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Table 1 Findings in literature investigating the impact of MNEs on industry entrance/exit, employment change, and knowledge spillovers

From: The role of relatedness and strategic linkages between domestic and MNE sectors in regional branching and resilience

Article Impact of MNEs Unit of analysis Geography Temporal coverage
Investigating industry entrance and exit
Elekes et al. (2019) MNEs introduce more structural change than domestic firms Manufacturing firms Hungary, subregions 2000–2009
Lo Turco and Maggioni (2019) Impact of MNE knowledge conditional on insidership in the local market, product-specific knowledge and local firms’ absorptive capacity Manufacturing firms Turkey 2005–2009
Zhu et al. (2012) Local density and experiential learning affect location choices of MNEs Sample of Asian bank affiliates United States 1997–2003
Ayyagari and Kosová (2010) Positive horizontal and vertical entry spillovers in services, but not manufacturing, FDI country of origin matters Sample of Czech firms Czech Republic 1994–2000
Békés et al. (2009) Productive firms benefit more, no larger impact on exporting firms Manufacturing firms Hungary 1992–2003
Görg and Strobl (2002) Positive effect of MNEs on entry of domestic firms Manufacturing firms Ireland 1996–2002
Investigating employment change
Cortinovis et al. (2020) Employment growth independent of input–output relations Employment across sectors Europe, regions 2008–2013
Boschma and Iammarino (2009) Employment growth Employment, exports, and imports Italy, provinces 1995–2003
Investigating knowledge and productivity spillovers
Csáfordi et al. (2020) No impact on productivity Employer-employee linked labour flows Hungary 2003–2011
Di Ubaldo et al. (2018) Limited evidence for spillovers impacting productivity Manufacturing and service firms Ireland 2008–2014
Jordaan (2017) Positive economic spillovers, enhanced where technology gap Firms and their suppliers Mexico 2000–2001
Haller (2014) MNEs impact productivity positively in transport, storage, and communication sectors, but negatively in wholesale and retail trade All non-financial services firms Ireland 2001–2007
Barrios et al. (2011) Spillovers have mixed effects for productivity depending on measure of backward linkages Manufacturing firms Ireland 1990–1998
Frenken et al. (2007) Spillovers enhance employment growth Employment except agriculture Netherlands 1996–2002
Ruane and Uğur (2005) Weak evidence of positive spillovers Manufacturing firms Ireland 1991–1998
Barry et al. (2005) Spillovers reduce wages and productivity for exporting firms, but have no effect on non-exporters Sample of manufacturing firms Ireland 1990–1998