Avidov-Ungar, O., & Arviv-Elyashiv, R. (2018). Teacher perceptions of empowerment and promotion during reforms. International Journal of Educational Management, 32(1), 155–170.
Bandura, A. (2010). Self-efficacy. The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology, 1–3.
Benitti, F. B. V. (2012). Exploring the educational potential of robotics in schools: a systematic review. Computers in Education, 58(3), 978–988.
Bers, M., Seddighin, S., & Sullivan, A. (2013). Ready for robotics: bringing together the T and E of STEM in early childhood teacher education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 21(3), 355–377.
Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., & Rumble, M. (2010). Draft white paper 1: defining 21st century skills. ATCS (Assessment & Teaching of 21 St Century Skills). University of Melbourne. CISCO, INTEL and MICROSOFT. Available online also at: http://cms.education.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/19B97225-84B1-4259-B423-4698E1E8171A/115804/defining21stcenturyskills.pdf [accessed in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia: April 15, 2015].
Cejka, E., Rogers, C., & Portsmore, M. (2006). Kindergarten robotics: using robotics to motivate math, science, and engineering literacy in elementary school. International Journal of Engineering Education, 22(4), 711.
Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers in Education, 59(2), 661–686.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage Publications.
Dede, C. (2010). Technological supports for acquiring 21st century skills. International encyclopedia of education, 3.
Eck, J., Hirschmugl-Gaisch, S., Kandlhofer, M., & Steinbauer, G. (2014). A cross-generational robotics project day: pre-school children, pupils and grandparents learn together. Journal of Automation Mobile Robotics and Intelligent Systems, 8.
Eguchi, A. (2014). Educational robotics for promoting 21st century skills. Journal of Automation Mobile Robotics and Intelligent Systems, 8(1), 5–11.
Eguchi, A. (2016). RoboCupJunior for promoting STEM education, 21st century skills, and technological advancement through robotics competition. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 75, 692–699.
Eguchi, A., & Uribe, L. (2017). Robotics to promote STEM learning: educational robotics unit for 4th grade science. In Integrated STEM Education Conference (ISEC), 2017 IEEE (pp. 186-194). IEEE.
Greenhill, V. (2009). P21 framework definitions document. Retrieved December, 15, 2010. Retrieved from:
Kahle, J. B., & Lakes, M. K. (1983). The myth of equality in science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20, 131–140.
Kahle, J. B., & Meece, J. (1994). Research on gender issues in the classroom. In D. L. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning (pp. 542–557). New York: MacMillian.
Kanny, M. A., Sax, L. J., & Riggers-Piehl, T. A. (2014). Investigating forty years of STEM research: how explanations for the gender gap have evolved over time. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 20(2).
McLemore, B., & Wehry, S. (2016). Robotics and programming in prekindergarten (RAPP): an innovative approach to introducing 4-and 5-year olds to robotics. In Global Learn (pp. 169-175). Association for the Advancement of computing in education (AACE).
National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: learning and teaching science in grades K-8. National Academies Press.
Nir, A., Ben-David, A., Bogler, R., Inbar, D., & Zohar, A. (2016). School autonomy and 21st century skills in the Israeli educational system: discrepancies between the declarative and operational levels. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(7), 1231–1246.
Piaget, J. (1962). Play, dreams and imitation in childhood,Etc. London.
Prensky, M. (2001). Fun, play and games: what makes games engaging. Digital game-based learning, 5(1), 5–31.
She Figures 2012 Gender in research and innovation (2013). European Commission, accessed 25 August 2014, http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/she-figures-2012_en.pdf
Solomon, J. (1997). Girls’ science education: choice, solidarity and culture. International Journal of Science Education, 19(4), 407–417.
Sullivan, A., & Bers, M. U. (2016). Robotics in the early childhood classroom: learning outcomes from an 8-week robotics curriculum in pre-kindergarten through second grade. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 26(1), 3–20.
Sullivan, A., Kazakoff, E. R., & Bers, M. U. (2013). The wheels on the bot go round and round: robotics curriculum in pre-kindergarten. Journal of Information Technology Education, 12, 203–219.
Sullivan, F. R. (2008). Robotics and science literacy: thinking skills, science process skills and systems understanding. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 45(3), 373–394.
Suomala, J., & Alajaaski, J. (2002). Pupil’s problem-solving processes in a complex computerized learning environment. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 26, 155–176.
UNESCO Institute for Statistics [internet]. Women in Science 2015. Available:
Zviel-Girshin, R., & Rosenberg, N. (2016). Montessori+ SE+ ICT= SEET: using SE to teach SE. In Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Theory-Oriented Software Engineering (pp. 1-7). ACM.