The transformation of ideas into new technologies depends not only on how knowledge diffuses but also on which context/time this transformation is developed. In the assumption that internal and environmental conditions directly affects the decision of exploiting technological opportunities, this paper explores how some strategic dynamic capabilities (entrepreneurial and export market) and supportive environmental conditions (regulative and normative) influence the configuration of technology entrepreneurship initiatives. A proposed conceptual model is tested with 30,648 ventures in 23 countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor for the years 2005 (pre-financial crisis), 2008 (financial crisis), and 2011 (recession). The main findings suggest the positive role of entrepreneurial orientation and export market orientation in the development of new technology entrepreneurship initiatives. Also, environmental conditions influence on the development of initiatives of technology entrepreneurship. Particularly, the study evidences how regulative environmental conditions (property rights and government programs) enhance while other regulative conditions (support for science and technology) and normative conditions (opportunity perception and national culture) simultaneously retard the probability that a new/established venture develops new technology entrepreneurship initiatives. These effects are moderated and intensified by the influence of the economic cycles. The paper provides important insights to the field of entrepreneurship, innovation, and strategic management.
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Annually, the Adult Population Survey (APS) collects the main indicators of entrepreneurial activity based on a random sample of at least 2000 adults from 18 to 74 years in each of the participating countries. The National Experts Survey (NES) collects the main indicators of the entrepreneurial ecosystem based on a sample of at least 36 experts per country to evaluate the conditions that foster or retard the entrepreneurial activity. For further details about the methodology, see Reynolds et al. (2005).
This sample includes new ventures identified such as total entrepreneurial activity (TEA) that are owner–manager ventures that have been in existence for less than 42 months, as well as established ventures that are owner–manager ventures that have been in existence for at least 42 months (Reynolds et al. 2005).
Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The GEM APS survey includes three categorical questions to capture innovation based on: the antiquity of the technologies developed by the venture (less than 1 year, more than a year, no new technology), the number of clients that consider the product new/unfamiliar (none, a few, all), the number of business that offer the same products (none, a few, all) (Bosma 2013; Koellinger 2008; Reynolds et al. 2005; Wong et al. 2005).
Based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, this type of entrepreneurs is characterized by the ambition to create substantial organizations with the expectative of growing to a size of 20 employees within 5 years (Stam et al. 2011). In this perspective, having the ambition to grow a business is close to a necessary condition for subsequent growth.
This percentage is distributed as follow: 26.41% has a level of exports under 10%; 5.24% exports 10–25%; 4.77% exports 25–50%; 4.20% exports 50–75%; 2.00% exports 75–90% and 2.97% exports more than 90%.
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David Urbano acknowledges the financial support from projects ECO2017-87885-P (Spanish Ministry of Economy & Competitiveness) and 2017-SGR-1056 (Economy & Knowledge Department, Catalan Government). Maribel Guerrero acknowledges the financial support from Santander Universidades (Iberoamerica Scholarship for Young Researchers). João J. Ferreira and Cristina I. Fernandes acknowledge the financial support from NECE – Research Unit in Business Sciences funded by the Multiannual Funding Programme of R&D Centres of FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Project UID/GES/04630/2013).
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Urbano, D., Guerrero, M., Ferreira, J.J. et al. New technology entrepreneurship initiatives: Which strategic orientations and environmental conditions matter in the new socio-economic landscape?. J Technol Transf 44, 1577–1602 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-018-9675-3
- Strategic orientations
- Environmental conditions
- Technology entrepreneurship
- Dynamic capabilities
- Regulative and normative conditions