Advertisement

The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 520–539 | Cite as

Female owners versus female managers: Who is better at introducing innovations?

  • Dirk Dohse
  • Rajeev K. GoelEmail author
  • Michael A. Nelson
Article

Abstract

This paper uses firm-level survey for more than 100 countries to examine whether firms’ female managers or female owners were better at bringing innovations to the market than males. In contrast to most of the literature that focuses on the performance of female managers/owners, this paper addresses conduct with regard to innovation. Results show that female owners, rather than female managers, were more likely to introduce innovations. Further, R&D performing firms introduced innovations, as did larger and older firms. The presence of an informal sector and finance availability constraints actually spurred innovation introductions, with economic prosperity leading to complacency in innovation introductions.

Keywords

Innovation Female owners Female managers Patent protection R&D Firm size Firm age Sole proprietorship 

JEL classification

O32 O33 O57 J16 

References

  1. Abrahamsson, L. (2002). Restoring the order: Gender segregation as an obstacle to organisational development. Applied Ergonomics, 33(6), 549–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (1991). R&D, firm size and innovative activity. In Z. J. Acs & D. B. Audretsch (Eds.), Innovation and technological change: An international comparison (pp. 39–59). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albanesi, S., Olivetti, C., & Prados, M. J. (2015). Gender and dynamic agency: Theory and evidence on the compensation of top executives. In S. W. Polachek, K. Tatsiramos, & K. F. Zimmermann (Eds.), Research in Labor Economics, Volume 42: Gender in the Labor Market (pp. 1–59). Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, I. E., Elam, A., Langowitz, N., & Dean, M. (2008). Global entrepreneurship monitor, 2007 Report on women and entrepreneurship. Babson College: The Center for Women’s Leadership at Babson College.Google Scholar
  5. Berglund, K., Brännback, M., & Carsrud, A. (2012). Understanding the entrepreneur and innovator nexus as a basis for the coming of the science of the artificial. In RENTResearch on Entrepreneurship and Small Business 26th Conference. Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  6. Blake, M. K., & Hanson, S. (2005). Rethinking innovation: Context and gender. Environment and Planning A, 37(4), 681–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brush, C. G., & Cooper, S. Y. (2012). Female entrepreneurship and economic development: An international perspective. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24(1–2), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. (1994). The management of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Busolt, U., & Kugele, K. (2009). The gender innovation and research productivity gap in Europe. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 4(2–3), 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camisón-Zornoza, C., Lapiedra-Alcamí, R., Segarra-Ciprés, M., & Boronat-Navarro, M. (2004). A meta-analysis of innovation and organizational size. Organization Studies, 25(3), 331–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cetindamar, D., Gupta, V. K., Karadeniz, E. E., & Egrican, N. (2012). What the numbers tell: The impact of human, family and financial capital on women and men’s entry into entrepreneurship in Turkey. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24(1–2), 29–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coriat, B., & Weinstein, O. (2002). Organizations, firms and institutions in the generation of innovation. Research Policy, 31(2), 273–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Tienne, D. R., & Chandler, G. N. (2007). The role of gender in opportunity identification. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 365–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dezsö, C. L., & Ross, D. G. (2012). Does female representation in top management improve firm performance? A panel data investigation. Strategic Management Journal, 33(9), 1072–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D. C., & Nelson, R. R. (2004). The Oxford handbook of innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gaughan, M. (2005). Introduction to the symposium: Women in science. Journal of Technology Transfer, 30(4), 339–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goel, R. K., & Göktepe-Hultén, D. (2017). Risk attitudes, patenting and invention disclosures by academic researchers. Journal of Technology Transfer. (In press).Google Scholar
  18. Goel, R. K., Göktepe-Hultén, D., & Ram, R. (2015). Academics’ entrepreneurship propensities and gender differences. Journal of Technology Transfer, 40(1), 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goel, R. K., & Nelson, M. A. (2018). Determinants of process innovation introductions: Evidence from 115 developing countries. Managerial and Decision Economics, 39(5), 515–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goel, R. K., Saunoris, J. W., & Zhang, X. (2016). Intranational and international knowledge flows: Effects on the formal and informal sectors. Contemporary Economic Policy, 34(2), 297–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greif, S. (2005). Frauen im Erfindungswesen: Eine patenstatistische Analyse. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsforschung.Google Scholar
  22. Heilman, M. E., & Chen, J. J. (2003). Entrepreneurship as a solution: The allure of self-employment for women and minorities. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jennings, J. E., & Brush, C. G. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 663–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kamien, M. I., & Schwartz, N. L. (1982). Market structure and innovation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Klapper, L. F., & Parker, S. C. (2011). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer, 26(2), 237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klepper, S., & Simons, K. L. (2000). The making of an oligopoly: Firm survival and technological change in the evolution of the U.S. tire industry. Journal of Political Economy, 108(4), 728–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koellinger, P. (2008). Why are some entrepreneurs more innovative than others? Small Business Economics, 31, 21–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leahey, E., & Blume, A. (2017). Elucidating the process: Why women patent less than men. In A. N. Link (Ed.), Gender and Entrepreneurial Activity (pp. 151–167). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  29. Lee, Y. G., Jasper, C. R., & Fitzgerald, M. A. (2010). Gender differences in perceived business success and profit growth among family business managers. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 31(4), 458–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee-Gosselin, H., & Grisé, J. (1990). Are women owner-managers challenging our definitions of entrepreneurship? An in-depth survey. Journal of Business Ethics, 9(4–5), 423–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Link, A. N. (Ed.). (2017). Gender and entrepreneurial activity. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  32. Link, A. N., & Link, J. R. (1999). Women in science: An exploratory analysis of trends in the United States. Science and Public Policy, 26(6), 437–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Loscocco, K. A., Robinson, J., Hall, R. H., & Allen, J. K. (1991). Gender and small business success: An inquiry into women’s relative disadvantage. Social Forces, 70(1), 65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Masser, B. M., & Abrams, D. (2005). Reinforcing the glass ceiling: The consequences of hostile sexism for female managerial candidates. Sex Roles, 51(9–10), 609–615.Google Scholar
  35. Mead, D. C., & Liedholm, C. (1998). The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries. World Development, 26(1), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Minniti, M. (2009). Gender issues in entrepreneurship. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 5(7–8), 497–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mukhtar, S.-M. (2002). Differences in male and female management characteristics: A study of owner-manager businesses. Small Business Economics, 18(4), 289–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Muñoz, R. T., & Graña, C. P. (2016). The effects of gender on the quality of university patents and public research centres in Andalusia: Is it better with a female presence? Economics & Sociology, 9(1), 220–236.  https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2016/9-1/15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Naldi, F., & Parenti, I. V. (2002). Scientific and technological performance by gender. A feasibility study on patent and bibliometric indicators. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  40. Pfeifer, C., & Wagner, J. (2014). Is innovative firm behavior correlated with age and gender composition of the workforce? Evidence from a new type of data for German enterprises. Journal for Labour Market Research, 47(3), 223–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Robb, A. M., & Watson, J. (2012). Gender differences in firm performance: Evidence from new ventures in the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(5), 544–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rosa, J. M., & Sylla, D. (2016). A comparison of the performance of majority female-owned and majority male-owned small and medium-sized enterprises. Statistics Canada: Centre for Special Business Projects, November.Google Scholar
  43. Stephan, P. E., & El-Ganainy, A. (2007). The entrepreneurial puzzle: Explaining the gender gap. Journal of Technology Transfer, 32(5), 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Thursby, J. G., & Thursby, M. C. (2005). Gender patterns of research and licensing activity of science and engineering faculty. Journal of Technology Transfer, 30(4), 343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. White, G. B. (2015). Women are owning more and more small businesses. The Atlantic, April 17. https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/04/women-are-owning-more-and-more-small-businesses/390642/. Accessed May 2018.
  46. Whittington, K. B., & Smith-Doerr, L. (2005). Gender and commercial science: Women’s patenting in the life sciences. Journal of Technology Transfer, 30(4), 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zuckerman, H., Cole, J. R., & Bruer, J. T. (1991). The outer circle: Women in the scientific community. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kiel Institute for the World EconomyKielGermany
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA
  3. 3.University of AkronAkronUSA

Personalised recommendations