Journal of Science Education and Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 90–103 | Cite as

The Effect of Two-dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students’ Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks

Article

Abstract

We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in terms of response accuracy and task completion time. Results show that response accuracy did not differ between the two types of representations while task completion time was significantly greater with the stereoscopic representations. The completion time increased as the number of mental manipulations of 3D objects increased in the tasks. Post-interviews provide evidence that some students continued to think of stereoscopic representations as two-dimensional. Based on cognitive load and cue theories, we interpret that, in the absence of pictorial depth cues, students may need more time to be familiar with stereoscopic representations for optimal performance. In light of these results, we discuss potential uses of stereoscopic representations for science learning.

Keywords

Spatial cognition Stereoscopy 3D Visualizations Cognitive load Cue theory 

References

  1. Abraham R, Miller M, Miller J (2005) Emerging 4D graphics for math and science education. Proceedings of international conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, vol 22. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1187386. Accessed 9 November 2007
  2. Barab SA, Hay KE, Barnett M, Keating T (2000a) Virtual solar system project: building understanding through model building. J Res Sci Teach 27(7):719–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barab SA, Hay KE, Duffy TM (2000) Grounded constructions and how technology can help. CRLT Technical Report No. 12-00Google Scholar
  4. Barfield W, Rosenberg C (1995) Judgements of azimuth and elevation as a function of monoscopic and binocular depth cues using a perspective display. Hum Factors 37(1):173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bellin H (1980) Geometry structures and processing strategies in young children. In: Karplus R (ed) Proceedings of the 4th PME international conference. University of California, Berkeley, pp 279–285Google Scholar
  6. Bodner GM, Guay RB (1997) The purdue visualization of rotations test. Chem Educ 2(4):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradshaw MF, Glennerster A (2006) Stereoscopic acuity and observation distance. Spat Vis 19(1):21–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cliburn D, Krantz J (2008) Towards an effective low-cost virtual reality display system for education. J Comput Sci Coll 23(3):147–153Google Scholar
  9. Cole RE, Merritt JO, Fore S, Lester P (1990) Remote-manipulator tasks impossible without stereo TV. In: Merrit JO, Fisher JO (eds) Proceedings of SPIE volume 1256—stereoscopic displays and applications. The International Society for Optical Engineering, Santa Clara, pp 255–265Google Scholar
  10. Cook MP (2006) Visual representations in science education: the influence of prior knowledge and cognitive load theory on instructional design principles. Sci Educ 90(6):1073–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Copolo CF, Hounshell PB (1995) Using 3D models to teach molecular structures in high school chemistry. J Sci Educ Technol 4(4):295–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Creem-Regehr SH, Willemsen P, Gooch AA, Thompson WB (2005) The influence of restricted viewing conditions on egocentric distance perception: implications for real and virtual environments. Perception 34(2):191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cruz-Neira C, Sandi DJ, DeFanti TA (1993) Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE. Commun ACM 35(6):64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dede C, Salzman MC, Loftin RB, Sprague D (1999) Multisensory immersion as a modeling environment for learning complex scientific concepts. In: Roberts N, Fuerzig W (eds) Computer modeling and simulation in science engineering. Springer, New York, pp 282–319Google Scholar
  15. Dixon JK (1997) Computer use and visualization in students’ construction of reflection and rotation concepts. Sch Sci Math 97(7):352–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dori YJ, Barak M (2001) Virtual and physical molecular modeling: fostering model perception and spatial understanding. Educ Technol Soc 4(1):1Google Scholar
  17. Drascic D (1991) Skill acquisition and task performance in teleoperation using monoscopic and sterescopic video remote viewing. Proceeding of human factors society’s 35th annual meeting. Human Factors Society, San Francisco, pp 1367–1371Google Scholar
  18. Dukes P, Bruton D (2008) A Geowall with physics and astronomy applications. Phys Teach 46(3):180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ekstrom RB, French JW, Harman HH, Derman D (1976) Kit of factor-referenced cognitive tests. Educational Testing Service, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  20. Galili I, Weizman A, Cohon A (2004) The sky as a topic in science education. Sci Educ 88(4):574–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gonsalves A (2008) Intel, DreamWorks team on 3-D animation technology. http://www.informationweek.com/news/personal_tech/TV_theater/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=210102160andsubSection=Processors. Accessed 22 August 2008
  22. Gotwals RR (1995) Scientific visualization in chemistry, better living through chemistry, better chemistry through pictures: scientific visualization for secondary chemistry students. In: Thomas DA (ed) Scientific visualization in mathematics and science teaching. AACE, Charlottesville, pp 153–179Google Scholar
  23. Griffiths AK, Preston KR (1992) Grade-12 students’ misconceptions relating to fundamental characteristics of atoms and molecules. J Res Sci Teach 29(6):611–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hansen J, Barnett M, MaKinster J, Keating T (2004) The impact of three-dimensional computational modeling on student understanding of astronomical concepts: a quantitative analysis. Int J Sci Educ 26(11):1365–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holford DG, Kempa RF (1970) The effectiveness of stereoscopic viewing in the learning of spatial relationships in structural chemistry. J Res Sci Teach 7(3):265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hsu J, Pizlo Z, Babbs CF, Chelberg DM, Delp EJ (1994) Design of studies to test the effectiveness of stereo imaging truth or dare: is stereo viewing really better? In: Proceedings of SPIE, vol 2177, pp 211–220Google Scholar
  27. Hu HH, Gooch AA, Creem-Regehr SH, Thompson WB (2002) Visual cues for perceiving distances from objects to surfaces. Presence 11(6):652–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hubona GS, Wheeler PN, Shirah GW, Brandt M (1999) The relative contributions of stereo, lighting, and background scenes in promoting 3D depth visualization. ACM Trans Comput Hum Inter 6:214–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. John M, Cowen MB, Smallman HS, Oonk HM (2001) The use of 2D and 3D displays for shape-understanding versus relative-position tasks. Hum Factors 43(1):79–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kalisperis LN, Otto G, Muramoto K, Gundrum JS, Masters R, Orland B (2003) Virtual reality/space visualization in design education: the VR-desktop initiative. Proceedings of the 20th conference on education in computer aided architectural design in Europe. Warsaw, Poland, pp 64–71Google Scholar
  31. Keating T, Barnett M, Barab SA, Hay KE (2002) The virtual solar system project: developing conceptual understanding of astronomical concepts through building 3D computational models. J Sci Educ Technol 11(3):261–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Khatau C (2008) Film goes back to the future with 3D. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/09/12/future.cinema/index.html. Accessed 12 September
  33. Kim WS, Ellis SR, Tyler ME, Hannaford B, Stark LW (1987) Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three-axis manual tracking tasks. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern 17(1):61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Klatzky RL (1998) Allocentric and egocentric spatial representations: definitions, distinctions, and interconnections. In: Freksa C, Habel C, Wender KF (eds) Spatial cognition: an interdisciplinary approach to representing and processing spatial knowledge. Springer, New York, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  35. Kooi FL, Toet A (2004) Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays. Displays 25(2–3):99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kvale S, Brinkman S (2008) Interviews: learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing, 2nd edn. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Landey MS, Maloney LT, Johnston EB, Young M (1996) Measurement and modeling of depth cue combination: in defense of weak fusion. Vis Res 35(3):389–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Marr D, Nishihara HK (1978) Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of 3D shapes. Proc R Soc Lond 200:269–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mayer RE (2005) Principles for reducing extraneous processing in multimedia learning: coherence, signaling, redundancy, spatial contiguity, and temporal contiguity principles. In: Mayer RE (ed) Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 183–200Google Scholar
  40. McArthur JM, Wellner KL (1996) Reexamining spatial ability within a piagetian framework. J Res Sci Teach 33(10):1065–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Merleau-Ponty M (1962) Phenomenology of perception. Routledge and Kegal Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Messner JI, Horman MJ (2003) Using advanced visualization tools to improve construction education. In: Proceedings of CONVR 2003, conference on construction applications of virtual reality. Blacksburg, VA, pp 145–155Google Scholar
  43. Morin P (2004) State of the geowall. http://geowall.geo.lsa.umich.edu/talks/StateoftheGeoWall.ppt. Accessed 10 November 2007
  44. Nataupsky M, Crittenden L (1988) Stereo 3D and non-stereo presentations of a computer-generated pictorial primary flight display with pathway augmentation. In: Proceedings of the AIAA/IEEE 8th digital avionics system conference. IEEE, New York, pp 552–557Google Scholar
  45. Nemire K (1998) Enhancing cockpit design with an immersive virtual environment rapid prototyping and simulation system. Proc SPIE 3363:112–123Google Scholar
  46. Norris C, Sullivan T, Poirot J, Soloway E (2003) No access, no use, no impact: snapshot surveys of educational technology in K-12. J Res Technol Educ 36(1):15–28Google Scholar
  47. Ohno N, Kageyama A, Kusano K (2006) Virtual reality visualization by CAVE with VFIVE and VTK. J Plasma Phys 72(6):1069–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Okuyama F (1999) Evaluation of stereoscopic display with visual function and interview. Proc SPIE 3639:28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Paas F, Van Merriënboer JJG (1994) Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks. Educ Psychol Rev 6(4):351–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paas F, Tuovinen JE, Tabbers H, Van Gerven PWM (2003) Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory. Educ Psychol 38(1):63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Parker J, Heywood D (1998) The earth and beyond: developing primary teachers’ understanding of basic astronomical events. Int J Sci Educ 20(5):503–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Parrish RV, Busquets AM, Williams SP (1990) Recent research results in stereo 3-D pictorial displays at the Langley Research Center. In: Proceedings IEEE/AIAA/NASA 9th digital avionics systems conference, IEEE Catalog No. 90CH2929-8. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Virginia Beach, pp 529–539Google Scholar
  53. Patton MQ (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods, 2nd edn. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  54. Pepper RL, Smith DC, Cole RE (1981) Stereo TV improves operator performance under degraded visibility conditions. Opt Eng 20(4):579–585Google Scholar
  55. Pixar (2008) The Walt Disney Studios rolls out slate of 10 new animated motion pictures through 2012. http://www.pixar.com/companyinfo/press_box/news/20080408.htm. Accessed 12 September 2008
  56. Reinhart WF, Beaton RJ, Snyder HL (1990) Depth cueing for visual search and cursor positioning. Proc SPIE Stereosc Disp Appl 1256:12–21Google Scholar
  57. Roberts D (2000) Media and youth: access, exposure, and privatization. J Adolesc Health 27(2-suppl):8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Seddon GM, Eniaiyeju PA (1986) The understanding of pictorial depth cues, and the ability to visualise the rotation of 3D structures in diagrams. Res Sci Technol Educ 4(1):29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shah P, Miyake A (1996) The separability of working memory resources for spatial thinking and language processing: an individual differences approach. J Exp Psychol Gen 125(1):4–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sherman S (1996) A set of one’s own: TV sets in children’s bedrooms. J Advert Res 36:9–12Google Scholar
  61. Shubbar KE (1990) Learning the visualization of rotations in diagrams of 3D structures. Res Sci Technol Educ 8(2):145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Steinwand DR, Davis B, Weeks N (2003) Geowall: investigations into low-cost stereo display technologies (open-file report 03–198). US Department of the Interior, Sioux FallsGoogle Scholar
  63. Surdick RT, Davis ET, King RA, Hodges LF (1997) The perception of distance in simulated visual displays—a comparison of the effectiveness and accuracy of multiple depth cues across viewing distances. Presence 6:513–531Google Scholar
  64. Sweller J (1988) Cognitive load during problem solving: effects on learning. Cogn Sci 12(2):257–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tarr MJ, Pinker S (1990) When does human object recognition use a viewer-centered reference frame? Psychol Sci 1(4):253–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tieman A (2008) CES: dual-view and 3D high-definition TV. http://ces.cnet.com/8301-1_1-9844458-67.html. Accessed 20 August 2008
  67. Tory M, Kirkpatrick AE, Atkins MS, Möller T (2006) Visualization task performance with 2D, 3D and combination displays. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 12:2–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Trindade J, Fiolhais C, Almeida L (2002) Science learning in virtual environments: a descriptive study. Br J Educ Technol 33(4):471–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tuckey H, Selvaratnam M, Bradley J (1991) Identification and rectification of student difficulties concerning 3D structures, rotation, and reflection. J Chem Educ 68(6):460–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tversky B (2005) Functional significance of visuospatial thinking. In: Shah P, Miyake A (eds) Cambridge handbook of visuospatial thinking. Cambridge, New York, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  71. Wanger LR, Ferwerda JA, Greenberg DP (1992) Perceiving spatial relationships in computer-generated images. IEEE Comput Graph Appl 12(3):44–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ware C, Franck G (1996) Evaluating stereo and motion cues for visualizing information nets in three dimensions. ACM Trans Graph 15(2):121–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Warren C (2008) Stereoscopic 3D gaming history made at SIGGRAPH 2008. Press release. http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/stereoscopic-3d-gaming-history-made/story.aspx?guid={8F516E2E-3782-47BD-BAC4-DBEFCFE0BE2F}anddist=hppr. Accessed 22 August 2008
  74. Wheatstone C (1852) Contributions to the physiology of vision: part the second. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, phenomena of binocular vision. Philos Trans R Soc 142:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wickens CD, Merwin DH, Lin EL (1994) Implications of graphics enhancements for the visualization of scientific data: dimensional integrality, stereopsis, motion and mesh. Hum Factors 36(1):44–61Google Scholar
  76. Wickens CD, Vincow M, Yeh M (2005) Design applications of visual spatial thinking. In: Shah P, Miyake A (eds) Cambridge handbook of visuospatial thinking. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 383–425Google Scholar
  77. Willemsen P, Gooch AA, Thompson WB, Creem-Regehr SH (2008) Effects of stereo viewing conditions on distance perception in virtual environments. Presence 17(1):91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Williams D (2006) A brief social history of game play. In: Vorderer P, Bryant J (eds) Playing video games: motives, responses, and consequences. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 197–212Google Scholar
  79. Wu G, Cheng I (2007) An interactive 3D environment for computer based education. IEEE International conference on multimedia. Beijing, China, pp 1834–1837, July 2007Google Scholar
  80. Wu H-K, Shaw P (2004) Exploring visuospatial thinking in chemistry learning. Sci Educ 88(3):465–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yeh YY, Silverstein LD (1992) Spatial judgments with monoscopic and stereoscopic presentation of perspective displays. Hum Factors 34(5):583–600Google Scholar
  82. Zacks J, Levy E, Tversky B, Schiano DJ (1998) Reading bar graphs: effects of extraneous depth cues and graphical context. J Exp Psychol Appl 4(2):119–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education, Wright Center for Science EducationTufts UniversityMedfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of EducationTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

Personalised recommendations