ARPA-E offers a new innovation institutional model to meet energy technology challenges. Because it is explicitly based on DARPA, this article reviews the noted DARPA approach in detail. Briefly citing well-known features of DARPA, it explores a number of important features that have not been well discussed in the policy literature on DARPA. These include DARPA’s ability to undertake multigenerational technology thrusts, the synergies it has been able to create through complementary strategic technologies, its ability to build an advocate community, and connections it has built to larger innovation elements downstream from DARPA. It has also taken on incumbent technologies within both DOD and in the private sector, used ties to DOD leadership to press its advances, and supported initial market creation. The article then reviews the new ARPA-E model in detail, commenting first on how ARPA-E has adopted key DARPA approaches. It then discusses new features ARPA-E is adopting, driven by the unique demands of the complex, established energy sector. These include new ways: (1) to sharpen the research visioning, selection and support processes, (2) to build a community of support, important to its political survival, and (3) to implement technologies it supports. In addition, the further DARPA features enumerated above provide potentially useful future guideposts to ARPA-E. The paper closes with a discussion of the difficult technology implementation problems on the “back end” of the innovation system—including demonstrations, test beds, and initial markets. The article posits that both agencies must further address these implementation issues by fostering additional downstream partnerships, including between government and private sector.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
ARPA-E was first proposed in National Academies (2007, 152–157).
ARPA-E received $400m in initial funding from the 2009 stimulus legislation (ARRA 2009) for FY’s 2009 and 2010; it did not therefore seek additional funding in FY2010, The Administration’s budget sought $550m for ARPA-E in FY2011; Congress funded it at $180m for FY 2011 (Continuing Resolution FY 2011).
Attempts have been made in recent years in the federal government to create DARPA “clones,” particularly HS-ARPA for the Department of Homeland Security, I-ARPA for the intelligence community and BARDA within the Department of Health and Human Services for biothreats and health emergencies. While there are questions whether these attempts successfully emulated DARPA, this paper does not specifically explore these organizations. HS-ARPA was never fully implemented; a number of the reasons, and implications for ARPA-E, are discussed in Bonvillian (2007a).
Discussion by Kaigham Gabriel, DARPA Deputy Director, at forum on Leveraging DOD’s Energy Innovation Capacity, at the Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, DC, May 25, 2011.
Waldrop (2001) provides detailed illumination of Licklider’s role in fostering the revolution in information technology which has been duly recognized as one of DARPA’s most remarkable and compelling accomplishments. He also describes how Licklider’s IPTO successors sustained it.
Licklider’s IPTO Office initiatives in computing gathered momentum when Kennedy and McNamara concluded they had a major “command and control” problem from their experience in the Cuban missile crisis; expanding Licklider’s program was the DARPA response (Waldrop 2001, 200–203).
For DEFENDER transition to the Army, see Van Atta et al. (1991b, 1–17, 1–26). Interesting as a contrast, DARPA’s initial assignment for detecting Soviet nuclear tests, the VELA program, remained within DARPA for many years, and the operation of the Large Aperture Seismic Arrays remained under DARPA for decades, as no appropriate agency could be identified to take on the responsibility (Reed et al. 1990, I-13–14).
See Van Atta et al. (1991b), Chapter XVII, “VLSI: Enabling Technologies for Advanced Computing,” for discussion of this approach, especially Annex B to this chapter on the SUN Workstation.
Communication from Arati Prabhakar, former DARPA PM and Office Director, and later Director of NIST, May 27, 2011.
Interview with Vinod Khosla (Van Atta et al. 1991b, 17-B-11).
See Gupta (2000, 1–11) for discussion of the technology innovation orientation of west coast VCs.
See discussion of this term in Bonvillian (2009a, 206–210).
See discussion of this functionality concept in Weiss and Bonvillian (2009, 185–190).
Some observers counter that DARPA’s productivity generally has remained high, despite such concerns. See Fuchs (2011).
The following discussion on ARPA-E derives from ongoing discussions since ARPA-E’s initial formation between author Bonvillian and ARPA-E’s director, its deputy director for operations, and one of its program managers; author Van Atta had similar discussions with ARPA-E officials during this period. Both authors had an extended discussion session with four ARPA-E program managers about the ARPA-E model on April 5, 2011, which was particularly helpful in developing this paper. Both authors have long been observers of the ARPA-E formulation process; both testified before the House Science and Technology Committee on the ARPA-E authorizing legislation, HR-364 (2007), Bonvillian (2007b), Van Atta (2007). Author Bonvillian, in addition, wrote about the proposal (Bonvillian 2006) and (together with former DARPA Deputy Director Jane Alexander and former DARPA General Counsel Richard L. Dunn) reviewed ARPA-E concepts for Department of Energy Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Steven Isakowitz and his office, over several weeks in February and March 2009, as the CFO’s office led the DOE effort to form and stand up ARPA-E within DOE.
See, H.R. 364 (2007), America COMPETES Act (2007). See, also, America COMPETES Act Reauthorization 2010, Sec. 904, amending section 5012, and House Committee on Science and Technology Hearings on ARPA-E concept (March 9, 2006; April 26, 2006). The conceptual origin for ARPA-E as a DARPA model for energy stems from the National Academies’ report, Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (National Academies 2007, 152–158). For a discussion of some of the issues under consideration in the initial Congressional design of ARPA-E, see Bonvillian (2007a). For an early description of ARPA-E’s mission and role from its first director, see Majumdar (2009).
ARPA-E also has a PM who is deputy director for technology, and several additional teams: an “operations” group supervising its contracting process, including a counsel (who implements ARPA-E’s unique personnel and contracting authority despite the very different procedures of DOE’s management bureaucracy) and deputy director for operations; a commercialization team (discussed below); and a group of fellows (typically outstanding recent university PhDs, who support the PMs, discussed below). But the R&D operating core of ARPA-E is very flat: its director and its group of PMs. Regarding this term, the original enabling statute uses “Project Managers”, see, America COMPETES Act (2007), Sec. (f)(1)); the term “Program Directors” was substituted by America COMPETES Act Reauthorization (2010), Sec. 904(f)(1)(C)(i), which amended ARPA-E’s enabling statute in 2010. ARPA-E Director Majumdar decided to use the term “Program Directors” to emphasize how empowered its portfolio managers are. However, the term Program Managers is used here to parallel the term used in DARPA because the functions are similar and it is a functional title which is widely understood in the technology community.
ARPA-E Director Majumdar’s bio available at Majumdar (2011).
This approach was used in some specific programs at DARPA. One specific example was the Global Hawk HALE UAV, which had a “firm requirement” of a fly away cost of $10 million per unit. Importantly, while Global Hawk is generally viewed as having had a major impact on US military capabilities, this cost per unit was not met with the initial systems developed under DARPA and subsequently the Air Force has re-designed the Global Hawk to be a much larger and much costlier system (Van Atta et al. 2003b, 45–49). See, also, Porter et al. (2009, Vol. II, 49–50) on Global Hawk cost and schedule difficulties.
America COMPETES Act (2007), Sec. 5012(f)(2)(A), as amended by American COMPETES Act Reauthorization (2010), Sec. 904(g)(3)(2)(A)(i) (ARPA-E civil service waiver) In contrast, DARPA uses Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) authority to hire PMs promptly (hiring can be completed in a day) from academia or industry, with the employee still paid through his or her former employer at the former salary level.
For DARPA’s Other Transactions Authority (OTA), see, P.L. 101-189, 10 U.S.C. 2389 (enacted 1989); P.L. 103-160, Sec. 845. For a discussion of DARPA’s OTA authority, see, Kaminski (1996), Dunn (1995, 1996a, b, 2007). The Department of Energy received “Other Transactions Authority” in the Energy Policy Act (2005), Sec. 1007. However, it was only utilized once (GAO 2008) until the advent of ARPA-E, when ARPA-E used it three times in 2009 in making its initial grant awards. See, America COMPETES Act Reauthorization Act (2010), House Comm. Rep. 111-478, of House Committee on Science and Technology, Subtitle B (“To attract non-traditional performers and negotiate intellectual property agreements ARPA-E also uses flexible contracting mechanisms called Technology Investment Agreements authorized for the Department as ‘Other Transactions Authority’ in the Energy Policy Act of 2005.”).
For analyses of private corporation and DOD defense S&T programs illustrating how successful radical innovation programs are constructed and managed in this manner, see Van Atta et al. (2003a).
Secretary Chu also personally selected ARPA-E’s director, a Berkeley colleague and friend, who was his former deputy director at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This assured a very close connection between ARPA-E and the top agency leadership, somewhat comparable to such noteworthy technology “bridge” relationships as that between, for example, Radiation Lab founder Alfred Loomis and Secretary of War Henry Stimson, and Vannevar Bush, President Franklin Roosevelt’s World War II science czar and Harry Hopkins, Roosevelt’s chief personal aide. See Conant (2002, 178–289) on Loomis and Zachary (1999) on Bush.
Secretary Chu, as noted above, has long been an ARPA-E proponent: see Chu (2006).
As discussed in Part 2, the frontier was not entirely open; DARPA did take on the IBM mainframe model in supporting disruptive technologies to achieve personalized computing and the internet. But it also took on a set of technologies that were not of primary interest to IBM and in fact were of very low priority to it compared to its mainframe computing.
A working ruleset for optimal innovation organization cultures is set forth in, Bennis and Biederman (1997, 196–218). A number of these Bennis/Biederman “rules” are (as of 2011) painted on the walls near the DARPA Director’s office in DARPA’s building in Arlington, VA.
This perspective evolved from ARPA-E’s first award offering for $150m, issued on April 27, 2009, which was entirely open-ended, simply seeking innovative new ideas for energy technologies from academic energy researchers and firms. While the small ARPA-E staff—the organization was just being assembled—anticipated that they would receive only some 400 applications (assuming, as one ARPA-E official put it later, “Whoever heard of ARPA-E?”); instead, they received over 3,500 applications. See, Kosinski (2009, 8). Because it faced an overwhelming application volume, this forced ARPA-E to assemble a major review effort relying on scientists throughout DOE to assist (which aided in their subsequent DOE community building effort, discussed below). Because they had far too many quality applications for their limited initial award funding (they only made 37 initial awards), they developed their “white space only” approach described in the text above, which has since become a basic agency policy approach. Realizing that the energy tech sector was eager for a DARPA model in energy, and that there was already a major “tech buzz” around ARPA-E, the agency subsequently limited its award offerings to particular technology sectors, discussed above in the text in this section, to control the number of applications and make the review process manageable. However, to avoid disappointing and frustrating the initial wave of applicants, ARPA-E created its innovative energy technology “summit,” described below. Thus, two of ARPA-E’s more innovative approaches—“white space” and its now annual “summit” were lessons that came out of the near-nightmare of managing its first open-ended initial award process.
When DARPA was first stood up it had a scientific advisory board and at times some of its Office Directors have empanelled such groups.
DARPA over time has attempted to achieve internal support from other defense R&D agencies. See Bonvillian (2009a, 220).
America COMPETES Act (2007), Sec. 904(e)(3) authorizes ARPA-E to fund “consortia…, which may include federally-funded research and development centers” (FFRDC’s—including energy laboratories).
See programs for ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summits (2010, 2011).
See, for example, Cooper et al. (2002).
The concept of “market launch” is developed in Weiss and Bonvillian (2009, 14, 20, 34).
There are very few industry tech developments at a scale comparable to those of major defense systems. One recent one is the Boeing 787 Dreamliner passenger aircraft. Notably, that development has experienced major problems in cost and time to product (it is 3 years late and facing on the order of $12 billion in overruns), some of which can be attributed to problems of transitioning and implementing new technologies. See, Gates (2010). It also appears that Boeing, taking a chapter from the IT sector and its distributed global manufacturing model, hoped to become a global systems integrator to spread and reduce its aircraft development risk, since the capital costs mean each new plane launch is usually a “bet the company” experience. However, complex aero technologies have not yet proven as susceptible as IT to global production distribution. The complexity of managing a global sourcing network for the 787 has been relentlessly problematic.
See Knox (1999) for a thorough case analysis of the difficulties in the U.S. Army implementation of tactical UAVs.
Vernon Ruttan has raised the concern that with the post-Cold War decline in impetus in defense innovation, the U.S. innovation system may not now be strong enough to launch new breakthrough technologies in either the public or the private sector (Ruttan 2006b).
IHS Global Insight (2011) states that in 2010, China accounted for 19.8% of world manufacturing output (in current dollars), a fraction ahead of the United States’ 19.4%; China’s manufacturing sector grew 18% in 2010 and the U.S. at 12%; over 2008–2010 China’s manufacturing sector grew at a pace of 20.2 percent per year, while the United States grew at 1.8 percent and Japan, the third largest, at 4.25 percent. See also, Baily (2011) and Norris (2011).
DOD’s Office of Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy is playing a lead role in this area. Dept. of Defense Office of Manufacturing (2011).
“DOE has had a significant loan guarantee program since 2005 but did not issue loans until 2009. It has a mandate to ‘facilitate the introduction of new or significantly improved energy technologies with a high probability of commercial success in the marketplace.’ Although the program is aimed at helping move technologies past the initial commercialization barrier, the mandate’s language builds in potential contradictions. It is limited to deployment-ready projects, so it excludes demonstrations, and the ‘high probability of commercial success’ clause, perhaps due to the legacy of failed 1980s synfuels projects, significantly limits the risks that the program can take with innovative technologies.” (Bonvillian 2011b).
See program list in Department of Defense (2011b) (SERDP and ESTCP Energy and Water Projects).
Alic, J. (2011). Defense Department Energy Innovation: Three cases, unpublished paper presented at forum on leveraging DOD’s energy innovation capacity, at the Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, DC, May 25, 2011.
Alic, J., Sarewitz, D., Weiss, C., & Bonvillian, W (2010) A new strategy for energy innovation. Nature, 317. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7304/full/466316a.html.
America COMPETES Act (2007). P.L. 110-69, 42 USC 16538, 110th congress, 1st sess. (as amended, and signed into law August 9, 2007), Sec. 5012.
America COMPETES Act Reauthorization (2010) P.L. 111-358, HR 5116, 111th congress, 2nd sess. (signed by President January 4, 2011), Sec. 904. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h111-5116, with accompanying report, House Comm. Rep. 111-478, House Committee on Science and Technology, Subtitle B (re: ARPA-E, Other Transactions Authority). http://www.thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/?&dbname=cp111&sid=cp111Gw25F&refer=&r_n=hr478.111&item=&sel=TOC_322191&.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). (2009). P. L. No: 111-5 (signed by President February 17, 2009).
ARPA-E. (2010). Program awards (six areas) through 2010. http://www.arpa-e.energy.gov/ProgramsProjects/Programs.aspx.
ARPA-E. (2011). Program director bios. http://www.arpa-e.energy.gov/About/Team.aspx.
ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summits. (2010, 2011). http://www.ct-si.org/events/EnergyInnovation/. http://www.ct-si.org/events/EnergyInnovation/2010/.
Baily, M. N. (2011). Adjusting to China, a challenge to the US manufacturing sector. Brookings policy brief, no. 179.
Bennis, W., & Biederman, P. W. (1997). Organizing genius, the secrets of creative collaboration. New York: Basic Books.
Bertrand, H., & Van Atta, R. (1993). Technology transfer in the private sector: Expert interviews on issues, methodologies, and problems. IDA Document D-1407. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2006). Power play. The American Interest, II(2), 39–49.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2007a). Will the search for new energy technologies require a new R&D mission agency? The ARPA-E debate. Bridges, 14. http://www.ostina.org/content/view/2297/721/.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2007b). Testimony before house science and technology committee on ARPA-E authorizing legislation, HR-364. http://www.sciencedems.house.gov/publications/hearings_markups_details.aspx?NewsID=1778.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2009a). The connected science model for innovation—The DARPA model. In 21st Century innovation systems for the US and Japan (pp. 206–237). Washington, DC: National Academies Press. http://www.books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12194&page=206.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2009b). The innovation state. The American Interest, 4(6), 69–78.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2011a). The problem of political design in federal innovation organization. In The science of science policy (Chap. 15, pp. 302–326). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bonvillian, W. B. (2011b). Time for plan B for climate. Issues in Science and Technology, 27(2), 51–58. http://www.issues.org/27.2/bonvillian.html.
Bonvillian, W. B., & Weiss, C. (2009). Taking covered wagons east, a new innovation theory for energy and other established sectors. Innovations, 4(4), 289–294. http://www.mitpressjournals.org/userimages/ContentEditor/1259694503297/Bonvillianinov.pdf.
Carleton, T. L. (2010). The value of vision in technological innovation. Dissertation, Stanford University, Palo Alto. http://www.purl.stanford.edu/mk388mb2729.
Christiansen, C. (1997). The innovator’s dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail (pp. xviii–xxiv). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Chu, S. (2006). The case for ARPA-E. Innovation, 4(3). http://www.innovation-america.org/case-arpa-e.
Conant, J. (2002). Tuxedo park. New York: Simon and Shuster.
Continuing Resolution. (FY 2011). HR 1463 (signed by President on April 14, 2011).
Cooper, R. G., Edgett, S. J., & Kleinschmidt, E. J. (2002). Optimizing the stage gate process. Research Technology Management, 45(5). http://www.stage-gate.com/downloads/working_papers/wp_14b.pdf.
DARPA. (1989). Other transactions authority (OTA), P.L. 101-189, 10 U.S.C. 2389 (enacted 1989); P.L. 103-160, Sec. 845.
DARPA (2007). Urban challenge. http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DARPA_Grand_Challenge.
DARPA (2009). Network challenge. https://www.networkchallenge.darpa.mil/Default.aspx.
Department of Defense (2011a). SERDP and ESTCP program information. http://www.serdp.org/About-SERDP-and-ESTCP.
Department of Defense (2011b). SERDP and ESTCP energy and water projects. http://www.serdp.org/Program-Areas/Energy-and-Water/(list)/1/.
Department of Defense Office of Manufacturing and Industrial Base Policy (2011). Programs summarized at: http://www.acq.osd.mil/mibp/.
Department of Energy (2011a). Six ARPA-E projects illustrate private investors excited about clean energy innovation. DOE news release, announcement by Secretary Chu, February 3, 2011. http://arpa-e.energy.gov/media/news/tabid/83/vw/1/itemid/26/six-arpa-e-projects-illustrate-private-investors-excited-about-clean-energy-innovation.aspx.
Department of Energy (2011b). Secretary Chu announces $130m for advanced research projects, April 20, 2011. http://www.arpa-e.energy.gov/media/news/tabid/83/vw/1/itemid/33/Default.aspx.
Dunn, R. L. (1995). Testimony of general counsel of DARPA Before the committee on science, US House of Representatives on Innovations in Government Contracting Using the Authority to Enter into ‘Other Transactions’ with Industry, November 8, 1995.
Dunn, R. L. (1996a). DARPA turns to other transactions. Aerospace America.
Dunn, R. L. (1996b). DARPA general counsel memorandum of law. Scope of Section 845 Prototype Authority, October 24, 1996.
Dunn, R. L. (2007). Acquisition reform, the DARPA approach. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Burnell-34588-appe-Why-Business-Everybody-Else-Evolution-Defense-Industry-as-Entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/.
Energy Policy Act of 2005. (2005). P.L. 109-58 (signed by President August 8, 2005), Other Transactions Authority, Sec. 1007.
Finkbinder, A. (2006). The jasons. New York: Viking Books.
Fong, G. R. (2001). ARPA does windows; the defense underpinning of the PC revolution. Business and Politics, 3(3), 213–237. http://www.bepress.com/bap/vol3/iss3/art1/.
Fuchs, E. (2011). DARPA does Moore’s law: The case of DARPA and optoelectronic interconnects. In F. Bloch & W. Keller (Eds.), The state of innovation: The US government’s role in technology development (pp. 133–148). Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Gates, D. (2010). Dreamliner woes pile up. Seattle Times, December 18, 2010. http://www.seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/businesstechnology/2013713745_dreamliner19.html.
General Accounting Office (GAO). (2008). DOE implementation and use of other transactions authority, June 6, 2008. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d08798r.pdf.
Gholz, E. (2011). How military innovation works and the role of industry. Unpublished paper presented at forum on leveraging DOD’s energy innovation capacity, at the Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, DC, May 25, 2011.
Gupta, U. (Ed.) (2000). Done deals, venture capitalists tell their stories (pp. 1–11). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. http://www.amazon.com/Done-Deals-Venture-Capitalists-Stories/dp/0875849385.
Heilmeier Catechism (1975). Questions about proposed research projects. http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_H._Heilmeier.
Heilmeier, G. H. (1991). Oral history interview (by Arthur Norberg). Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. http://www.cbi.umn.edu/oh/display.phtml?id=145.
Hourihan, M., & Stepp, M. (2001). Lean mean and clean: Energy innovation and the department of defense. Washington, DC: ITIF Report. http://www.itif.org/files/2011-lean-mean-clean.pdf.
H.R. 364 (2007). Establishing the advanced research projects agency-energy, as reported by the House Committee on Science and Technology on May 23, 2007 (110th congress, 1st Sess.) (introduced in the House on Jan. 10, 2007), section-by-section summary at: http://www.sciencedems.house.gov/legislation/leg_highlights_detail.aspx?NewsID=1235.
IHS Global Insight (2011). China passes U.S. in manufacturing output, March 14, 2011, summarized at, http://manubiz.com/china-edges-ahead-of-u-s-in-manufacturing-report-says.
Jorgenson, D. (2001). U.S. economic growth in the information age. Issues in Science and Technology, 17(1). http://www.issues.org/18.1/jorgenson.html.
Kaminski, P. G. (1996). Secretary of defense memorandum of December 14, 1996, re: 10 U.S.C. 2371, Section 845, Authority to Carry Out Certain Prototype Projects (Arl., VA.: DOD).
Knox, W. D. (1999). Of gladiators and spectators: Aquila, the case for army acquisition reform. Carlisle, PA: Army War College.
Kosinski, S. (2009). Advanced research projects agency-energy (presentation), 8. http://www.diversity.energy.gov/documents/ARPA-E_-_Kosinski.pdf.
Majumdar, A. (2009). Advanced research projects agency (ARPA-E) (presentation). http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ARPA-E_Majumdar.pdf.
Majumdar, A. (2011). Bio. http://www.arpa-e.energy.gov/About/Team/DrArunMajumdar.aspx.
Marqusee, J. (2011). SERDP and ESTCP. Unpublished paper presented at forum on leveraging DOD’s energy innovation capacity, at the Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, DC, May 25, 2011.
MIT Washington Office. (2010). Survey of federal manufacturing efforts. http://www.web.mit.edu/dc/Policy/MIT%20Survey%20of%20Federal%20Manufacturing%20Efforts.pdf.
National Academies. (2007). Rising above the gathering storm (pp. 152–157). Washington, DC: National Academies Press (report first issued 2006). http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11463#toc.
National Research Council. (1999). Funding a revolution, government support for computing research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
National Research Council. (2001). Energy research at DOE: Was it worth it? Energy efficiency and fossil energy research 1978–2000. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10165#toc.
Norris, F. (2011). As US exports soar, it’s not all soybeans. New York Times, February 11. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/12/business/economy/12charts.html?_r=1&src=busl.
Piore, M. (2008). Learning on the fly: Reviving active governmental policy in an economic crisis. Paper presented at briefing on “How will a new administration and congress support innovation in a economic crisis?” sponsored by the Economic Policy Institute, ITIF, Breakthrough Institute, University of California Washington. Center and Ford Foundation, Washington, DC, December 1, 2008. http://www.thebreakthrough.org/blog/2008/12/learning_on_the_fly_reviving_a.shtml.
Pisano, G., & Shih, W. (2009). Restoring American competitiveness. Harvard Business Review, pp. 114–125.
Porter, G., et al. (2009). The major causes of cost growth in defense acquisition, P-4531 (Vol. II). Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses. http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA519884.
Reed, S., Van Atta, R., & Deitchman, S. (1990). DARPA technical accomplishments (Vol. I). Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses.
Robyn, D., & Deputy Undersecretary of Defense. (2010). Testimony before the Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee, Financial Management, Government Information and Federal Services Subcommittee on January 27, 2010. http://www.hsgac.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Hearings.Hearing&Hearing_id=c7cb1779-8aa1-4250-8dfe-18e06b579af1.
Robyn, D., & Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (2011). Testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee Readiness and Management Support Subcommittee on March 17, 2011, pp. 10–11. http://www.armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2011/03%20March/Robyn%2003-17-11.pdf.
Romer, P. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 72–102. http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~econ502/Romer.pdf.
Ruttan, V. W. (2001). Technology, growth and development: An induced innovation perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ruttan, V. W. (2006a). Is war necessary for economic growth? New York: Oxford University Press.
Ruttan, V. W. (2006b). Will government programs spur the next breakthrough? Issues in Science and Technology, 22(2). http://www.issues.org/22.2/ruttan.html.
Schein, E. (2004). DEC is dead, long live DEC—Lessons on innovation, technology and the business gene. San Francisco, CA: BK Berrett-Kohler Publishers.
Schumpeter, J. (1942). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
Solow, R. M. (2000). Growth theory, an exposition (2nd ed., pp. ix–xxvi). New York: Oxford University Press (Nobel Prize Lecture, December 8, 1987). http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1987/solow-lecture.html.
Stokes, D. E. (1997). Pasteur’s quadrant, basic science and technological innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Tassey, G. (2010). Rationales and mechanisms for revitalizing US manufacturing R&D strategies. Journal of Technology Transfer, 35(3), 283–333.
Van Atta, R. (2007). Testimony before house science and technology committee on ARPA-E authorizing legislation, HR-364. http://www.sciencedems.house.gov/publications/hearings_markups_details.aspx?NewsID=1778.
Van Atta, R. (2008). Fifty years of innovation and discovery. In DARPA, 50 years of bridging the gap. Arlington, VA: DARPA. http://www.darpa.mil/Docs/Intro_-_Van_Atta_200807180920581.pdf.
Van Atta, R., Bovey, R., et al. (2003). Science and technology in development organizations. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses.
Van Atta, R., Deitchman, S., & Reed, S. (1991a). DARPA technical accomplishments (Vol. III). Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses.
Van Atta, R., Lippitz, M., et al. (2003b). Transformation and transition, DARPA’s role in fostering a revolution in military affairs. IDA paper 3698. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses. www.webext2.darpa.mil/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=2687.
Van Atta, R., Lippitz, M., & Bovey, R. (2005). DoD technology management in a global technology environment. IDA paper P-4017. Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses.
Van Atta, R., Reed, S., & Deitchman, S. (1991b). DARPA technical accomplishments (Vol. II). Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses.
Waldrop, M. (2001). Dream machine: J.C.R. Licklider: The man who made computers personal. New York: Penguin.
Weiss, C., & Bonvillian, W. B. (2009). Structuring an energy technology revolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Weiss, C., & Bonvillian, W. B. (2011). Complex, established ‘legacy’ sectors: The technology revolutions that do not happen. Innovations, 6(2).
Zachary, G. P. (1999). Endless frontier, Vannevar bush, engineer of the American century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
About this article
Cite this article
Bonvillian, W.B., Van Atta, R. ARPA-E and DARPA: Applying the DARPA model to energy innovation. J Technol Transf 36, 469 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-011-9223-x
- Technology transfer
- Innovation system
- Energy technology
- Defense technology
- Multigenerational technology thrust
- Complex established legacy sectors (CELS)