Advertisement

The Journal of Technology Transfer

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 1311–1346 | Cite as

The UBC ecosystem: putting together a comprehensive framework for university-business cooperation

  • Victoria Galan-MurosEmail author
  • Todd Davey
Article

Abstract

The potential for a functional ‘triple helix’ to contribute to economic development is being increasingly accepted and embraced, particularly the bilateral relationship between higher education institutions (HEIs) and business. However, university-business cooperation (UBC) is still a fragmented and indistinct field of research, and the understanding of UBC remains inadequate since most research is undertaken around specific elements, rather than as an encompassing, overarching and interconnected system. This paper aims fills this gap in the literature by putting the pieces together to create an integrated and comprehensive conceptual UBC framework for HEIs, the UBC Ecosystem. The framework illustrates the components present in the UBC environment for HEIs, such as inputs, activities, outcomes, outputs, impacts, supporting mechanisms, circumstances and context, specifying a wide range of sub-elements for each of them. In doing so, this paper makes a strong theoretical contribution with the creation of a conceptual framework, highlighting the more important elements and their interrelations as well as suggesting future research. Additionally, the paper makes a practical contribution, establishing a common UBC schema for HEI managers and policymakers to make strategic and operative decisions, and used as a base for evidence-based management and policy.

Keywords

University-business cooperation Framework Management Innovation 

JEL Classification

O32 L2 L3 M1 

References

  1. Abramo, G., D’Angelo, C., Di Costa, F., & Solazzi, M. (2009). University-industry collaboration in Italy: A bibliometric examination. Technovation, 29(6–7), 498–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acs, Z., Audretsch, D., & Feldman, M. (1994). R&D spillovers and recipient firm size. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 76, 336–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, R., Bessant, J., & Phelps, R. (2006). Innovation management measurement: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 8(1), 21–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal, A., & Henderson, R. (2002). Putting patents in context: Exploring knowledge transfer from MIT. Management Science, 48(1), 44–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahrweiler, P., Pyka, A., & Gilbert, N. (2011). A new model for university-industry links in knowledge-based economies. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(2), 218–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, T. R., Daim, T. U., & Lavoie, F. F. (2007). Measuring the efficiency of university technology transfer. Technovation, 27(5), 306–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arundel, A., & Geuna, A. (2004). Proximity and the use of public science by innovative European firms. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 13(6), 559–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arvanitis, S., Kubli, U., & Woerter, M. (2008). University-industry knowledge and technology transfer in Switzerland: What university scientists think about co-operation with private enterprises. Research Policy, 37(10), 1865–1883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arvanitis, S., & Wörter, M. (2007). Wissenstransfer zwischen Hochschulen und Wirtschaft in der Schweiz aus Sicht der Unternehmen. Die Volkswirtschaft, 80(10), 8–11.Google Scholar
  10. Asderaki, F. (2009). The impact of the Bologna Process on the development of the Greek quality assurance system. Quality in Higher Education, 15(2), 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Audretsch, D. B. (1995). Innovation, growth and survival. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 13(4), 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Audretsch, D. B., Keilbach, M. C., & Lehmann, E. E. (2006). Entrepreneurship and economic growth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Azagra-Caro, J. M. (2007). What type of faculty member interacts with what type of firm? Some reasons for the delocalisation of university-industry interaction. Technovation, 27(11), 704–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baadsgaard, M. (2012). Recruitment of the first scholar in private companies (Ansættelse af første akademiker i private virksomheder) Labour Movement and DJØF (Arbejderbevægelsens Erhvervsråd and DJØF), December 2012.Google Scholar
  15. Baba, M., & Kamibeppu, T. (2000). Contemporary development of research cooperation in university—Industry relations in Japan. Industry and Higher Education, 14(1), 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barnes, T., Pashby, I., & Gibbons, A. (2002). Effective University-industry interaction: A multi-case evaluation of collaborative R&D projects. European Management Journal, 20(3), 272–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnett, M. (2002). University-industry relationships in dentistry: Past, present, future. Journal of Dentistry Education, 66(10), 1163–1168.Google Scholar
  18. Basant, R., & Chandra, P. (2007) University-industry linkages and enterprise creation in India: Some strategic and planning issues. In: How universities promote economic growth. Washington, World Bank.Google Scholar
  19. Beaver, D. (2004). Does collaborative research have greater epistemic authority? Scientometrics, 60(3), 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bekkers, R., & Bodas Freitas, I. M. (2008). Analysing knowledge transfer channels between universities and industry: To what degree do sectors also matter? Research Policy, 37(10), 1837–1853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Belkhodja, O., & Landry, R. (2007). The Triple-Helix collaboration: Why do researchers collaborate with industry and the government? What are the factors that influence the perceived barriers?”. Scientometrics, 70(2), 301–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Benneworth, P. (2001). Academic entrepreneurship and long-term business relationships: Understanding “commercialization” activities. Enterprise Innovation Management Studies, 2(3), 225–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bercovitz, J., & Feldmann, M. (2006). Entrepreneurial universities and technology transfer: A conceptual framework for understanding knowledge-based economic development. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31(1), 175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bercovitz, J., & Feldmann, M. (2008). Academic entrepreneurs: Organizational change at the individual level. Organization Science, 19(1), 69–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Berggren, E., & Lindholm-Dahlstrand, Å. (2009). Creating an entrepreneurial region: Two waves of academic spin-offs from Halmstad University. European Planning Studies, 17(8), 1171–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Berman, J. (2008). Connecting with industry: Bridging the divide. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 30(2), 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bjerregaard, T. (2009). Universities-industry collaboration strategies: A micro-level perspective. European Journal of Innovation Management, 12(2), 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Boardman, P. C. (2008). Beyond the stars: The impact of affiliation with university biotechnology centers on the industrial involvement of university scientists. Technovation, 28(5), 291–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boardman, P. C., & Ponomariov, B. L. (2009). University researchers working with private companies. Technovation, 29(2), 142–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bonaccorsi, A., & Piccaluga, A. (1994). A theoretical framework for the evaluation of university-industry relationships. R&D Management, 24(3), 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Borrás, S., & Edquist, C. (2013). The choice of innovation policy instruments. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(8), 1513–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Borrell Damian, L. (2009) University-industry partnerships for enhancing knowledge exchange, European University Association publication, ISBN: 9789078997139.Google Scholar
  33. Boucher, G., Conway, C., & Van der Meer, E. (2003). Tiers of engagement by universities in their region’s development. Regional Studies, 37, 887–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bovey, W. H., & Hede, A. (2001). Resistance to organisational change: The role of defence mechanisms. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(7), 534–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bower, J. (1993). Successful joint ventures in science parks. Long Range Planning, 26(6), 114–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bozeman, B., & Boardman, C. (2013). Academic faculty in university research centers: Neither capitalism’s slaves nor teaching fugitives. The Journal of Higher Education, 84(1), 88–120.Google Scholar
  37. Bozeman, B., & Gaughan, M. (2007). Impacts of grants and contracts on academic researchers’ interactions with industry. Research Policy, 36(5), 694–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bozeman, B., Youtie, J., Slade, C., & Gaughan, M. (2012). The ‘‘dark side’’ of academic research collaborations: Case studies in exploitation, bullying and unethical behavior. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Society for Social Studies of Science and European Association for the Study of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  39. Breschi, S., Lissoni, F., & Montobbio, F. (2007). The scientific productivity of academic inventors: New evidence from Italian data. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 16(2), 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Breznitz, S., & Feldman, M. P. (2010a). The larger role of the university in economic development: Introduction to the special issue. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(2), 135–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Breznitz, S., & Feldman, M. (2010b). The engaged university. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(2), 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Brown, M. G., & Svenson, R. A. (1988). Measuring R&D productivity. Research-Technology Management, 31(4), 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bruneel, J., D’Este, P., & Salter, A. (2010). Investigating the factors that diminish the barriers to university-industry collaboration. Research Policy, 39(7), 858–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Caniëls, M. C. J., & van den Bosch, H. (2011). The role of Higher Education Institutions in building regional innovation systems. Papers in Regional Science, 90, 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Carayol, N. (2003). Objectives, agreements and matching in science-industry collaborations: Reassembling the pieces of the puzzle. Research Policy, 32(6), 887–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chatterton, P., & Goddard, J. (2000). The response of higher education institutions to regional needs. European Journal of Education, 35(4), 475–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Christie, F., Conlon, T., Gemmell, T., & Long, A. (2004). Effective partnership? Perceptions of PGCE student teacher supervision. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Clarysse, B., Tartari, V., & Salter, A. (2011). The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organisational support on academic entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 40(8), 1084–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Clarysse, B., Wright, M., Lockett, A., Mustar, P., & Knockaert, M. (2007). Academic spin-offs, formal technology transfer and capital raising. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16, 609–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1989). Innovation and learning: The two faces of R & D. The Economic Journal, 99(397), 569–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cohen, W. M., Nelson, R. R., & Walsh, J. P. (2002). Links and impacts: The influence of public research on industrial R&D. Management Science, 48, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Collins, S., & Wakoh, H. (2000). Universities and technology transfer in Japan: Recent reforms in historical perspective. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 25(2), 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Coombs, R., Harvey, M., & Tether, B. S. (2003). Analysing distributed processes of provision and innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 12(6), 1125–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. D’Este, P., & Patel, P. (2005). University-industry linkages in the UK: what are the factors determining the variety of interactions with industry? Paper presented at the Triple Helix Conference on The Capitalization of Knowledge.Google Scholar
  55. D’Este, P., & Patel, P. (2007). University-industry linkages in the UK: What are the factors underlying the variety of interactions with industry? Research Policy, 3(9), 1295–1313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Das, T. K., & Teng, B.-S. (2000). A resource-based theory of strategic alliances. Journal of Management, 26(1), 31–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Davey, T., Baaken, T., Galan-Muros, V., & Meerman, A. (2011). State of the cooperation between higher education institutions and public and private organisations in Europe. Brussels: European Commission, DG Education and Culture.Google Scholar
  58. Davey, T., & Galán-Muros, V. (2013). The presence and role of supporting mechanisms on university entrepreneurship. In P. Davidsson (Ed.), Proceedings of Australian centre for entrepreneurship research exchange conference (pp. 540–549). Brisbane, Australia.Google Scholar
  59. Davey, T., Kliewe, T., & Van der Sijde, P. (2008). Continuous high technology business incubation: Cross-sectoral comparison of approaches to high technology business incubation. Paper presented at the Sixteenth Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference Proceedings, Enschede (The Netherlands).Google Scholar
  60. De Man, A. P. (2004). The network economy: Strategy, structure and management. Cheltenham: Elgard.Google Scholar
  61. Debackere, K., & Veugelers, R. (2005). The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links. Research Policy, 34(3), 321–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Department for Business Innovation and Skills. (2014). Innovation Report 2014: Innovation, Research and Growth. London: UK Department for Business Innovation and Skills.Google Scholar
  63. D’Este, P., & Perkmann, M. (2011). Why do academics engage with industry? The entrepreneurial university and individual motivations. Journal of Technology Transfer, 36(3), 316–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dottore, A., Baaken, T., & Corkindale, D. (2010). A partnering business model for technology transfer. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 12(2), 190–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Drucker, J., & Goldstein, H. (2007). Assessing the regional economic development impacts of universities: A review of current approaches. International Regional Science Review, 30(1), 20–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dutrénit, G., De Fuentes, C., & Torres, A. (2010). Channels of interaction between public research organisations and industry and their benefits: Evidence from Mexico. Science and Public Policy, 37(7), 513–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. E3M Consortium. (2008). Needs and constraints analysis of the three dimensions of third mission activities: European indicators and ranking methodology for university third mission. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  68. Edquist, C. (2011). Design of innovation policy through diagnostic analysis: Identification of systemic problems (or failures). Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6), 1725–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Etzkowitz, H. (1983). Entrepreneurial scientists and entrepreneurial universities in American academic science. Minerva, 21(2–3), 198–233.Google Scholar
  70. Etzkowitz, H. (1998). The norms of entrepreneurial science: Cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages. Research Policy, 27(8), 823–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Etzkowitz, H. (2001). The second academic revolution and the rise of entrepreneurial science. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 20(2), 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: From National Systems and ‘‘Mode 2’’ to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Research Policy, 29(2), 109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. European Commission. (2008). New skills for new jobs anticipating and matching labour market and skills needs. Brussels (Belgium): European Commission.Google Scholar
  74. European Commission. (2009). Metrics for knowledge transfer from public research organisations in Europe: Expert group report (No. 978-92-79-12009-1). Brussels: Expert Group on Knowledge Transfer Metrics of European Commission.Google Scholar
  75. Eurostat. (2015). Europe in Figures-Eurostat Yearbook 2014. Dandy Booksellers Limited.Google Scholar
  76. Farr, C. M., & Fischer, W. A. (1992). Managing international high technology cooperative projects. R&D Management, 22(1), 055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Faulkner, W., & Senker, J. (1995). Policy and management issues in company links with academic and government laboratories: A cross-technology study. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 5(1), 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fini, R., Grimaldi, R., Santoni, S., & Sobrero, M. (2011). Complements or substitutes? The role of universities and local context in supporting the creation of academic spin-offs. Research Policy, 40(8), 1113–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Frechtling, J. (2007). Logic modelling methods in program evaluation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  80. Friedman, J., & Silberman, J. (2003). University Technology Transfer: Do incentives, management, and location matter? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 28(1), 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Galán-Muros, V., & Plewa, C. (2016). What drive and inhibit university-business cooperation in Europe? A comprehensive assessment of barriers and drivers. R&D Management, 46(2), 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Galán-Muros, V., van der Sijde, P., Groenewegen, P., & Baaken, T. (2017). Nurture over nature: how do European universities support their cooperation with business? Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(1), 184–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gault, J., Redington, J., & Schlager, T. (2000). Undergraduate business internships and career success: Are they related? Journal of Marketing Education, 22(1), 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Geissler, M., Jahn, S., & Haefner, P. (2006). The entrepreneurial climate at universities: The impact of organisational factors. In D. Smallbone, J. Leitao, M. Raposo, & F. Welter (Eds.), The theory and practice of entrepreneurship: Frontiers in European entrepreneurship research (pp. 336). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  85. German Centre for Research and Innovation (GCRI) (2012). Keeping manufacturing competitive: Industry-university collaboration in Germany and the U.S. journal. Retrieved from http://www.germaninnovation.org/news-and-events/past-events/past-event?id=58e8ef0a-4f1d-e211-9fb3-000c29e5517f
  86. German Centre for Research and Innovation (GCRI) (2013). Keeping Manufacturing Competitive: Industry-University Collaboration in Germany and the U.S. German Centre for Research and Innovation, Berlin.Google Scholar
  87. Geuna, A., & Muscio, A. (2009). The governance of university knowledge transfer: A critical review of the literature. Minerva, 47(1), 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Geuna, A., & Nesta, L. J. J. (2006). University patenting and its effects on academic research: The emerging European evidence. Research Policy, 35, 790–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Geuna, A., & Rossi, F. (2011). Changes to university IPR regulations in Europe and the impact on academic patenting. Research Policy, 40, 1068–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gibbons, M. (1997). The translation of societal needs into research agendas. In R. M. Gibbons, J. Maddox, B. Martin, & P. Papon (Eds.), Science in Tomorrow’s Europe (pp. 69–78). Paris: Economica International.Google Scholar
  91. Gillis, M. R., & McNally, M. E. (2010). The influence of industry on dental education. Journal of Dentistry Education, 74(10), 1095–1105.Google Scholar
  92. Ginzburg, S., & Houli, E. (2013). Collaboration between the Academic World and Industry. Interview with Michael Jünger, Tefen Tribune, Winter Issue, 19–22.Google Scholar
  93. Giuliani, E., Morrison, A., Pietrobelli, C., & Rabellotti, R. (2010). Who are the researchers that are collaborating with industry? An analysis of the wine sectors in Chile, South Africa and Italy. Research Policy, 39, 748–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gnahs, D., Böttcher, P., Barske, H., Tippelt, R., & Emminghaus, C. (2008). Lernende Regionen: Förderung von Netzwerken. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Berlin: Programmdarstellung.Google Scholar
  95. Göktepe-Hultén, D. (2010). A balancing act: Factors behind the formation of academic entrepreneurship. Critical Sociology, 36(4), 521–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Göktepe-Hulten, D., & Mahagaonkar, P. (2009). Inventing and patenting activities of scientists: In the expectation of money or reputation? Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(4), 401–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Grimpe, C., & Fier, H. (2010). Informal university technology transfer: A comparison between the United States and Germany. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(6), 637–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Grossman, J., Reid, P., & Morgan, R. (2001). Contributions of academic research to industrial performance in five industry sectors. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 26(1), 143–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gulbrandsen, M., Mowery, D., & Feldman, M. (2011). Introduction to the special section: Heterogeneity and university-industry relations. Research Policy, 40(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gulbrandsen, M., & Nerdrum, L. (2009). Public sector research and industrial innovation in Norway: A historical perspective. In J. Fagerberg, D. Mowery, & B. Verspagen (Eds.), Innovation, path dependency, and policy: The Norwegian case (pp. 61–88). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gulbrandsen, M., & Smeby, J. C. (2005). Industry funding and university professors’ research performance. Research Policy, 34(6), 932–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gunasekara, C. (2006). The generative and developmental roles of universities in regional innovation systems. Science and Public Policy, 33(2), 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Haeussler, C., & Colyvas, J. A. (2011). Breaking the ivory tower: Academic entrepreneurship in the life sciences in UK and Germany. Research Policy, 40(1), 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hall, B. H., Link, A. N., & Scott, J. T. (2001). Barriers inhibiting industry from partnering with universities: Evidence from the advanced technology program. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 26(1–2), 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Harman, G. (2011). Australian university research commercialisation: Perceptions of technology transfer specialists and science and technology academics. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32(1), 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hasselmo, N., & McKinnell, H. (2001). Working together, creating knowledge. In Business-education forum, May (pp. 60–66).Google Scholar
  107. Healy, A., Perkmann, M., Goddard, J., & Kempton, L. (2014). Measuring the impact of university-business cooperation. Luxemburg: European Commission.Google Scholar
  108. Hedvall, M. (2011). University-industry collaboration & degree mobility: EDAMBA & Hanken School of Economics.Google Scholar
  109. Heinzl, J., Kor, A.-L., Orange, G., & Kaufmann, H. R. (2012). Technology transfer model for Austrian higher education institutions. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(3), 1–34.Google Scholar
  110. Henderson, A., Heel, A., & Twentyman, M. (2007). Enabling student placement through strategic partnerships between a health-care organization and tertiary institutions. Journal of Nursing Management, 15(1), 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Henrekson, M., & Rosenberg, N. (2001). Designing efficient institutions for science- based entrepreneurship: Lesson from the US and Sweden. Journal of Technology Transfer, 26(3), 207–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Herrmann, K. (2008). Leadership in an age of supercomplexity: Challenges for 21st century universities and businesses. London: Council of Industry and Higher Education.Google Scholar
  113. Hertzfeld, H. R., Link, A. N., & Vonortas, N. S. (2006). Intellectual property protection mechanisms in research partnerships. Research Policy, 35(6), 825–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Huang, K., & Yu, C. (2011). The effect of competitive and non-competitive R&D collaboration on firm innovation. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 36(4), 383–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hülsbeck, M., Lehmann, E., & Starnecker, A. (2011). Performance of technology transfer offices in Germany. Journal of Technology Transfer, 38(3), 1–17.Google Scholar
  116. Jankowski, J. (1999). Trends in academic research spending, alliances, and commercialization. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 44(1), 55–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jones-Evans, D. (1998) Universities, technology transfer and spin-off activities: Academic entrepreneurship in different european regions. Targeted Socio-Economic Research Project No. 1042. Final Report. University of Glamorgan Business School and European Commission. [Online] Available from: <http://www.ingenio.upv.es/sites/default/files/working-paper/the_entrepreneurial_motivation_in_academia__a_multidimensional_construct.pdf > [Accessed on 30 May 2014].
  118. Katz, J. S. (2000). Scale-independent indicators and research evaluation. Science and Public Policy.Google Scholar
  119. Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2011). The worldwide governance indicators: Methodology and analytical issues. Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 3(2), 220–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kaufmann, A., & Tödtling, F. (2001). Science-Industry Interaction in the process of innovation: The importance of boundary-crossing between systems. Research Policy, 30(5), 791–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide, [Online] Available from: http://www.epa.gov/evaluate/pdf/eval-guides/logic-model-development-guide.pdf. Accessed on 22 August 2013.
  122. Kirchhoff, B. A., Armington, C., Hasan, I., Newbert. S. (2002). The influence of R&D expenditures on new firm formation and economic growth. Washington, DC: National Commission on Entrepreneurship.Google Scholar
  123. Kitagawa, F., & Lightowler, C. (2013). Knowledge exchange: A comparison of policies, strategies, and funding incentives in English and Scottish higher education. Research Evaluation, 22, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kliewe, T., Davey, T., & Baaken, T. (2013). Creating a sustainable innovation environment within large enterprises: A case study on a professional services firm. Journal of Innovation Management, 1(1), 55–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Klofsten, M., & Jones-Evans, D. (2000). Comparing Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe - The Case of Sweden and Ireland. Small Business Economics, 14, 299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Knouse, S. B., Tanner, J. T., & Harris, E. W. (1999). The relation of college internships, college performance, and subsequent job opportunity. Journal of Employment Counseling, 36(1), 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Koch, T. (2011) Drivers and challenges in university-industry collaborative research. EUIMA Workshop. Cambridge, United Kingdom, December 5–6.Google Scholar
  128. Kock, N., Auspitz, C., & King, B. (2000). Using the web to enable industry-university collaboration: An action research study of a course partnership. Informing Science (Special Series on Organisational Learning), 3(3), 157–166.Google Scholar
  129. Kolmosa, A., Kofoed, L. B., & Du, X. Y. (2008). PhD students’ work conditions and study environment in university- and industry-based PhD programmes. European Journal of Engineering Education, 33(5–6), 539–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Korff, N., van der Sijde, P., Groenewegen, P., & Davey, T. (2014). Supporting university-industry linkages: A case study of the relationship between the organisational and individual levels. Industry and Higher Education, 28(4), 281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Krimsky, S. (2003) Science in the private interest: Has the lure of profits corrupted the virtue of biomedical research. Lanham, Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  132. Lamichhane, S., & Nath Sharma, T. (2010). University–industry relations: A thrust for transformation of knowledge and economic acceleration. Journal of Education and Research, 2, 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Landry, R., Amara, N., & Ouimet, M. (2007). Determinants of knowledge transfer: Evidence from Canadian university researchers in natural sciences and engineering. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 32(6), 561–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Landry, R., Amara, N., & Rherrad, I. (2006). Why are some university researchers more likely to create spin-offs than others? Evidence from Canadian universities. Research Policy, 35, 1599–1615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lee, Y. S. (1996). ‘Technology transfer’and the research university: A search for the boundaries of university-industry collaboration. Research Policy, 25(6), 843–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lee, Y. S. (2000). The sustainability of university-industry research collaboration: An empirical assessment. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 25, 111–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lee, K. J. (2011). From interpersonal networks to inter-organizational alliances for university–industry collaborations in Japan: The case of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. R&D Management, 41(2), 190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lee, S., & Bozeman, B. (2005). The impact of research collaboration on scientific productivity. Social Studies of Science, 35(5), 673–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Leydesdorff, L., & Etzkowitz, H. (1996). Emergence of a triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Science and Public Policy, 23, 279–286.Google Scholar
  140. Lindblom, C. E. (1994). Modes of inquiry. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 4(3), 327–341.Google Scholar
  141. Link, A. N., & Scott, J. T. (2012). The exploitation of publicly funded technology. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37, 375–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Link, A. N., Siegel, D. S., & Bozeman, B. (2007). An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16, 641–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Liyanage, C., Elhag, T., Ballal, T., & Li, Q. (2009). Knowledge communication and translation: A knowledge transfer model. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13, 118–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Lockett, A., & Wright, M. (2005). Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies. Research Policy, 34, 1043–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Lowe, J. (2007). Commercialization of university research: A policy perspective. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 5(1), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Lubango, L. M., & Pouris, A. (2007). Industry work experience and inventive capacity of South African academic researchers. Technovation, 27(12), 788–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Lundvall, B.-Å. (1992). National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  148. Magro, E., Navarro, M., & Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, J. M. (2014). Coordination Mix: The Hidden Face of STI Policy. Review of Policy Research, 31(5), 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mansfield, E., & Lee, J. (1996). The modern university: Contributor to industrial innovation and recipient of industrial R&D support. Research Policy, 25, 1047–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Markman, G. D., Gianiodis, P. T., Phan, P. H., & Balkin, D. B. (2004). Entrepreneurship from the ivory tower: Do incentive systems matter? The Journal of Technology Transfer, 29(3–4), 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Markman, G. D., Phan, P. H., Balkin, D. B., & Gianiodis, P. T. (2005). Entrepreneurship and university-based technology transfer. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(2), 241–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mazzarol, T. (2007). Different strokes for different folks: Stimulating entrepreneurship in regional communities. In L.-P. Dana & R. B. Anderson (Eds.), International handbook of research on indigenous entrepreneurship (pp. 494–507). Cheltenham: Northampton.Google Scholar
  153. McNichols, D. (2010). Optimal knowledge transfer methods: A generation X perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(1), 24–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Medeiros, L., Nicholson, B., Chipman, H., Cox, R., Jones, L., & Little, D. (2005). A logic model framework for community nutrition education, Society For Nutrition Education. Journal Of Nutrition Education And Behaviour, 37(4), 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Melin, G. (2000). Pragmatism and self-organization: Research collaboration on the individual level. Research Policy, 29(1), 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Meyer-Krahmer, F., & Schmoch, U. (1998). Science-based technologies: University-industry interactions in four fields. Research Policy, 27(8), 835–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mitton, C., Adair, C. E., McKenzie, E., Patten, S. B., & Waye Perry, B. (2007). Knowledge transfer and exchange: Review and synthesis of the literature. The Milbank Quarterly, 85(4), 729–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Mora-Valentin, E. M. (2002). A Theoretical review of co-operative relationships between firms and universities. Science and Public Policy, 29(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Mora-Valentín, E., Montoro-Sánchez, Á., & Guerras-Martín, L. (2004). Determining factors in the success of R&D cooperative agreements between firms and research organizations. Research Policy, 33, 17–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Morgan, R., & Strickland, D. (2001). U.S. University research contributions to industry. Science and Public Policy, 28(2), 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Mowery, D. C., & Sampat, B. N. (2001). Patenting and licensing university inventions: Lessons from the History of Research Corporation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(2), 317–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Mowery, D. C., & Shane, S. (2002). Introduction to the special issue on university entrepreneurship and technology transfer. Management Science, 48(1), 5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Murray, F., & Graham, L. (2007). Buying science and selling science: gender differences in the market for commercial science. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4), 657–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Muscio, A. (2010). What drives the university use of technology transfer offices? Evidence from Italy. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(2), 181–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Neill, N. T., & Mulholland, G. E. (2003). Student placement: Structure, skills and e-support. Education + Training, 45(2), 89–99.Google Scholar
  166. Nelson, R. R. (1993). National innovation systems: A comparative analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  167. Nilsson, A. S., Rickne, A., & Bengtsson, L. (2010). Transfer of academic research: Uncovering the grey zone. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(6), 617–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  169. O’Shea, R. P., Chugh, H., & Allen, T. J. (2008). Determinants and consequences of university spin-off activity: A conceptual frame- work. Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(7), 653–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. OECD. (2002). Benchmarking industry-science relationships. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. OECD. (2007). Higher education and regions: Globally competitive, locally engaged. Paris: OECD Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. OECD. (2012). Better skills, better jobs, better lives: A strategic approach to skills policies. Paris: OECD Publishing. doi:  10.1787/9789264177338-en.
  173. OECD. (2014). OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.Google Scholar
  174. Pate, J., Martin, G., Beaumont, P., & McGoldrick, J. (2000). Company-based lifelong learning: What’s the pay-off for employers? Journal of European Industrial Training 24(2/3/4), 149–157.Google Scholar
  175. Perkmann, M., Neely, A., & Walsh, K. (2011). How should firms evaluate success in university–industry alliances? A performance measurement system. R&D Management, 41(2), 202–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Perkmann, M., & Salter, A. (2012). How to create productive partnerships with universities. MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4): 79–88. (Bitte prüfen!! So in deiner Dissertation und im Internet gefunden. Im Text ist aber nur Perkmann angegeben auf S. 19)Google Scholar
  177. Perkmann, M., Tartari, V., Mckelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., Este, P. D., et al. (2013). Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university-industry relations. Research Policy, 42(2), 423–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Perkmann, M., & Walsh, K. (2007). University-industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 9(4), 259–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Pertuze, J., Calder, E., Greitzer, E., & Lucas, W. (2010). Best practices for industry-university research collaborations. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(4), 83–90.Google Scholar
  180. Phan, P. H., & Siegel, D. S. (2006). The effectiveness of university technology transfer: Lessons learned from quantitative and qualitative research in the US and the UK. New York: Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Piderit, S. K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: A multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 783–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Piva, E., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2013). Systems of indicators to evaluate the performance of university-industry alliances: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Measuring Business Excellence, 17(3), 40–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Plewa, C. (2005). Key drivers of University-industry relationships and the impact of organisational culture differences. School of Commerce, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia).Google Scholar
  184. Plewa, C. (2009). Exploring organisational culture difference in relationship dyads. Australasian Marketing Journal, 17, 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Plewa, C., Galán-Muros, V., & Davey, T. (2015). Engaging business in curriculum design and delivery: A higher education institution perspective. Journal of Higher Education, 70(1), 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Plewa, C., Korff, N., Johnson, C., MacPherson, G., Baaken, T., & Rampersad, G. (2013). The evolution of university–industry linkages: A framework. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 30, 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Plewa, C., & Quester, P. (2007). Key drivers of university-industry relationships: The role of organisational compatibility and personal experience. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(5), 370–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Plewa, C., Quester, P., & Baaken, T. (2005). Relationship marketing and university-industry linkages: A conceptual framework. Marketing Theory, 5, 431–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Plewa, C., Quester, P. G., & Baaken, T. (2006) Organisational culture differences and market orientation: An exploratory study of barriers to university-industry relationships. International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, 5(5), 373–389 (Bitte prüfen!! Mehrere Plewa 2006 in Dissertation)Google Scholar
  190. Polt, W., Rammer, C., Gassler, H., & Schartinger, D. (2001). Benchmarking industry-science relations in Europe: The role of framework conditions. Science and Public Policy, 28(4), 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Ponomariov, B. L. (2008). Effects of university characteristics on scientists’ interactions with the private sector: An exploratory assessment. Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(5), 485–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Ponomariov, B., & Boardman, P. C. (2008). The effect of informal industry contacts on the time university scientists allocate to collaborative research with industry. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33, 301–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Rasmussen, E., Moen, Ø., & Guldbransen, M. (2006). Initiatives to promote commercialisation of university knowledge. Technovation, 26, 518–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Razvan, Z., & Dainora, Z. (2009). Challenges and opportunities faced by entrepreneurial university. Some lessons from Romania and Lithuania. Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 18(4), 874–876.Google Scholar
  195. Renault, C. S. (2006). Academic capitalism and university incentives for faculty entrepreneurship. Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Reynolds, P., Bygrave, W., Autio, E., Cox, L., & Hay, M. (2002). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2002 executive report. Babson College, London Business School, Ewing Marion Kauffmann Foundation.Google Scholar
  197. Rhodes, J., Hung, R., Lok, P., Ya-Hui Lien, B., & Wu, C. M. (2008). Factors influencing organizational knowledge transfer: Implication for corporate performance. Journal of knowledge management, 12(3), 84–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rogers, E. M. (2002). The nature of technology transfer. Science Communication, 23(3), 323–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rossi, F., & Rosli, A. (2013). Indicators of university-industry knowledge transfer performance and their implications for universities: Evidence from the UK’s HE-BCI survey.Google Scholar
  200. Salter, A. J., & Martin, B. R. (2001). The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: A critical review. Research Policy, 30, 509–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Sam, C., & Van der Sijde, P. (2014). Understanding the concept of the entrepreneurial university from the perspective of higher education models. Higher Education, 68, 891–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Sampat, B. N., Mowery, D. C., & Ziedonis, A. A. (2003). Changes in university patent quality after the Bayh-Dole act: A re-examination. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 21(9), 1371–1390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Schartinger, D., Rammer, C., Fischer, M. M., & Fröhlich, J. (2002). Knowledge interactions between universities and industry in Austria: Sectoral patterns and determinants. Research Policy, 31, 303–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Science Business Innovation Board. (2012). Making industry-university partnerships work. Lessons from successful innovations. [Online] Available from: http://www.sciencebusiness.net/Assets/94fe6d15-5432-4cf9-a656-633248e63541.pdf. Accessed 25 Aug 2013.
  205. Sequeira, K., & Martin, B. (1997). The links between university physics and industry.Google Scholar
  206. Shahabudin, S. (2006). University-industry collaboration in curriculum development. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Google Scholar
  207. Shane, S. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Siegel, D. S., & Phan, P. H. (2005). Analyzing the effectiveness of university technology transfer: Implications for entrepreneurship education. In G. D. Libecap (Ed.), University entrepreneurship and technology transfer (Advances in the Study of entrepreneurship, innovation & economic growth, Volume 16) (pp. 1–38). New York: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  209. Siegel, D. S., Waldman, D. A., Atwater, L. E., & Link, A. N. (2003a). Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: Qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 21, 115–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Siegel, D. S., Waldman, D., & Link, A. (2003b). Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: An exploratory study. Research Policy, 32(1), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Siegel, D. S., Wright, M., & Lockett, A. (2007). The rise of entrepreneurial activity at universities: Organizational and societal implications. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4), 489–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Siegfried, J., Sanderson, A., & McHenry, P. (2007). The economic impact of colleges and universities. Economics of Education Review, 26, 546–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Siguaw, J. A., Bakes, T. L., & Simpson, M. (2003). Preliminary evidence on the composition of relational exchange and its outcomes: The distributor perspective. Journal of Business Research, 56, 311–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Slaughter, S., Campbell, T., Folleman, M. H., & Morgan, E. (2002). The ‘traffic’ in graduate students: Graduate students as tokens of exchange between academe and industry. Science, Technology and Human Values, 27(2), 282–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Slaughter, S., & Leslie, L. (1997). Academic capitalism: Politics, policies, and the entrepreneurial university. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  216. Social Innovation Europe. (2012). Systemic innovation. Brussels: Social Innovation Europe.Google Scholar
  217. Ssebuwufu, J., Ludwick, T., & Béland, M. (2012). Strengthening University-industry linkages in Africa: A study on institutional capacities and gaps, Canadian International Development Agency Publication.Google Scholar
  218. Stackhouse, J., Sultan, J., & Kirkland, J. (2001) ‘Research management in African Universities: Report of a benchmarking seminar’, in ACU Research Management Programme, Discussion Paper No. 1, Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  219. Steenhuis, H., & de Bruijn, E. J. (2002). Technology transfer and learning. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 14(1), 57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Stephan, P. E. (2001). Educational implications of university-industry technology transfer. Journal of Technology Transfer, 26, 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Stewart, G., & Rosemann, M. (2001). Industry-oriented design of ERP-related curriculum: An Australian initiative. Business Process Management Journal, 7(3), 234–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Strunz, K., Yokoyama, A., & Palma Behnke, R. (2003). Collaboration Is Key Internationally. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 1(4), 50–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Tamilina, L. (2012). LLLight project definitions of lifelong learning categories, LLLIGHT Project Position Paper No. 2012-1. http://www.lllightineurope.com/fileadmin/lllightineurope/download/background/wp7_LLLcategories_position_paper_120322_lt.pdf > [03 April 2015].
  224. Tartari, V., & Breschi, S. (2011). Set them free: Scientists’ evaluations of benefits and costs of university-industry research collaboration. Industrial and Corporate Change, 21(5), 1117–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tartari, V., Perkmann, M., & Salter, A. (2012). In good company: The influence of peers on industry engagement by academic scientists. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–44.Google Scholar
  226. Teixeira, A., & Mota, L. (2012). A bibliometric portrait of the evolution, scientific roots and influence of the literature on university–industry links. Scientometrics, 93, 719–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Thursby, J. G., & Thursby, M. C. (2003). University licensing and the Bayh-Dole Act. Science, 301(5636), 1052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Tornatzky, L. G., Waugaman, P. G., Gray, D. O., Council, S. T., & Board, S. G. P. (2002). Innovation U.: New university roles in a knowledge economy. Technology, pp 1–180.Google Scholar
  229. Tresserras, J., MacGregor, S., & Espinach, X. (2005). SME collaboration as a driver of design research and education development. In: Proceedings of the engineering and product design education conference, 15-16 September 2005, Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.Google Scholar
  230. UNESCO Institute for Education (2002), Intergrating lifelong learning perspectives, own publication, ISBN 92-820-1115-1. http://www.unesco.org/education/uie/pdf/uiestud36.pdf [03 April 2015].
  231. Van der Sijde, P. C. (2012). Profiting from knowledge circulation: The gains from university-industry interaction. Industry and Higher Education, 26(1), 15–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Van Dierdonck, R., Debackere, K., & Engelen, B. (1990). University-industry relationships: How does the Belgian academic community feel about it? Research Policy, 19, 551–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Van Geenhuizen, M. (2010) Valorisation of knowledge: Preliminary results on valorisation paths and obstacles in bringing university knowledge to market. In Proceedings of the eighteenth annual high technology small firms conference, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands, May 27–28.Google Scholar
  234. Van Looy, B., Debackere, K., Callaert, J., Tijssen, R., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2006). Scientific capabilities and technological performance of National Innovation Systems: An exploration of emerging industrial relevant research domains. Scientometrics, 66(2), 295–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Van Looy, B., Ranga, M., Callaert, J., Debackere, K., & Zimmermann, E. (2004). Combining entrepreneurial and scientific performance in academia: Towards a compounded and reciprocal Matthew-effect? Research Policy, 33, 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Van Rijnsoever, F. J., & Hessels, L. K. (2011). Factors associated with disciplinary and interdisciplinary research collaboration. Research Policy, 40(3), 463–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Van Rijnsover, F. J., Hessels, L. K., & Vandeberg, R. (2008). A resource-based view on the interactions of university researchers. Research Policy, 37(8), 1255–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. W. K. Kellogg Foundation. (2004). Logic model development guide. Michigan: W.K. Kellogg Foundation.Google Scholar
  239. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., & Newcomer, K. E. (2010). Handbook of practical program evaluation (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  240. Wieczorek, A. J., & Hekkert, M. P. (2012). Systemic instruments for systemic innovation problems: A framework for policy makers and innovation scholars. Science and Public Policy, 39(1), 74–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Wilson, T. (2012). A review of business-university collaboration. London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.Google Scholar
  242. Wood, M. S. (2011). A process model of academic entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 54, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zucker, L., & Darby, M. (1996). Star scientists and institutional transformation: Patterns of invention and innovation in the formation of the biotechnology industry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93, 709–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Science-to-Business Marketing Research CentreMuenster University of Applied SciencesMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Munich Business SchoolMunichGermany
  3. 3.Organisation Sciences DepartmentVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations