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Table 6 Dependent variables for both modellers-1 and modellers-2, analyzed with regard to knowledge scores, difference variables, and learning success. Overall knowledge items and model-related items only were differentiated

From: Self-evaluative Scientific Modeling in an Outreach Gene Technology Laboratory

Dependent variable Knowledge
  Overall knowledge items (max. 30) Model-related knowledge items (max. 18)
  Modellers-1 Modellers-2 Modellers-1 Modellers-2
  Mdn (25th/75th P) Mdn (25th/75th P) Mdn (25th/75th P) Mdn (25th/75th P)
T0a
T1b
T2c
10.3 (8.0/13.0)
20.6 (18.0/23.0)
16.9 (13.0/20.0)
6.3 (4.0/8.0)
19.4 (16.0/22.0)
17.2 (15.0/19.0)
5.7 (4.0/8.0)
13.9 (12.0/15.0)
10.9 (9.0/13.0)
3.8 (2.0/5.0)
12.8 (11.0/15.0)
10.5 (9.0/12.0)
Difference variables
  Overall knowledge Items (max. 30)j Model-related knowledge Items (max. 18)j
Increase in knowledged
Retention ratee
9.9 (7.0/12.3)
6.9 (4.0/9.0)
13.1 (9.0/16.0)
10.4 (8.0/13.0)
7.8 (6.0/10.0)
5.4 (3.0/7.0)
9.1 (7.0/11.0)
6.6 (4.0/8.0)
Learning success
  Overall knowledge items (max. 30) Model-related knowledge items (max. 18)j
Actual learning successf 6.7 (4.2/8.6) 8.7 (5.1/11.9)h 3.4 (2.4/4.7) 3.9 (2.4/5.5)
Persistent learning successg 3.7 (1.8/5.9) 6.0 (3.7/7.9)i 1.9 (1.0/3.2) 2.3 (1.2/3.3)
  1. aMWU test overall knowledge: Z = − 7.90; p < .001; r = .552 and model-related items Z = − 5.95; p < .001; r = .439%)
  2. bMWU test overall knowledge: Z = − 2.26; p = .024; r = .185 and model-related items Z = − 2.92; p = .004; r = .224
  3. cMWU test overall knowledge: Z = − 0.271; p = .786 and model-related items Z = − 1.59; p = .111
  4. dScore: T1–T0; MWU test overall knowledge: Z = − 4.99; p < .001; r = .386 and model-related items Z = − 2.93; p = .003; r = .270
  5. eScore: T2–T0; MWU test overall knowledge: Z = − 6.41; p < .001; r = .499 and model-related items Z = − 2.82; p = .005; r = .304
  6. fActual learning success: (T1 − T0) × (T1/30) for overall knowledge and (T1 − T0) × (T1/18) for model-related knowledge items
  7. gPersistent learning success: (T2 − T0) × (T2/30) for overall knowledge and (T2 − T0) × (T2/18) for model-related knowledge items
  8. hMWU test overall knowledge items: Z = −3.36; p = .001; r = .293
  9. iMWU test overall knowledge items: Z = − 5.23; p < .001; r = .436
  10. jPercentage share of correctly answered items: increase in knowledge overall modellers-1 and modellers-2 (33%, 44%) < model-related modellers-1 and modellers-2 (43%, 51%); retention rate overall modellers-1 and modellers-2 (23%, 35%) < model-related modellers-1 and modellers-2 (30%, 37%)