Skip to main content

A Short Review of the Separation of Iridium and Rhodium from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Solvent Extraction

Abstract

Iridium and rhodium are among the platinum group metals. The properties, production processes, and aqueous chemistry of both metals are reviewed. The separation of Ir(IV) and Rh(III) from hydrochloric acid solution is dependent on the characteristics of the solvent extraction systems. In most of the extraction conditions, Ir(IV) is selectively extracted over Rh(III) by either amines or neutral extractants. Rh(I) can be selectively extracted over Ir(III) by neutral extractants after Rh(III) is reduced in the presence of a reducing agent. The separation of these two metals using cationic extractants has also been reported. Although selective extraction of one metal over the other is possible, more efficient solvent extraction systems need to be developed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. 1.

    Sun, P.P., Lee, M.S.: Separation of Ir(IV) and Rh(III) from mixed chloride solutions by solvent extraction. Hydrometallurgy 105(3–4), 334–340 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Liu, W., Huang, Z., Dong, J.: Solvent extraction of iridium(IV) with the petroleum sulfoxide. Asian J. Chem. 25(13), 7131–7134 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Taher, M.A., Puri, S., Bansal, R.K., Puri, B.K.: Derivative spectrophotometric determination of iridium after preconcentration of its 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol complex on microcrystalline naphthalene. Talanta 45(2), 411–416 (1997)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Tang, B., Han, F., Zhang, G.Y.: Kinetic-spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amounts of iridium. Talanta 56(4), 603–611 (2002)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Locatelli, C.: Catalytic-adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of ultra-trace iridium(III). Application to fresh- and sea-water. Talanta 85(1), 546–550 (2011)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Drušković, V., Vojković, V., Miko, S.: Spectrofluorimetric determination of iridium(IV) traces using 4-pyridone derivatives. Talanta 62(3), 489–495 (2004)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Hartley, F.R.: Chemistry of the Platinum Group Metals: Recent Developments, vol. 11, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Livingstone, S.E.: The chemistry of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum. In: Bailar, J., Trotman-Dickenson, A.F. (eds.) Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 25, pp. 1163–1370. Pergamon, Oxford (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Armstrong, J.C., Choppin, G.R.: Radiochemistry of Rhodium. Subcommittee on Radiochemistry, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council; available from the Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield (1965)

  10. 10.

    Emsley, J.: Nature’s Building Blocks: An AZ Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press, New York (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ojeda, C.B., Rojas, F.S.: Determination of rhodium: since the origins until today. Talanta 67(1), 1–19 (2005)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Buchanan, D.L.: Platinum-Group Element Exploration, vol. 26. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1988)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Criddle, A.J., Stanley, C.J.: Quantitative Data File for Ore Minerals, 3rd edn. Springer, London (1993)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rao, C.R.M., Reddi, G.S.: Platinum group metals (PGM); occurrence, use and recent trends in their determination. TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 19(9), 565–586 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Al-Bazi, S.J., Chow, A.: Platinum metals—solution chemistry and separation methods (ion-exchange and solvent extraction). Talanta 31(10), 815–836 (1984)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Beamish, F.E.: A critical review of methods of isolating and separating the noble metals—II. Ion-exchange and solvent extraction. Talanta 14(9), 991–1009 (1967)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Bernardis, F.L., Grant, R.A., Sherrington, D.C.: A review of methods of separation of the platinum-group metals through their chloro-complexes. React. Funct. Polym. 65(3), 205–217 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Hagelüken, C.: Recycling of spent noble metal catalysts with emphasis on pyrometallurgical processing. Oil Gas Eur. Mag. 25(3), 36–39 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cleare, M.J., Charlesworth, P., Bryson, D.J.: Solvent extraction in platinum group metal processing. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 29(4), 210–224 (1979)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Benguerel, E., Demopoulos, G.P., Harris, G.B.: Speciation and separation of rhodium(III) from chloride solutions: a critical review. Hydrometallurgy 40(1), 135–152 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ammen, C.W.: Recovery and Refining of Precious Metals, 2nd edn. Springer, Boston (1997)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gilchrist, R., Wichers, E.: A procedure for the separation of the six platinum metals from one another and for their gravimetric determination. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57(12), 2565–2573 (1935)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Schreier, G., Edtmaier, C.: Separation of Ir, Pd and Rh from secondary Pt scrap by precipitation and calcination. Hydrometallurgy 68(1–3), 69–75 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Diamantatos, A.: A new solvent extraction scheme for the separation of platinum, palladium, rhodium and iridium. Anal. Chim. Acta 67(2), 317–323 (1973)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Mhaske, A.A., Dhadke, P.M.: Extraction separation studies of Rh, Pt and Pd using Cyanex 921 in toluene—a possible application to recovery from spent catalysts. Hydrometallurgy 61(2), 143–150 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Mhaske, A., Dhadke, P.: Extraction separation studies of Os, Ru and Ir using Cyanex 921 in toluene. Hydrometallurgy 63(2), 207–214 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Afzaletdinova, N.G., Khisamutdinov, R.A., Bondareva, S.O., Murinov, Y.I.: Extraction of rhodium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions with bis-acylated triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride. Russ. J. Gen. Chem. 85(8), 1934–1938 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Afzaletdinova, N.G., Murinov, Y.I.: Extraction of rhodium(III) with sulfoxides from hydrochloric acid solutions. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 56(7), 1143–1152 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Preston, J.S., du Preez, A.C.: Solvent extraction of platinum-group metals from hydrochloric acid solutions by dialkyl sulphoxides. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 20(3), 359–374 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Chavan, D.V., Dhadke, P.M.: Extraction separation of Ir(III) and Rh(III) with Cyanex 923 from chloride media: a possible recovery from spent autocatalysts. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 77(8), 925–932 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Kokate, S.J., Kuchekar, S.R.: Reversed phase extraction chromatographic separation of ruthenium(III). J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 14(1), 41–45 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Stella, R., Di Casa, M.: Radioanalytical investigation on rhodium extraction behaviour with tri-N-butylphosphate from iodide solutions. J. Radioanal. Chem. 16(1), 183–190 (1973)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Bowen, H.J.M., Leach, A.J.: Partial separation of rhodium and iridium using polyurethane foam. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 128(2), 103–107 (1988)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Kanert, G.A., Chow, A.: The separation of rhodium and iridium by anion-exchange. Anal. Chim. Acta 78(2), 375–382 (1975)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Berg, E.W., Senn, W.L.: Ion exchange separation of rhodium and iridium. Anal. Chem. 27(8), 1255–1256 (1955)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Cluett, M.L., Berman, S.S., McBryde, W.A.E.: Separation of rhodium and iridium by ion exchange. Analyst 80(948), 204–209 (1955)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    du Preez, J.G.H., Viviers, C., Louw, T., Hosten, E., Jonck, H.: The separation of rhodium and iridium. II. Chloridation and chlorination of iridium(III) and (IV). Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 22(2), 175–188 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Berman, S., McBryde, W.: The separation of rhodium and iridium by ion exchange. Can. J. Chem. 36(5), 845–852 (1958)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Majavu, A., Ogunlaja, A.S., Tshentu, Z.R.: Separation of rhodium(III) and iridium(IV) chlorido complexes using polymer microspheres functionalized with quaternary diammonium groups. Sep. Sci. Technol. 52(1), 71–80 (2017)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Guha, P.K., Guha, R.: Principle of extraction of solute by solvent. J. Chem. Educ. 69(1), 73 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Shamsuddin, M.: Physical Chemistry of Metallurgical Processes. Wiley, Hoboken (2016)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Nguyen, T.H., Lee, M.S.: A review on the separation of molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium from leach liquors of diverse resources by solvent extraction. Geosystem Eng. 19(5), 247–259 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Cotton, F.A., Wilkinson, G.: Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: A Comprehensive Text, 4th edn. Wiley, New York (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Loon, G.V., Page, J.A.: The chemistry of iridium in basic aqueous solution: a polarographic study. Can. J. Chem. 44(4), 515–520 (1966)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Sleight, T.P., Hare, C.R.: The photochemistry of hexachloroiridate(IV). Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 4(3), 165–167 (1968)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Poulsen, I.A., Garner, C.S.: A Thermodynamic and kinetic study of hexachloro and aquopentachloro complexes of iridium(III) in aqueous solutions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84(11), 2032–2037 (1962)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Kedari, C.S., Coll, M.T., Fortuny, A., Goralska, E., Sastre, A.M.: Recovery and partitioning of Ir(IV) and Ru(III) from chloride solutions by solvent extraction using Cyanex 923/kerosene. Hydrometallurgy 82(1–2), 40–47 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Zhang, L., Li, N., Fan, P., Chu, X., An, S., Zhang, J., Wang, X.: Rapid and selective separation of iridium ions from aqueous solutions using nano-Al2O3. Hydrometallurgy 127, 8–15 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Sánchez, J.M., Salvadó, V., Havel, J.: Speciation of iridium(IV) in hydrochloric acid medium by means of capillary zone electrophoresis and spectrophotometry. J. Chromatogr. A 834(1–2), 329–340 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Fine, D.A.: Studies of the iridium(III) and (IV)–chloride system in acid solution. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 32(8), 2731–2742 (1970)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Cozzi, D., Pantani, F.: The polarographic behaviour of rhodium(III) chlorocomplexes. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 8, 385–398 (1958)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Lee, M., Lee, J., Sun, P.: Solvent extraction of rhodium(III) and iridium(IV) from hydrochloric acid solution. Korean J. Met. Mater. 48(5), 430–435 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Dreher, T.M., Demopoulos, G.P.: The conversion of Rh(m) chlorocomplexes to bromocomplexes and their solvent extraction behaviour. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 17(5), 1231–1253 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Mahmoud, M., Barakat, M., Mahrous, Y., El-Shahat, M.: Extraction of rhodium from platinum solutions in presence of aluminum chloride with tri-octylphosphine oxide in toluene. Adv. Appl. Sci. Res. 5(4), 100–106 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Ashrafizadeh, S.N., Demopoulos, G.P.: Formation of w/o microemulsions in the extraction dystem Rh(III)–HCl–Kelex 100 and its impact on Rh(III) distribution. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 173(2), 448–459 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Malik, P., Paula Paiva, A.: Solvent extraction of rhodium from chloride media by N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-diphenyltetradecylmalonamide. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 26(1), 25–40 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Palmer, D.A., Harris, G.M.: Kinetics, mechanism, and stereochemistry of the aquation and chloride anation reactions of fac- and mer-trichlorotriaquorhodium(III) complexes in acidic aqueous solution. Complete reaction scheme for complex ions of the general formula [RhCln(OH2)6–n]3−n. Inorg. Chem. 14(6), 1316–1321 (1975)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Geswindt, T.E.: Chemical speciation of RhIII complexes in acidic, halide-rich media by means of 103Rh NMR spectroscopy: the importance of speciation in the selective separation and recovery of rhodium. PhD thesis. Stellenbosch University (2013)

  59. 59.

    Nguyen, T.H., Sonu, C.H., Lee, M.S.: Separation of Ir(IV) and Rh(III) from strong hydrochloric acid solutions by solvent extraction with amines. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 36, 245–250 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Kanert, G.A., Chow, A.: Solvent extraction separation of rhodium from iridium with tri-n-octylamine as a liquid anion-exchanger. Anal. Chim. Acta 69(2), 355–361 (1974)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Kedari, S., Coll, M.T., Fortuny, A., Goralska, E., Sastre, A.M.: Liquid–liquid extraction of Ir, Ru, and Rh from chloride solutions and their separation using different commercially available solvent extraction reagents. Sep. Sci. Technol. 40(9), 1927–1946 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Goralska, E., Coll, M.T., Fortuny, A., Kedari, C.S., Sastre, A.M.: Studies on the selective separation of Ir(IV), Ru(III) and Rh(III) from chloride solutions using Alamine 336 in kerosene. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 25(1), 65–77 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Al-Bazi, S.J., Chow, A.: Extraction of rhodium and iridium with polyurethane foam. Anal. Chem. 53(7), 1073–1076 (1981)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Nguyen, T.H., Lee, M.S.: Effect of HCl concentration on the oxidation of LIX 63 and the subsequent separation of Pd(II), Pt(IV), Ir(IV) and Rh(III) by solvent extraction. Korean J. Met. Mater. 54(10), 768–774 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Busev, A.I., Akimov, V.K.: Some antipyrine derivatives in the analytical chemistry of the platinum metals. Talanta 11(12), 1675 (1964)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Mojski, M.: Extraction of platinum metals from hydrochloric acid medium with triphenylphosphine solution in 1,2-dichloroethane. Talanta 27(1), 7–10 (1980)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Diamantatos, A.: The solvent extraction of platinum-group metals and gold with 2-mercaptobenzo-thiazole. Anal. Chim. Acta 66(1), 147–151 (1973)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Diamantatos, A., Verbeek, A.A.: Method for the separation of platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium and gold by solvent extraction. Anal. Chim. Acta 91(2), 287–294 (1977)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Faye, G.H., Inman, W.R.: A scheme for the separation of platinum, palladium, rhodium, and iridium by solvent extraction. Anal. Chem. 35(8), 985–988 (1963)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Tertipis, G.G., Beamish, F.E.: Solvent extraction separation and spectrophotometric determination of rhodium and iridium. Anal. Chem. 34(6), 623–625 (1962)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Kostanski, M.T., Freiser, H.: Extraction of rhodium and iridium with 4-(non-5-yl) pyridine. Anal. Chim. Acta 242, 191–201 (1991)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Kedari, C.S., Coll, T., Fortuny, A., Sastre, A.: Third phase formation in the solvent extraction system Ir(IV)–Cyanex 923. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 23(4), 545–559 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Narita, H., Morisaku, K., Tanaka, M.: Synergistic extraction of rhodium(III) from hydrochloric acid solution with tri-n-octylamine and sulfide-type extractants. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 33(5), 462–471 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Narita, H., Morisaku, K., Tanaka, M.: Highly efficient extraction of rhodium(III) from hydrochloric acid solution with amide-containing tertiary amine compounds. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 33(4), 407–417 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Binnemans, K., Jones, P.T.: Solvometallurgy: an emerging branch of extractive metallurgy. J. Sustain. Metall. 3(3), 570–600 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Svecova, L., Papaiconomou, N., Billard, I.: Quantitative extraction of Rh(III) using ionic liquids and its simple separation from Pd(II). Dalton Trans. 45(38), 15162–15169 (2016)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Rzelewska, M., Baczyńska, M., Regel-Rosocka, M., Wiśniewski, M.: Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bromide as extractant for Rh(III), Ru(III) and Pt(IV) from chloride solutions. Chem. Pap. 70(4), 454–460 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Papaiconomou, N., Billard, I., Chainet, E.: Extraction of iridium(IV) from aqueous solutions using hydrophilic/hydrophobic ionic liquids. RSC Adv. 4(89), 48260–48266 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Ashrafizadeh, S.N., Demopoulos, G.P.: Extraction and separation of HCl and Rh(III) with trioctylamine. J. Chem. Technnol. Biotechnol. 67(4), 367–375 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Ryan, D.E.: Colorimetric microdetermination of rhodium with 2-mercaptobenzoxazole. Anal. Chem. 22(4), 599–600 (1950)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Zou, L., Chen, J., Huang, Y.: An alternative way to separating Ir(IV) and Rh(III) ions from a mixed chloride solution with added stannous chloride. Hydrometallurgy 72(1–2), 31–37 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Berg, E.W., Senn, W.L.: Separation of rhodium and iridium by multiple fractional extraction. Anal. Chim. Acta 19, 109–113 (1958)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Wilson, R.B., Jacobs, W.D.: Separation of iridium from rhodium by extraction with tributyl phosphate. Anal. Chem. 33(12), 1650–1652 (1961)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Davies, A.G., Wilkinson, G., Young, J.F.: Tin(II) chloride complexes of platinum metals. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85(11), 1692–1692 (1963)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Young, J.F., Gillard, R.D., Wilkinson, G.: 992. Complexes of ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, and platinum with tin(II) chloride. J. Chem. Soc. 5176–5189 (1964)

  86. 86.

    Afzaletdinova, N.G., Murinov, Y.I.: Iridium(IV) extraction with petroleum sulfoxides from hydrochloric acid solutions. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 55(8), 1312–1315 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Tertipis, G.G., Beamish, F.E.: The recovery of rhodium, iridium, palladium and platinum from ores and concentrates by wet assay and a comparison with recovery by fire assays. Talanta 10(11), 1139–1151 (1963)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Zou, L., Chen, J., Pan, X.: Solvent extraction of rhodium from aqueous solution of Rh(III)–Sn(II)–Cl-system by TBP. Hydrometallurgy 50(3), 193–203 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Palmer, D.A., Kelm, H.: The influence of pressure on the rates of acid hydrolysis of tris(oxalato) complexes of trivalent cobalt, chromium and rhodium. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 40(6), 1095–1098 (1978)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Benguerel, E., Demopoulos, G., Cote, G., Bauer, D., Lautié, A.: Characterization of extracted complexes in liquid–liquid extraction of rhodium with Kelex 100 in the presence of SnCl2. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 62(4), 380–384 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    du Preez, J.G.H., McClelland, C.W., Viviers, C., Louw, T., Jonck, H.: The separation of rhodium and iridium. III. Secondary reactions relating to chlorination. Solvent Extract. Ion Exch. 22(2), 189–201 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Al-Bazi, S.J., Chow, A.: Polyurethane foam for the extraction of rhodium and its separation from iridium. Talanta 31(6), 431–435 (1984)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Hamon, R.F., Khan, A.S., Chow, A.: The cation-chelation mechanism of metal-ion sorption by polyurethanes. Talanta 29(4), 313–326 (1982)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Yan, G.L., Alstad, J.: Solvent extraction of rhodium, ruthenium, and iridium with HDEHP. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 201(3), 191–198 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Nguyen, T.H., Sonu, C.H., Lee, M.S.: Separation of Pt(IV), Pd(II), Rh(III) and Ir(IV) from concentrated hydrochloric acid solutions by solvent extraction. Hydrometallurgy 164, 71–77 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Global Excellent Technology Innovation of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), and granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20165010100810). We also thank Murdoch University for collaboration opportunities.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Man Seung Lee.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Le, M.N., Lee, M.S. & Senanayake, G. A Short Review of the Separation of Iridium and Rhodium from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by Solvent Extraction. J Solution Chem 47, 1373–1394 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10953-018-0770-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Separation
  • Solvent extraction
  • Iridium
  • Rhodium
  • Aqueous chemistry