Role of A Cation Vacancy in the Exchange-Biased LaFeO3 Multiferroic Nanocrystals

  • M. M. Arman
  • M. A. Ahmed
  • S. I. El-Dek
Original Paper


Multiferroic samples with the chemical formula La\(_{1-x}\square _{x}\)FeO3 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.03) were successfully prepared in nanoscale by citrate nitrate combustion method. XRD data reveals crystallized single-phase orthorhombic symmetry for the prepared nanopowder. All measured magnetic parameters point to the antiferromagnetic character with weak ferromagnetic moment. The value of the molar magnetic susceptibility (χ M ) for La\(_{\mathrm {0.99}}\square _{\mathrm {0.01}}\)FeO3 reaches 3.5 times that of the undoped sample. The saturation magnetization of the samples La\(_{\mathrm {0.99}}\square _{\mathrm {0.01}}\)FeO3 and La\(_{\mathrm {0.97}}\square _{\mathrm {0.03}}\)FeO3 increased two times as compared with that of the parent one. The exchange bias (EB) effect was observed for 1st time at room temperature and originated from antiferromagnetic–ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) interface effect. Ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed at room temperature for the samples which highlighted the presence of the ferroelectric ordering. A huge enhancement in the saturation (P s), the remnant polarization (P r), and the coercive electric field (E c) of the sample La\(_{\mathrm {0.98}}\square _{\mathrm {0.02}}\)FeO3 by 7.5, 24, and 12 times, respectively, when compared with the parent sample LaFeO3. Based on the obtained results, the investigated samples are categorized in type I multiferroics.


Multiferroic Magnetic Ferroelectric Exchange bias Vacancy 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science Lab (1), Physics Department, Faculty of ScienceCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PSAS)Beni-Suef UniversityBeni SuefEgypt

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