Historical seismogram reproductions for the source parameters determination of the 1902, Atushi (Kashgar) earthquake

Abstract

The majority of original seismograms recorded at the very beginning of instrumental seismology (the early 1900s) did not survive till present. However, a number of books, bulletins, and catalogs were published including the seismogram reproductions of some, particularly interesting earthquakes. In case these reproductions contain the time and amplitude scales, they can be successfully analyzed the same way as the original records. Information about the Atushi (Kashgar) earthquake, which occurred on August 22, 1902, is very limited. We could not find any original seismograms for this earthquake, but 12 seismograms from 6 seismic stations were printed as example records in different books. These data in combination with macroseismic observations and different bulletins information published for this earthquake were used to determine the source parameters of the earthquake. The earthquake epicenter was relocated at 39.87° N and 76.42° E with the hypocenter depth of about 18 km. We could further determine magnitudes m B = 7.7 ± 0.3, M S = 7.8 ± 0.4, M W = 7.7 ± 0.3 and the focal mechanism of the earthquake with strike/dip/rake − 260°± 20/30°± 10/90°± 10. This study confirms that the earthquake likely had a smaller magnitude than previously reported (M8.3). The focal mechanism indicates dominant thrust faulting, which is in a good agreement with presumably responsible Tuotegongbaizi-Aerpaleike northward dipping thrust fault kinematic, described in previous studies.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The earthquake has two different names in different literature. In Russian publications (Voznesenskiy 1904; Kondorskaya and Shebalin 1982), it is referred to as Kashgar earthquake, whereas in Chinese literature it is called Atushi earthquake (He et al. 2001; Zhao et al. 2000).

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Acknowledgments

We would like to express gratitude to all the people who helped us to collect the historical seismograms. Particularly, we are thankful to Siegfried Wendt, and Pia Buchholz from Observatory Collm, Institute of Geophysics and Geology, University of Leipzig; Marius Kriegerowski and library of the Institute of Geophysics, The university of Hamburg. Additionally, we express our very great appreciation to our colleagues from Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, RCAES, HAS, Kővesligethy Radó Seismological Observatory: Péter Varga, Erzsébet Győri, and Anna Kard who provided additional data and very valuable advice for the benefit of this work.

Also, we would like to thank BGS (British Geological Survey) for providing magnetogram records from their unique collection historical magnetograms We are especially grateful to the open online literature sources: Scientific library of the Irkutsk public University, CiNii (Scholarly and Academic Information Navigator, Japan), “Seismogram Archives of Significant Earthquakes of the World” under the supervision of William H.K. Lee; for providing the historical reports and seismogram reproductions.

This research work was a part of PROGRESS project (http://www.earth-in-progress.de/index.35.de.html) and we are grateful to the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research for the financial support of this project.

We would like to gratefully acknowledge open source software used in this work: GMT—The Generic Mapping Tools developed by Paul Wessel and Walter H. F. Smith; Seismic Handler (seismic waveform analysis tool) developed by Dr. Klaus Stammler and Dr. Marcus Walther; and GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program).

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Correspondence to Galina Kulikova.

Appendix A: Additional information on the data collection

Appendix A: Additional information on the data collection

Table 1 Instrument constants for some of analogue instruments operating in 1902
Table 2 The station list with all arrival times for all the phases which were available for the 1902 Atushi earthquake from the digitized waveforms and Omori (1907)
Table 3 The amplitudes (A m p) and the periods (T) for the surface waves recorded on three stations, read from the waveforms, reports, and books (Omori 1907; Etzold 1903; Voznesenskiy 1904)
Table 4 Scalar moment and moment magnitude determination for the 1902 Atushi earthquake
Fig. 8
figure8

Seismogram reproduction, station Leipzig (LEIH) in Germany, Wiechert instrument, from Etzold (1903)

Fig. 9
figure9

Earthquake description, station Leipzig (LEIH) in Germany, Wiechert instrument, from Etzold (1903)

Fig. 10
figure10

Seismogram reproduction, station Laibach (LAIH), Slovenia, Horizontal pendulum instrument, from Belar (1903)

Fig. 11
figure11

Seismogram reproduction, station HNGH, Japan, EW component, Bosch-Omori instrument, from Omori (1902)

Fig. 12
figure12

Seismogram reproduction, station HNGH, Japan, NS component, Bosch-Omori instrument, from Omori (1903)

Fig. 13
figure13

Earthquake description from Omori (1903)

Fig. 14
figure14

Seismogram reproduction, station Irkutsk in Russia, Bosch-Omori instrument, from Voznesenskiy (1904)

Fig. 15
figure15

Intensity map reconstructed from Voznesenskiy (1904), with isolines for corresponding intensities, the circles show locations for all intensity observations color-coded accordingly, the star shows the epicenter determined in this study

Fig. 16
figure16

Arrival times from different seismic stations worldwide from Omori (1907)

Fig. 17
figure17

Seismogram reproduction, station Mauritius (MRIH), Milne instrument, from Olaxton (1911)

Fig. 18
figure18

Seismogram reproduction, station Hurbanovo (Ógyalla, Stará Ďala), today’s Slovakia, Bosch-Omori instrument from Réthly (1904)

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Kulikova, G., Krüger, F. Historical seismogram reproductions for the source parameters determination of the 1902, Atushi (Kashgar) earthquake. J Seismol 21, 1577–1597 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10950-017-9683-z

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Keywords

  • Historical seismogram reproductions
  • Analogue seismic records
  • Seismic source parameters