). Mesolithic fishing along the Central Sudanese Nile and the Lower Atbara. Sahara, 4, 33–40.Google Scholar
  249. Phillips, J. (1997). Punt and Aksum: Egypt and the horn of Africa. Journal of African History, 38, 423–457.Google Scholar
  250. Phillips, C. S. (1998). The Tihamah c. 5000 to 500 BC. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 28, 233–237.Google Scholar
  251. Phillips, C. S. (2002). Prehistoric middens and a cemetery from the Southern Arabian Gulf. In S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi, & J. Zarins (Eds.), Essays on the late prehistory of the Arabian Peninsula (XCIII ed., pp. 169–186). Rome: Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente.Google Scholar
  252. Phillipson, D. W. (1998). Ancient Ethiopia. London: The British Museum Press.Google Scholar
  253. Pinhasi, R., Fort, J., & Ammerman, A. J. (2005). Tracing the origin and spread of agriculture in Europe. PLoS Biology, 3(12), e410. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030410.Google Scholar
  254. Plu, A. (1985). Bois et graines. In L. Balout & C. Roubet (Eds.), La momie de Ramsès II. Contribution scientifique à l’égyptologie (pp. 166–174). Paris: Éditions Recherches sur les Civilisations.Google Scholar
  255. Popescu, E. S. (2003). The Neolithic settlement sites on the islands of Dalma and Marawah, U.A.E. In D. T. Potts, H. Naboodah & P. Hellyer (Eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the UAE (pp. 45–54). London: Trident.Google Scholar
  256. Possehl, G. L. (1986). African millets in South Asian prehistory. In J. Jacobson (Ed.), Studies in the archaeology of India and Pakistan (pp. 237–256). New Delhi: Oxford & IBH and the American Institute of Indian Studies.Google Scholar
  257. Possehl, G. L. (1996). Meluhha. In J. Reade (Ed.), The Indian Ocean in antiquity (pp. 133–208). London: Keagan Paul.Google Scholar
  258. Possehl, G. L. (1998). The introduction of African millets to the Indian subcontinent. In H. Prendergast, N. Etkin, D. Harris & P. Houghton (Eds.), Plants for food and medicine. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society for Ethnopharmacology London, 1–6 July 1996 (pp. 107–121). London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  259. Possehl, G. L. (2002). The Indus civilization: A contemporary perspective. Walnut Creek: Altamira.Google Scholar
  260. Possehl, G. L. (2007). The Middle Asian interaction sphere. Expedition, 49(1), 40–42.Google Scholar
  261. Postgate, J. N. (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and economy at the dawn of history. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  262. Potts, D. T. (1990). The Arabian Gulf in antiquity. Volume 1: From prehistory to the fall of the Achaemenid empire. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  263. Potts, D. T. (1993). Rethinking some aspects of trade in the Arabian Gulf. World Archaeology, 24(3), 423–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Potts, D. T. (1994a). Contributions to the agrarian history of Eastern Arabia I: Implements and cultivation techniques. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 5, 158–168.Google Scholar
  265. Potts, D. T. (1994b). Contributions to the agrarian history of Eastern Arabia II: The cultivars. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 5, 236–275.Google Scholar
  266. Potts, D. T. (1994c). South and Central Asian elements at Tell Abraq (Emirate of Umm al-Qaiwain, United Arab Emirates), c. 2200 BC—AD 400. In A. Parpola & P. Koshikallio (Eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1993: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists, Helsinki University 5–9 July 1993 (pp. 615–628). Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia.Google Scholar
  267. Potts, D. T. (1997). Before the Emirates: An archaeological and historical account of developments in the region ca 5000 BC to 676 AD. In E. Ghareeb & I. Al Abed (Eds.), Perspectives on the United Arab Emirates (pp. 28–69). London: Trident Press.Google Scholar
  268. Potts, D. (2003). Dates palms and date comsumption in Eastern Arabia during the Bronze Age. In The date palm. From traditional resource to green wealth (pp. 33–50). Abu Dhabi: The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.Google Scholar
  269. Potts, D. (2008a). An Umm an-Nar-type compartmented soft-stone vessel from Gonnur Depe, Turkmenistan. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 19, 168–181.Google Scholar
  270. Potts, D. T. (2008b). Arabian Peninsula. In D. Pearsall (Ed.), Encyclopedia of archaeology (pp. 827–834). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  271. Pusch, E. B. (1996). Ein Dromedar aus der Ramses-Stadt. Ägypten und Levante, 6, 107–118.Google Scholar
  272. Radcliffe-Smith, A. (1992). The botany of Socotra. In B. Doe (Ed.), Socotra: Island of tranquility (pp. 189–204). London: IMMEL Publishing.Google Scholar
  273. Rainbird, P. (2007). Archaeology of islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  274. Ratnagar, S. (2001). The Bronze Age: Unique instance of a pre-industrial world system? Current Anthropology, 42(3), 351–379.Google Scholar
  275. Ratnagar, S. (2004). Trading encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (Revised second ed.).Google Scholar
  276. Ray, H. P. (1998). The winds of change: Buddhism and the maritime links of early South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  277. Ray, H. P. (2003). The archaeology of seafaring in ancient South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  278. Reade, W. J., & Potts, D. T. (1993). New evidence for late third millennium linen from Tell Abraq, Umm al-Qaiwain (United Arab Emirates). Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 2, 99–106.Google Scholar
  279. Renfrew, C. (1975). Trade as action at a distance: Questions of integration and communication. In J. A. Sabloff & C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky (Eds.), Ancient civilization and trade (pp. 3–59). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  280. Rice, M. (1994). The archaeology of the Arabian Gulf. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  281. Riehl, S., & Nesbitt, M. (2003). Crops and cultivation in the Iron Age Near East: Change or continuity? In B. Fischer, H. Genz, É. Jean, & K. Köroğlu (Eds.), From Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and its neighbouring regions (pp. 301–314). Istanbul: Ege Yayınları.Google Scholar
  282. Roaf, M., & Galbraith, J. (1994). Pottery and p-values: ‘Seafaring merchants of Ur?’ re-examined. Antiquity, 68, 770–783.Google Scholar
  283. Robin, C. (2002). Saba and the Sabaeans. In St. J. Simpson (Ed.), Queen of Sheba: Treasures from ancient Yemen (pp. 51–58). London: British Museum.Google Scholar
  284. Rosen, A. (2007). Civilizing climate: Social responses to climate change in the ancient Near East. Lanham, MD: Alta Mira Press.Google Scholar
  285. Rosen, A., & Rosen, S. (2001). Determinist or non-determinist? Climate, environment, and archaeological explanation in the Levant. In S. Wolff (Ed.), Studies in the archaeology of Israel and neighboring lands in memory of Douglas L. Esse (pp. 535–554). Chicago: Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  286. Rossel, S., Marshall, F., Peters, J., Pilgram, T., Adams, M. D., & O’Connor, D. (2008). Domestication of the donkey: timing, processes, and indicators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 105(10), 3715–3720.Google Scholar
  287. Rowley-Conwy, P. (1988). The camel in the Nile Valley: New radiocarbon acceleration (AMS) dates from Qasr Ibrîm. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 74, 245–248.Google Scholar
  288. Rowley-Conwy, P. A. (1989). Nubia AD 0–550 and the ‘Islamic’ agricultural revolution: Preliminary botanical evidence from Qasr Ibrim, Egyptian Nubia. Archéologie du Nil Moyen, 3, 131–138.Google Scholar
  289. Ruddiman, W. F. (2006). What is the timing of orbital-scale monsoon changes? Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 657–658.Google Scholar
  290. Sadr, K. (1991). The development of nomadism in ancient Northeast Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  291. Safar, F., Mustafa, M. A., & Lloyd, S. (1981). Eridu. Baghdad: State Organisation of Antiquities and Heritage.Google Scholar
  292. Sanil Kumar, V., Pathak, K. C., Pednekar, P., Raju, N. S. N., & Gowhaman, R. (2006). Coastal processes along the Indian coastline. Current Science, 91(4), 530–536.Google Scholar
  293. Saraswat, K. S. (2004). Plant economy of early farming communities. In B. P. Singh (Ed.), Early farming communities of the Kaimur (excavations at Senuwar) (pp. 416–435). Jaipur: Publication Scheme.Google Scholar
  294. Saraswat, K. S. (2005). Agricultural background of the early farming communities in the Middle Ganga Plain. Pragdhara (Journal of the Uttar Pradesh State Department of Archaeology), 15, 145–177.Google Scholar
  295. Saraswat, K. S., & Pokharia, A. K. (2003). Palaeoethnobotanical investigations at Early Harappan Kunal. Pragdhara, 13, 105–140.Google Scholar
  296. Sauer, C. (1952). Agricultural origins and dispersals. New York: American Geographical Society.Google Scholar
  297. Scarre, C. (Ed.). (1988). Past worlds: Atlas of archaeology. London: Times Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  298. Schmidt, P. R., & Curtis, M. C. (2001). Urban precursors in the Horn: Early 1st-millennium BC communities in Eritrea. Antiquity, 75, 849–859.Google Scholar
  299. Schott, F. A., & McCreary, J. P. J. (2001). The monsoon circulation of the Indian Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, 51, 1–123.Google Scholar
  300. Shajan, K. P., Cherian, P. J., Tomber, R., & Selvakumar, V. (2008). The external connections of Early Historic Pattanam, India: The ceramic evidence. Antiquity, 82(315), http://antiquity.ac.uk/Projgall/tomber/index.html.
  301. Shinnie, P. L., & Anderson, J. (2004). The capital of Kush 2: Meroe excavations, 1973–1984, Meroitica 20. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  302. Shroder, J. F. J. (Ed.). (1993). Himalaya to the sea: Geology, geomorphology and the quaternary. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  303. Smith, A. (2005). Climate, culture, and agriculture: Examining change in the Near East during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Boston: Boston University.Google Scholar
  304. Smith, W. S., & Simpson, W. K. (1981). The art and architecture of Ancient Egypt. New York: Penguin. (Revised Edition ed.).Google Scholar
  305. Snead, R. E., & Tasnif, M. (1966). Vegetation types in the Las Bela region of West Pakistan. Ecology, 47, 494–499.Google Scholar
  306. Spoor, R. H. (1997). Human population groups and the distribution of lithic arrowheads in the Arabian Gulf. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 8, 143–160.Google Scholar
  307. Staubwasser, M., Sirocko, F., Grootes, P. M., & Erlenkeuser, H. (2002). South Asian monsoon climate change and radiocarbon in the Arabian Sea during the early and middle Holocene. Paleoceanography, 17(4), 1–12.Google Scholar
  308. Staubwasser, M., Sirocko, F., Grootes, P. M., & Segl, M. (2003). Climate change at the 4.2 ka BP termination of the Indus Valley Civilization and Holocene south Asian monsoon variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(8), 1425.Google Scholar
  309. Staubwasser, M., & Weiss, H. (2007). Corrigendum to “Introduction: Holocene climate and cultural evolution in late prehistory-early historic West Asia” [Quaternary Research 66 (2006) 372–387]. Quaternary Research, 68(1), 175.Google Scholar
  310. Stieglitz, R. R. (1984). Long-distance seafaring in the ancient Near East. The Biblical Archaeologist, 47(3), 134–142.Google Scholar
  311. Strasser, T. F. (1996). The boat models from Eridu: Sailing or spinning during the ‘Ubaid period? Antiquity, 70, 920–925.Google Scholar
  312. Stringer, C. B. (2000). Coasting out of Africa. Nature, 405, 24–27.Google Scholar
  313. Tengberg, M. (1999). Crop husbandry at Miri Qalat, Makran, SW Pakistan (4000–2000 B.C.). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 8, 3–12.Google Scholar
  314. Tengburg, M. (2002). The importation of wood to the Arabian Gulf in antiquity: The evidence from charcoal analysis. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 32, 75–81.Google Scholar
  315. Tengberg, M. (2003a). Archaeobotany in the Oman peninsula and the role of Eastern Arabia in the spread of African crops. In K. Neumann, A. Butler, & S. Kahlheber (Eds.), Food, fuel and fields: Progress in African archaeobotany (pp. 229–238). Koln: Heinrich-Barth Institut.Google Scholar
  316. Tengberg, M. (2003b). Research into origins of date palm domestication. In The date palm. From traditional resource to green wealth (pp. 51–62). Abu Dhabi: The Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.Google Scholar
  317. Tengberg, M. (2005). Les forêts de la mer: Exploitation et évolution des mangroves en Arabie orientale du Néolithique à l’époque islamique. Paléorient, 31(1), 39–45.Google Scholar
  318. Tengberg, M., & Lombard, P. (2002). Environnement et économie végétale à Qal’at al-Bahrein aux périodes Dilmoun et Tylos. Recherches en archéobotanique. Paléorient, 27(1), 167–181.Google Scholar
  319. Torre, A. R., & Gonçalves, A. E. (1978). Rhizophoraceae. In Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee (Ed.), Flora Zambesiaca (Vol. 4). London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
  320. Tosi, M. (1985). Archaeological activities in the Yemen Arab Republic, 1985: Tihamah coastal archaeological survey. East and West, 35, 363–369.Google Scholar
  321. Tosi, M. (1986a). Archaeological activities in the Yemen Arab Republic, 1986: Neolithic and protohistoric cultures, survey and excavations in the coastal plain (Tihama). East and West, 36, 400–415.Google Scholar
  322. Tosi, M. (1986b). The emerging picture of prehistoric Arabia. Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, 461–490.Google Scholar
  323. Tudhope, A. W., Lea, D. W., Shimmield, G. B., Chilcott, C. P., & Head, S. (1996). Monsoon climate and Arabian Sea coastal upwelling recorded in massive corals from southern Oman. Palaios, 11(4), 347–361.Google Scholar
  324. Turner, J. (2004). Spice. The history of a temptation. London: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  325. Uerpmann, M. (1992). Structuring the Late Stone Age of southeastern Arabia. Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, 3, 65–109.Google Scholar
  326. Uerpmann, M. (2001). Remarks on the animal economy of Tell Abraq (Emirates of Sharjah and Umm al-Qaywayn, UAE). Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 31, 227–234.Google Scholar
  327. Uerpmann, M. (2003). The dark millennium: Remarks on the final Stone Age in the Emirates and Oman. In D. T. Potts, H. Naboodah, & P. Hellyer (Eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the UAE (pp. 74–81). London: Trident.Google Scholar
  328. Uerpmann, M., & Uerpmann, H.-P. (2000). Faunal remains of Al-Buhais 18: An Aceramic Neolithic site in the Emirate of Sharjah (SE Arabia)—excavations 1995–1998. In M. Mashkour, A. M. Choyke, H. Buitenhuis, & F. Poplin (Eds.), Archaeozoology of the Near East IVB (pp. 40–49). Groningen: ARC.Google Scholar
  329. Uerpmann, H.-P., & Uerpmann, M. (2002). The appearance of the domestic camel in south-east Arabia. The Journal of Oman Studies, 12, 235–260.Google Scholar
  330. Uerpmann, M., Uerpmann, H.-P., & Jasim, S. (2000). Stone Age nomadism in Southeast Arabia: Palaeo-economic considerations on the Neolithic site of Al-Buhais 18 in the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 30, 229–234.Google Scholar
  331. Usai, D. (2006). A fourth-millennium BC Oman site and its context: Wadi-Shab-GAS1. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 36, 275–288.Google Scholar
  332. Usai, D., & Salvatori, S. (2007). The oldest representation of a Nile boat. Antiquity, 81(314), http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/usai/index.html.
  333. Van Beek, G. W. (1969). Hajar bin Humeid: Investigations at a pre-Islamic site in South Arabia. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  334. Van Neer, W. (1989). Fishing along the prehistoric Nile. In L. Krzyzaniak & M. Kobusiewicz (Eds.), Late prehistory of the Nile Basin and the Sahara (pp. 49–56). Poznań: Poznań Archaeological Museum.Google Scholar
  335. Van Neer, W., & Uerpmann, H.-P. (1989). Palaeoecological significance of the Holocene Faunal remains of the B.O.S.-Missions. In R. Kuper (Ed.), Forschungen zur Umweltgeschichte der Ostsahara (pp. 307–341). Koln: Heinrich-Barth-Institut.Google Scholar
  336. Van Zeist, W. A. (1987). The plant remains. In A. Vila (Ed.), Le Cimetière Kermaïque d’Ukma Ouest (pp. 247–255). Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
  337. Varisco, D. M. (1994). Medieval agriculture and Islamic science: The almanac of a Yemeni Sultan. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  338. Vila, C., Leonard, J. A., & Beja-Pereira, A. (2006). Genetic documentation of horse and donkey domestication. In M. A. Zeder, D. G. Bradley, E. Emshwiller, & B. D. Smith (Eds.), Documenting domestication: New genetic and archaeological paradigms (pp. 342–354). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  339. Vink, M. P. M. (2007). Indian Ocean studies and the ‘new thalassology’. Journal of Global History, 2, 41–62.Google Scholar
  340. Vogt, B. (1994). In search for coastal sites in pre-historic Makkan: Mid-Holocene “shell-eaters” in the coastal desert of Ras al-Khaimah, UAE. In J. M. Kenoyer (Ed.), From Sumer to Meluhha: Contributions to the archaeology of South and West Asia in memory of George F. Dales, Jr. Madison: Wisconsin Archaeological Reports, Volume 3.Google Scholar
  341. Vogt, B. (1996). Bronze age maritime trade in the Indian Ocean: Harappan traits on the Oman peninsula. In J. Reade (Ed.), The Indian Ocean in antiquity. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  342. Vollesen, K. (1989). Burseraceae. In I. Hedberg & S. Edwards (Eds.), Flora of Ethiopia (Vol. 3, pp. 442–478). Uppsala: Department of Systematic Botany, Uppsala University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  343. Vosmer, T. (2003). The naval architecture of early Bronze Age reed-built boats of the Arabian Sea. In D. T. Potts, H. Naboodah & P. Hellyer (Eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Archaeology of the UAE. London: Trident Press.Google Scholar
  344. Walsh, M. T. (2007). Island subsistence: Hunting, trapping and the translocation of wildlife in the Western Indian Ocean. Azania, 42, 83–113.Google Scholar
  345. Warburton, D. A. (2007). What happened in the Near East ca. 2000 BC? In E. H. Seland (Ed.), The Indian Ocean in the Ancient Period: Definite places, translocal exchange. Oxford: BAR International Series 1593.Google Scholar
  346. Ward, C. (2006). Boat-building and its social context in early Egypt: Intepretations from the First Dynasty boat-grave cemetary at Abydos. Antiquity, 80, 118–129.Google Scholar
  347. Wasson, R. J., Smith, G. I., & Agrawal, D. P. (1984). Late Quaternary sediments, minerals and inferred geochemical history of Didwana Lake, Thar Desert, India. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 46, 345–372.Google Scholar
  348. Watson, A. M. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the Early Islamic world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  349. Watt, G. (1889–1893). A dictionary of the economic products of India. London: W. H. Allen and Co.Google Scholar
  350. Weber, S. (1998). Out of Africa: The initial impact of millets in South Asia. Current Anthropology, 39, 267–282.Google Scholar
  351. Webster, P. J., & Yang, S. (1992). Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 118(507), 877–926.Google Scholar
  352. Weiss, H., Courty, M. A., Wetterstrom, W., Guichard, F., Senior, L., Meadow, R., et al. (1993). The genesis and collapse of third millennium north Mesopotamian civilization. Science, 261, 995–1004.Google Scholar
  353. Wendorf, F., & Schild, R. (1994). Are the Early Holocene cattle in the Eastern Sahara domestic or wild? Evolutionary Anthropology, 3, 118–128.Google Scholar
  354. Wengrow, D. (2006). The archaeology of Early Egypt: Social transformations in North-East Africa, 10, 000 to 2650 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  355. Wengrow, D. (2008). Prehistories of commodity branding. Current Anthropology, 49(1), 7–34.Google Scholar
  356. Wild, J. P., Wild, F. C., & Clapham, A. J. (2007). Irrigation and the spread of cotton growing in Roman times. Archaeological Textiles Newsletter, 44, 16–18.Google Scholar
  357. Wilkinson, T. J. (2002). Agriculture and the countryside. In St. J. Simpson (Ed.), Queen of Sheba: Treasures from Ancient Yemen (pp. 102–107). London: British Museum.Google Scholar
  358. Wilkinson, T. J. (2005). Soil erosion and valley fills in the Yemen highlands and southern Turkey: Integrating settlement, geoarchaeology, and climate change. Geoarchaeology, 20(2), 169–192.Google Scholar
  359. Wright, R. P. (2002). Revisiting interaction spheres: Social boundaries and technologies on inner and outermost frontiers. Iranica Antiqua, 37, 403–417.Google Scholar
  360. Zarins, J. (1989). Ancient Egypt and the Red Sea trade: The case for obsidian in the Predynastic and Archaic periods. In A. Leonard & B. Williams (Eds.), Essays in ancient civilization presented to Helene J. Kantor (pp. 339–368). Chicago: Oriental Institute.Google Scholar
  361. Zarins, J. (1990). Obsidian and the Red Sea trade. In M. Taddei (Ed.), South Asian archaeology 1987 (pp. 509–541). Rome: Istituto Universitario Orientale.Google Scholar
  362. Zarins, J. (1996). Obsidian in Predynastic/Archaic Egyptian Red Sea trade. In J. Reade (Ed.), The Indian Ocean in antiquity. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  363. Zeder, M. (2006). Central questions in the domestication of plants and animals. Evolutionary Anthropology, 15, 105–117.Google Scholar
  364. Zeuner, F. E. (1963). A history of domesticated animals. London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  365. Zohary, D. (1996). The mode of domestication of the founder crops of Southwest Asian agriculture. In D. R. Harris (Ed.), The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia (pp. 142–158). London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  366. Zohary, D., & Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (Third ed. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  367. Zohary, D., & Spiegel-Roy, P. (1975). Beginnings of fruit growing in the Old World. Science, 187, 319–327.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchaeologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Institute of ArchaeologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations