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Table 1 Overview on open science initiatives with respect to the four perspectives of open science

From: Opening science: towards an agenda of open science in academia and industry

Initiative Description Perspective of open science
Philantropic Reflationary Constructivistic Exploitative
Acadmica.edu Online platform for academics to share and follow X X X  
Alexandria (UniSG) Publishing platform and directory for publications of the University of St. Gallen, open access X    
Altmetrics Article level alternative metrics that are based on social media, newspapers, government policy documents and other sources    X X
arXiv Open access platform that allows free research on e-print articles in sciences X X   
Atlas Twiki Portal Open access platform that publishes the results of the CERN lab X X   
Banyan Platform for researchers to collaborate, share, and publish their work   X X  
BioMed central Publisher of 252 open access, online, peer-reviewed journals X X   
CERN Lab of high energy physicians that makes scientific results available early in the knowledge creation process   X X  
CiteULike Literature maintenance and article research or review tool   X X  
Citizen Cyberscience Centre Platform for citizen science projects X    
CleanTechNRW Cluster to promote clean technologies and foster exchange between academia and business application    X X
CoLab open source science Open access platform for research projects which enables global and interdisciplinary collaborations   X   
Colwiz Suite of tools for collaborative reseach like citation management or management of research groups X   X  
CreativeCommons (CC) CreativeCommons enables the sharing and use of creativity and knowledge through free legal tools X    
DataCite DataCite consists of different services to find, access and reuse data X   X  
DiagnosticSpeak Forum for infectious disease investigators to discuss up-to-date issues   X   
Directory of open access journals Platform that provides an overview on all open access scientific and scholarly journals X    
Eco World Styra Open cluster of over 200 green tech companies and research centers    X X
European Case Clearing House Publishes and distributes case studies from many business schools; holds workshops on case teaching and writing X    X
F1000Research Fully Open Access publishing program across biology and medicine X    
Figshare Database for academic data sharing where all file formats can be published X   X  
Fidus Writer An online collaborative editor especially made for academics    X  
Finnish Cleantech Cluster Formation of four Finnish science and business centers to one clean technology cluster    X X
Fold it Functions as a computer game enabling the user to contribute to scientific research X   X  
Frontiers Online platform for the scientific community to publish open-access articles and network with colleagues X   X  
Fund Science Fund Science is an ecosystem for scientists and the public for collaboration on shaping future research project X   X  
Galaxy Zoo Cataloguing millions of astronomical images taken by people all over the world X   X  
HAL—Hyper Articles en ligne A multi-disciplinary open access archive of scientific research papers from private or public teaching and research institutions X    
Human Genome Project Global research project to decode human DNA   X X X
iAMscientist A global community of researchers to accelerate research, support career development and helps to find crowd funding in science X   X  
ImpactStory A website for researchers that makes it quick and easy to view the impact of a wide range of research output    X X
iversity iversity has the goal to move beyond the existing teaching formats to enable wholly new forms of online teaching and learning X    
JISC Open Citations It aims to make bibliographic citation links as easy to use as Web links    X  
JournalTOCs For searching the tables of contents of over 14,000 online journal and other publication services X    
LIBRE—LIBerate REsearch together A free, multidisciplinary research platform that enables an innovative peer review process arranged and handled by authors themselves   X X  
Marblar A creative playground that takes over-looked technology and unleashes a crowd of multi-disciplined people to discover new applications     X
Mendeley Partially free reference management software; groups and newsfeeds enable collaboration and exchange X X   
Method Space Online platform of SAGE publishing on research methodology; groups, blogs, Q&A, and free access to selected journals allow ef ficient exchange   X X  
microryza microryza gathers innovative research projects that need (crowd)funding X    
myExperiment Internet platform for finding, using and executing scientific workflows X X X  
myGrid Offers a range of highly elaborated tools for scientists to build groups and manage workflows X   X  
MyScienceWork Connects scientists from multidisciplinary origins to support the dissemination of scientific knowledge    X  
Nature Network Virtual workplace that provides researchers with apps and facilitates collaboration and information sharing through forums and blogs   X   
New England Green Energy Council Initiative is to accelerate New England’s clean energy economy to global leadership; Council represents over 400 members    X X
Open Knowledge Foundation An open community that promotes the creation and use of open knowledge and provides projects from various disciplines X    
OpenScience Project Initiative that provides free open source scientific software X    
OpenWetWare Wiki platform for biology and biological engineering that enables open exchange, sharing of information and know-how X X   
Open Science Data Cloud Cloud services for the scientific community that enhance the analyzing, managing, and sharing of data X X   
Open Science Framework A platform that fosters open discussions and conducts research about scientific practice X    
Open SNP Allows customers of direct-to-customer genetic tests to publish their test results X    
Open Source Science Project Platform where academic researchers from around the world collaborate to propose and conduct basic research projects   X X  
Open Tree of Life Aims to produce and publish the first online tree of all 1.8 million named species X    
Opening Science Platform that informs on initiatives in the realm of open science and hosts an editabel book on the topic X X   
PeerEvaluation Platform for peer reviewing of scholarly communications that enables users to make works visible to scholarly search engines X    
Personal Genome Project Repository of participants’ data who volunteered to publicly share their DNA sequence and other personal information X X X  
PKP Public Knowledge Project Open source software for journal and conference management and publishing X    
PLoS—Public Library of Science Nonprofit publishing venture that provides scientists with high-profile journals in which to publish their work X   X  
ReadCube Tool that helps to organize and find scientific papers quickly X    
ResearcherID Unique identifier to enable researchers to manage publication lists, track citation counts, identify potential collaborators and avoid author misidentification   X   
ResearchGate A social network that is dedicated to science and research X X X  
RxPG Professional network of medical doctors and students; forums enable discussions and peer-guidance X   X  
Science 3.0 Community for sharing ideas, tools and building connections   X   
ScienceGist Simplified summaries of scientific papers     
Sci-mate Platforms allows fast publication of ideas and knowledge X X   
Scitable Open online teaching/learning portal combining educational articles authored with technology-based community features X    
SciStarter Encourages people to learn about, participate in, and contribute to science through informal and formal research efforts X    
SciVal Makes data about performance, planning and funding more visible and accessible X   X  
SHERPA/RoMEO A searchable database of publisher’s policies regarding the self-archiving of journal articles on the web and in repositories X X   
Siemens—Technical Papers Online website that makes Siemens publications (e.g. conference papers) freely available X X   
Social Science Research Network (SSRN) Scientific network devoted to the dissemination of social science research; it hosts working paper series X X   
Versita Open Open acess platform, hosting full texts of nearly 200 scholarly journals that belong to many societies, universities and research institutes X    
VIVO It aims to enable the discovery of research and scholarship across disciplines    X  
Ways—World Association of Young Scientists Initiated by the UNESCO; social network designed for researchers to promote their work, seek help, share information, job opportunities   X   
Zotero Open source management software; groups allow exchange of literature X X