Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 151–158 | Cite as

HTS Transformer Windings Design Using Distributive Ratios for Minimization of Short Circuit Forces

  • Ahmad MoradnouriEmail author
  • Mehdi Vakilian
  • Arsalan Hekmati
  • Mehdi Fardmanesh
Original Research


High-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers have a promising feature in reduction of total weight, total size, and the losses of large-scale distribution transformers. However, the lower leakage reactance of HTS transformers results in a higher short-circuit fault currents and electromagnetic forces. Therefore, optimization of short-circuit electromagnetic forces is one of the crucial aspects in the design of HTS transformers. In this paper, a novel analytical method is proposed for determination of optimum distributive ratios resulting in minimization of these forces for asymmetrical multi-segment windings of an HTS transformer. Employing these distributive ratios, radial and axial components of short-circuit electromagnetic forces in an HTS transformer are significantly reduced. Two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) finite element method (FEM) simulations are employed to verify the analytical method results.


High-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers Leakage flux Multi-segment winding Optimum distributive ratios Short circuit force 2D and 3D finite element method 



Electric field intensity [V/m]


Current density [A/mm2]


Critical current density [A/mm2]


Critical temperature [ok]


Magnetic flux density [T]


Magnetic field intensity [A/m]


Force density [N/m3]


Width of duct between LV and HV in (LH) transformer windings [mm]


Number of turns in LV winding


Number of turns in HV winding


Magneto-motive force [A.Turns]


Short circuit current [A]


Initial current [A]


Resistance [Ω]


Inductance [H]


Reactance [Ω]


Maximum voltage [V]


Winding height [mm]


Width of LV winding in (LH) transformer windings [mm]


Width of HV winding in (LH) transformer windings [mm]


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

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