Skip to main content
Log in

The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Health in Canada: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Literature Review
  • Published:
Journal of Religion and Health Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The association between religion and health has been the subject of growing interest in academia. However, limited reviews of such studies in Canada exist. The paper systematically reviews and synthesizes existing literature on the relationship between spirituality and health in Canada. Available general databases such as: Medline; Web of Science, PubMed, Sociological abstract, Social Service Abstracts, Google scholar, Humanities International Index, JSTOR, CPI.Q Canadian Periodicals, and American Theological Library Association were searched for the period between 2000 and April 2019 inclusive. Collected data were then systematically analysed for common themes about spirituality and health in Canada. In total, 151 articles were found, but only 128 had relevance with the study objectives. Overall, the analysis showed that religion and spirituality do influence health behaviours, and well-being. However, more gender-based studies need to be conducted to tease out the differences in religion/spirituality and health across different genders, and ethnic groups in Canada.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abbott, S., & Freeth, D. (2008). Social capital and health. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(7), 874–883. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105308095060.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Abdulahad, R., Graham, J. R., Montelpare, W. J., & Brownlee, K. (2014). Social capital: Understanding acculturative stress in the canadian Iraqi-Christian community. British Journal of Social Work, 44(3), 694–713.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akram, S. (2012). A qualitative study of the process of acculturation and coping for south asian muslim immigrants living in the greater toronto area (GTA). Doctor of Education, Toronto: University of Toronto.

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Ghabeesh, S., Alshraifeen, A. A., Saifan, A. R., Bashayreh, I. H., Alnuaimi, K. M., & Masalha, H. A. (2018). Spirituality in the lives of patients with end-stage renal disease: A systematic review. Journal of Religion and Health, 57, 2461–2477. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-018-0622-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allen, N. J., Pickering, W. S. F., & Miller, W. W. (1998). On durkheim’s elementary forms of religious life. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203021903.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Almond, D., Edlund, L., & Milligan, K. (2013). Son preference and the persistence of culture: Evidence from south and east asian immigrants to Canada. Population and Development Review, 39(1), 75–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Altglas, V. (2018). Chapter 3: Spirituality and discipline: Not a contradiction in terms. In V. Altglas & M. Wood (Eds.), Bringing back the social into the sociology of religion (pp. 79–107). Leiden: Brill.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Altglas, V., & Wood, M. (2018). Bringing back the social into the sociology of religion: Critical approaches. Boston.

  • Arani, Z. A., Biderafsh, A., & Salmani, S. (2019). The relationship of spirituality development and addiction potential among students of QOM university of medical sciences. Journal of Religion and Health, 58, 1107–1114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arokach, A. (2006). Alienation and domestic abuse: How abused women cope with loneliness. Social Indicators Research, 78(2), 327–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aryee, E. (2011). The psycho-spirituality of African women living with HIV/AIDS in Ontario. Canadian Woman Studies, 29(1), 141.

    Google Scholar 

  • Azagba, S., Asbridge, M., & Langille, D. B. (2014). Is religiosity positively associated with school connectedness: Evidence from high school students in Atlantic Canada? The Journal of Primary Prevention, 35(6), 417–427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-014-0367-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Badyal, P. (2003). Lived experience of wife abuse for indo-canadian sikh women. PhD Thesis, British Columbia: University of British Columbia.

  • Baetz, M., & Bowen, R. (2009). Chronic pain and fatigue: Associations with religion and spirituality. Pain Research and Management, 13(5), 383–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baetz, M., Bowen, R., Jones, G., & Koru-Sengul, T. (2006). How spiritual values and worship attendance relate to psychiatric disorders in the canadian population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie, 51(10), 654–661.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baetz, M., Griffin, R., Bowen, R., Koenig, H. G., & Marcoux, E. (2004). The association between spiritual and religious involvement and depressive symptoms in a Canadian population. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192(12), 818–822.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baetz, M., Griffin, R., Bowen, R., & Marcoux, G. (2004). Spirituality and psychiatry in Canada: Psychiatric practice compared with patient expectations. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie, 49(4), 265–271.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baetz, M., & Toews, J. (2009). Clinical implications of research on religion, spirituality, and mental health. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 292–301. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674370905400503.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Balbuena, L., Baetz, M., & Bowen, R. (2013). Religious attendance, spirituality, and major depression in Canada: A 14-year follow-up study. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(4), 225–232. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371305800408.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Banerjee, A. T., Boyle, M. H., Anand, S. S., Strachan, P. H., & Oremus, M. (2014). The relationship between religious service attendance and coronary heart disease and related risk factors in saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(1), 141–156.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barimah, K. B., & van Teijlingen, E. R. (2008). The use of traditional medicine by Ghanaians in Canada. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-8-30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baubérot, J., Portier, P., & Willaime, J. (Eds.). (2019). La sécularisation en question: Religions et laïcités au prisme des sciences sociales. Paris: Édition Classiques Garnier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Baubérot, J. (2004). Une laïcité, une chance pour le XXIe siècle. La laïcité à l'épreuve: Religions et libertés dans le monde (pp. 7–14). Paris: Universalis.

  • Biondo, P. D., Kalia, R., Khan, R., Asghar, N., Banerjee, C., Boulton, D., & Simon, J. E. (2017). Understanding advance care planning within the south asian community. Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy, 5, 911. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blazer, D. G. (2009). Religion, spirituality, and mental health: What we know and why this is a tough topic to research. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 281–282.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bodnaruk, Z. M., Wong, C. J., & Thomas, M. J. (2004). Meeting the clinical challenge of care for Jehovah’s witnesses. Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 18(2), 105–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2003.12.004.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boisvert, J. A., & Harrell, W. A. (2013). The impact of spirituality on eating disorder symptomatology in ethnically diverse Canadian women. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 59(8), 729–738. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764012453816.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boswell, G. E., & Boswell-Ford, K. C. (2010). Testing a SEM model of two religious concepts and experiential spirituality. Journal of religion and health, 49(2), 200–211.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bramadat, P. (2005). Religion, social capital, and “The day that changed the world.” Journal of International Migration and Integration / Revue De L’Integration Et De La Migration Internationale, 6(2), 201–217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12134-005-1010-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brazier, A., Mulkins, A., & Verhoef, M. (2006). Evaluating a yogic breathing and meditation intervention for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Health Promotion, 20(3), 192–195. https://doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-20.3.192.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Byrne, J. T., & Price, J. H. (1979). In sickness and in health: The effects of religion. Health Education, 10(1), 6–10.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Canadian Government. (1986). “Ottawa charter for health promotion: An international conference on health promotion.” in ottawa: Public health agency of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.Canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/population-health/ottawa-charter-health-promotion-international-conference-on-health-promotion.html. https://www.Canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/population-health/ottawa-charter-health-promotion-international-conference-on-health-promotion.html.

  • Carlson, L. E., Speca, M., Patel, K. D., & Goodey, E. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms of stress and levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and melatonin in breast and prostate cancer outpatients. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(4), 448–474.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cimino, R., & Smith, C. (2007). Secular humanism and atheism beyond progressive secularism. Sociology of Religion, 68(4), 407–424.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, L., Fouladi, R. T., & Katz, J. (2005). Preoperative coping strategies and distress predict postoperative pain and morphine consumption in women undergoing abdominal gynecologic surgery. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(2), 201–209.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cotton, S., Puchalski, C. M., Sherman, S. N., Mrus, J. M., Peterman, A. H., Feinberg, J., & Tsevat, J. (2006). Spirituality and religion in patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of General Internal Medicine : JGIM, 21(S5), S5–S13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00642.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Crowley, M. A. (1988). The hospice movement: A renewed view of the death process. J.Contemp.Health L.& Pol'Y, 4, 295.

  • Davison, S. N., & Jhangri, G. S. (2010). Existential and religious dimensions of spirituality and their relationship with health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 5(11), 1969–1976.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Davison, S. N., & Jhangri, G. S. (2013). The relationship between spirituality, psychosocial adjustment to illness, and health-related quality of life in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 45(2), 170–178.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Debray, R. (2003). Le feu sacré : Fonction du religieux. Paris: Fayard.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dilmaghani, M. (2017). Religiosity and subjective wellbeing in Canada. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(3), 629–647. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9837-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dilmaghani, M. (2018). Importance of religion or spirituality and mental health in Canada. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(1), 120–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0385-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dilmaghani, M. (2018). Religious identity and health inequalities in Canada. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 20(5), 1060–1074. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-017-0640-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dilmaghani, M. (2018). Sexual orientation, religiosity, and subjective wellbeing in Canada. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, 47(4), 540–565. https://doi.org/10.1177/0008429818796801.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duggleby, W., Kuchera, S., MacLeod, R., & Holyoke, P. (2015). Indigenous people’s experiences at the end of life. Palliative and Supportive Care, 13(6), 1721–1733.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Durkeim, E. (2006). On suicide. London: Penguin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dyck, I., & Dossa, P. (2007). Place, health and home: Gender and migration in the constitution of healthy space. Health & Place, 13(3), 691–701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2006.10.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dyck, I., & McLAREN, A. T. (2004). Telling it like it is? Constructing accounts of settlement with immigrant and refugee women in Canada. Gender, Place & Culture, 11(4), 513–534. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369042000307997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ekas, N., Tidman, L., & Timmons, L. (2019). Religiosity/spirituality and mental health outcomes in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder: The mediating role of positive thinking. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 49(11), 4547–4558. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-019-04165-z.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, L., & Biglione, D. (2000). Religiosity and obesity: Are overweight people more religious? Personality and Individual Differences, 28(6), 1119–1123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellison, C. G., & Levin, J. S. (2016). The religion-health connection: Evidence, theory, and future directions. Health Education & Behavior, 25(6), 700–720. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500603.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farmer, M. A., Trapnell, P. D., & Meston, C. M. (2008). The relation between sexual behavior and religiosity subtypes: A test of the secularization hypothesis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(5), 852–865.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Feinberg, Y., Pereira, J. A., Quach, S., Kwong, J. C., Crowcroft, N. S., Wilson, S. E., Public Health Agency of Canada/Canadian Institutes of Health Research Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) Program Delivery and, Evaluation Group. (2015). Understanding public perceptions of the HPV vaccination based on online comments to canadian news articles. PloS One, 10(6), e0129587

  • Ferreira-Valente, A., Sharma, S., Torres, S., Smothers, Z., Pais-Ribeiro, J., Abbott, J. H., & Jensen, M. P. (2019). Does religiosity/spirituality play a role in function, pain-related beliefs, and coping in patients with chronic pain? A systematic review. Journal of Religion and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00914-7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Flexner, A. (1910). Medical education in the United States and Canada; a report to the carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching. New York: Arno Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, J. W. (1993). Alcoholics anonymous and faith development. In B. S. McCrady & W. R. Miller (Eds.), Research on alcoholics anonymous: Opportunities and alternatives (pp. 113–135). Piscataway: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fowler, M. D., & Reimer-Kirkham, S. (2012). Religion, religious ethics and nursing. In M. D. Fowler, S. Reimer-Kirkham, R. Sawatzky, & E. J. Taylor (Eds.), Religion, religious ethics, and nursing (Vol. 1). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fung, K., & Renita Wong, Y. (2007). Factors influencing attitudes towards seeking professional help among east and southeast Asian immigrant and refugee women. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 53(3), 216–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Galdas, P. M., Oliffe, J. L., Wong, S. T., Ratner, P. A., Johnson, J. L., & Kelly, M. T. (2012). Canadian Punjabi Sikh men’s experiences of lifestyle changes following myocardial infarction: Cultural connections. Ethnicity & Health, 17(3), 253–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gall, T. L., Kristjansson, E., Charbonneau, C., & Florack, P. (2008). A longitudinal study on the role of spirituality in response to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32(2), 174–186.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gastaldo, D., Lima, J., Chakir, F., Bendris, N., & Vissandjee, B. (1998). Reproductive and sexual care for Arab Muslim women living in Quebec (Canada): Looking at religion, gender and immigration to have a better understanding of health. Montreal, QC: International Sociological Association.

  • Gattari, T., Gattari, T., Arfken, C., Arfken, C., Morreale, M., & Morreale, M. (2018). Perspectives of religion and spirituality in psychiatry: A comparison of students, residents, and attending physicians. Academic Psychiatry, 42(1), 176–178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-017-0845-7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gonçalves, J. P. B., Lucchetti, G., Menezes, P. R., & Vallada, H. (2015). Religious and spiritual interventions in mental health care: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Sychological Medicine, 45, 2937–2949.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Good, M., Hamza, C., & Willoughby, T. (2017). A longitudinal investigation of the relation between nonsuicidal self-injury and spirituality/religiosity. Psychiatry Research, 250, 106–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.062.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Good, M., & Willoughby, T. (2014). Institutional and personal spirituality/religiosity and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence: Concurrent and longitudinal associations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(5), 757–774. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9989-2.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gorsuch, R. L. (1995). Religious aspects of substance abuse and recovery. Journal of Social Issues, 51(2), 65–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grabovac, A. D., & Ganesan, S. (2003). Spirituality and religion in Canadian psychiatric residency training. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(3), 171–175.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guilfoyle, J., & St Pierre-Hansen, N. (2012). Religion in primary care: Let’s talk about it. Canadian Family Physician, 58(3), 249–251.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta–analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1), 43–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hahné, S., Macey, J., van Binnendijk, R., Kohl, R., Dolman, S., van der Veen, Y., & Timen, A. (2009). Rubella outbreak in the netherlands, 2004–2005: High burden of congenital infection and spread to Canada. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 28(9), 795–800.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hall, D. E., Meador, K. G., & Koenig, H. G. (2008). Measuring religiousness in health research: Review and critique. Journal of Religion and Health, 47(2), 134–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-008-9165-2.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hampton, M., Baydala, A., Bourassa, C., McKay-McNabb, K., Placsko, C., Goodwill, K., & Boekelder, R. (2010). Completing the circle: Elders speak about end-of-life care with aboriginal families in Canada. Journal of Palliative Care, 26, 6–14.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hampton, M., Baydala, A., Drost, C., & McKay-McNabb, K. (2009). Bridging conventional western health care practices with tradi- tional aboriginal approaches to end of life care: A dialogue between aboriginal families and health care professionals. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 4(1), 22–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harmon, Y., Mausbach, B. T., Atkinson, P. J., & Gallagher-Thompson, D. (1985). The relationship between religiosity and health. Health Values, 9(6), 23–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, S. A., & Gillett, J. (2015). Reconstructing aboriginal identity and the meaning of the body in blood donation decisions. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(4), 1286–1301.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Helland, C., Beaman, L. G., Berger, B., & Peter, L. (2008). Canadian religious diversity online: A network of possibilities. In L. Beaman & P. Beyer (Eds.), Religion and diversity in Canada (pp. 127–148). Brill: Leiden & Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I. I., Hood, R. W. J., McCullough, M. E., Swyers, J. P., Larson, D. B., & Zinnbauer, B. J. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 51–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hilton, A., Grewal, S., Popatia, N., Bottorff, J. L., Johnson, J. L., Clarke, H., et al. (2001). The desi ways: Traditional health practices of South Asian women in Canada. Health Care for Women International, 22, 553–567.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hodge, D. R. (2012). The conceptual and empirical relationship between spirituality and social justice: Exemplars from diverse faith traditions. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought: Spirituality and Social Justice, 31(1–2), 32–50. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2012.647878.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hogg, M. A., Adelman, J. R., & Blagg, R. D. (2010). Religion in the face of uncertainty: An uncertainty-identity theory account of religiousness. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 72–83.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hufford, D. J. (2005). An analysis of the field of spirituality, religion, and health (S/RH). Retrieved from https://www.metanexus.net/archive/templetonadvancedresearchprogram/pdf/TARP-Hufford.pdf

  • Hwang, K., Hammer, J. H., & Cragun, R. T. (2011). Extending religion-health research to secular minorities: Issues and concerns. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(3), 608–622.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Idler, E. L. (2014). Religion as a social determinant of public health. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Jalali-Tehrani, S. (1985). Religious commitment as a factor in personality integration: A factor in mental health. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(10B), 3629.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jamal, M., & Badawi, J. (1993). Job stress among Muslim immigrants in North America: Moderating effects of religiosity. Stress Medicine, 9(3), 145–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, M. K., Rowatt, W. C., & LaBouff, J. (2010). Priming Christian religious concepts increases racial prejudice. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(2), 119–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, T., & Robinson, E.A. (2008). Issues in measuring spirituality and religiousness in alcohol research. In Recent developments in alcoholism (pp. 167–186) Springer, New York

  • Karvinen, K. H., & Carr, L. J. (2014). Does the perception that god controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors? Journal of Health Psychology, 19(4), 521–530.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kim, W. (2012). How gender and religion influence alcohol use in elderly korean immigrants. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 31(2), 173–192.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • King, D. G. (1990). Religion and health relationships: A review. Journal of Religion and Health, 29(2), 101–112.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • King, M. B., & Hunt, R. A. (1975). Measuring the religious variable: National replication. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 14(1), 13–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koenig, H. G. (2009). Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 283–291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Koenig, H. G., George, L. K., & Titus, P. (2004). Religion, spirituality, and health in medically ill hospitalized older patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(4), 554–562.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Koenig, H., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of religion and health (Vol. 2). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koenig, H. G., & Reinert, K. G. (2013). Re-examining definitions of spirituality in nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(12), 2622–2634. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12152.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Konkolÿ Thege, B., Pilling, J., Székely, A., & Kopp, M. S. (2013). Relationship between religiosity and health: Evidence from a post-communist country. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20(4), 477–486. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-012-9258-x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar, A. (2016). HIV/AIDS risk and prevention issues among inuit living in nunavut territory of Canada. Vivo, 30(6), 905–916.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lai, D. W. L. (2007). Cultural predictors of caregiving burden of Chinese-Canadian family caregivers. Canadian Journal on Aging, 26(S1), 133–147. https://doi.org/10.3138/cja.26.suppl_1.133.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lai, D. W. L., & Surood, S. (2009). Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada. Journal of Aging and Health, 21(1), 38–62. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264308328636.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lai, D. W., Tsang, K. T., Chappell, N. L., Lai, C. Y. D., & Chau, S. B. (2007). Relationships between culture and health status: A multi-site study of the older Chinese in Canada. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 26(3), 171–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • LeDrew, S. (2013). Discovering atheism: Heterogeneity in trajectories to atheist identity and activism. Sociology of Religion, 74(4), 431–453. https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srt014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • LeDrew, S. (2020). Secular criticism of religion. In M. Lövheim & M. Stenmark (Eds.), A constructive critique of religion: Encounters between Christianity, Islam, and non-religion in secular societies (pp. 32–43). London: Bloomsbury Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lefebvre, S. (2008). Between law and public opinion: The case of québec. In L. G. Beaman & P. Beyer (Eds.), Religion and diversity in Canada (pp. 175–198). Leiden & Boston: Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lofters, A. K., Slater, M., & Vahabi, M. (2016). Cancer screening among patients who self-identify as muslim: Combining self-reported data with medical records in a family practice setting. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 20(1), 44–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lofters, A. K., Slater, M., & Vahabi, M. (2018). Cancer screening among patients who self-identify as muslim: Combining self-reported data with medical records in a family practice setting. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 20(1), 44–50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lyon, D., & VanDie, M. (2000). Rethinking church, state, and modernity: Canada between Europe and America. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Mahmood, A. (2008). Attitudes towards help-seeking among South Asian American Muslim women. Doctor of Philosophy, University of Iowa, Iowa.

  • Mainguy, B., Valenti, M. P., & Mehl-Madrona, L. (2013). Relationships between level of spiritual transformation and medical outcome. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 27(1), 4–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Manca, T. (2013). Medicine and spiritual healing within a region of Canada: Preliminary findings concerning christian scientists’ healthcare practices. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 789–803. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-011-9504-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Marsh, T. N., Coholic, D., Cote-Meek, S., & Najavits, L. M. (2015). Blending aboriginal and western healing methods to treat intergenerational trauma with substance use disorder in aboriginal peoples who live in Northeastern Ontario, Canada. Harm Reduction Journal, 12(1), 14.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Maslow, A. H. (1964). Religions, values, and peak-experiences. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie, M. M., Modeste, N. N., Marshak, H. H., & Wilson, C. (2015). Religious involvement and health-related behaviors among black seventh-day adventists in Canada. Health Promotion Practice, 16(2), 264–270.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Merath, K., Palmer Kelly, E., Madison Hyer, J., Mehta, R., Agne, J. L., Deans, K., & Pawlik, T. M. (2019). Patient perceptions about the role of religion and spirituality during cancer care. Journal of Religion and Health, 59, 1933–1945.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Michaelson, V., Freeman, J., King, N., Ascough, H., Davison, C., Trothen, T., & Pickett, W. (2016). Inequalities in the spiritual health of young canadians: A national, cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1200–1209. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3834-y.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Mohr, S., Borras, L., Nolan, J., Gillieron, C., Brandt, P., Eytan, A., & Pieper, C. (2012). Spirituality and religion in outpatients with schizophrenia: A multi-site comparative study of Switzerland, Canada, and the United States. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 44(1), 29–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Molzahn, A. E. (2007). Spirituality in later life: Effect on quality of life. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 33(1), 32–39.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Newman, P. A., Williams, C. C., Massaquoi, N., Brown, M., & Logie, C. (2008). HIV prevention for black women: Structural barriers and opportunities. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19(3), 829–841.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Obertuffer, D., & Beyrer, M. K. (1966). School health education: A textbook for teachers, nurses, and other profession personnel. New York: Harper & Row.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orentlicher, D. (2016). International perspectives on physician assistance in dying. Hastings Center Report, 46(6), 6–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pandya, S. P. (2016). Hospital social work and spirituality: Views of medical social workers. Social Work in Public Health, 31(7), 700.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pargament, K. I. (2007). Spiritually integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pathy, R., Mills, K. E., Gazeley, S., Ridgley, A., & Kiran, T. (2011). Health is a spiritual thing: Perspectives of health care professionals and female Somali and Bangladeshi women on the health impacts of fasting during Ramadan. Ethnicity & Health, 16(1), 43–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2010.523780.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peirano, A., & Franz, R. (2012). Spirituality and quality of life in limb amputees. International Journal of Angiology, 21(01), 47–052. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1304275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Peres, M. F. P., Kamei, H. H., Tobo, P. R., & Lucchetti, G. (2017). Mechanisms behind religiosity and spirituality’s effect on mental health, quality of life and well-being. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(5), 1842–1855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0400-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pesut, B., & Reimer-Kirkham, S. (2010). Situated clinical encounters in the negotiation of religious and spiritual plurality: A critical ethnography. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(7), 815–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.11.014.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pirkola, H., Rantakokko, P., & Suhonen, M. (2016). Workplace spirituality in health care: An integrated review of the literature. Journal of Nursing Management, 24(7), 859–868. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12398.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Plunkett, R., & Leipert, B. D. (2013). Women’s health promotion in the rural church: A Canadian perspective. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 877–889. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-011-9535-z.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Puchalski, C. M. (2010). Formal and informal spiritual assessment. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 11, 51–57.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pujol, N., Jobin, G., & Beloucif, S. (2016). ‘Spiritual care is not the hospital’s business’: A qualitative study on the perspectives of patients about the integration of spirituality in healthcare settings. Journal of Medical Ethics, 42(11), 733–737.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Putnam, R. D. (Ed.). (2002). Democracies in flux: The evolution of social capital in contemporary society. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rashiq, S., & Dick, B. D. (2009). Factors associated with chronic noncancer pain in the ca Nadian population. Pain Research and Management, 14(6), 454–460.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rasic, D., Kisely, S., & Langille, D. B. (2011). Protective associations of importance of religion and frequency of service attendance with depression risk, suicidal behaviours and substance use in adolescents in nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Affective Disorders, 132(3), 389–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.007.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rasic, D. T., Belik, S. L., Elias, B., Katz, L. Y., Enns, M., Sareen, J., & Team, S. C. S. P. (2009). Spirituality, religion and suicidal behavior in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 114(1–3), 32-40.

  • Read, S. C., Carrier, M., Whitley, R., Gold, I., Tulandi, T., & Zelkowitz, P. (2014). Complementary and alternative medicine use in infertility: Cultural and religious influences in a multicultural Canadian setting. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(9), 686–692. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2013.0329.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Reimer-Kirkham, S. (2014). Nursing research on religion and spirituality through a social justice lens. Advances in Nursing Science, 37(3), 249–257.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reimer-Kirkham, S., Sharma, S., Pesut, B., Sawatzky, R., Meyerhoff, H., & Cochrane, M. (2012). Sacred spaces in public places: Religious and spiritual plurality in health care. Nursing Inquiry, 19(3), 202–212. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.2011.00571.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rickhi, B., Kania-Richmond, A., Moritz, S., Cohen, J., Paccagnan, P., Dennis, C., & Toews, J. (2015). Evaluation of a spirituality informed e-mental health tool as an intervention for major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults: A randomized controlled pilot trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1), 450.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson, B. A. (2014). Radiant healing: Gender, belief and alternative medicine in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada 1927–1935. Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 18(1), 16–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rokach, A. (2000). Terminal illness and coping with loneliness. The Journal of Psychology, 134(3), 283–296.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schieman, S. (2008). The education-contingent association between religiosity and health: The differential effects of self-esteem and the sense of mastery. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(4), 710–724.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seybold, K. S., & Hill, P. C. (2001). The role of religion and spirituality in mental and physical health. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(21), 21–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shatenstein, B., & Ghadirian, P. (1998). Influences on diet, health behaviours and their outcome in select ethnocultural and religious groups. Nutrition, 14(2), 223–230.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Siebold, C. (1992). The hospice movement: Easing death’s pains. New York: Twayne Pub.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silton, N. R., Flannelly, K. J., Galek, K., & Ellison, C. G. (2014). Beliefs about god and mental health among American adults. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(5), 1285–1296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-013-9712-3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sinclair, S., Pereira, J., & Raffin, S. (2006). A thematic review of the spirituality literature within palliative care. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(2), 464–479.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sloan, R. P., Bagiella, E., & Powell, T. (1999). Religion, spirituality, and medicine. The Lancet, 353(9153), 664–667.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Snowshoe, A., Crooks, C. V., Tremblay, P. F., & Hinson, R. E. (2017). Cultural connectedness and its relation to mental wellness for first nations youth. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 38(1–2), 67–86.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Speed, D., & Fowler, K. (2016). What’s god got to do with it? How religiosity predicts atheists’ health. Journal of Religion and Health, 55(1), 296–308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-015-0083-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Speed, D., & Fowler, K. (2017). Good for all? Hardly! attending church does not benefit religiously unaffiliated. Journal of Religion and Health, 56(3), 986–1002. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-016-0317-5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, W. C., Adams, M. P., Stewart, J. A., & Nelson, L. A. (2013). Review of clinical medicine and religious practice. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(1), 91–106.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stewart, S., Riecken, T., Scott, T., Tanaka, M., & Riecken, J. (2008). Expanding health literacy: Indigenous youth creating videos. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(2), 180–189.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Syme, A., & Bruce, A. (2009). Hospice and palliative care: What unites us, what divides us? Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 11(1), 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1097/NJH.0b013e3181917ee3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Talebi, M., & Desjardins, M. (2012). The immigration experience of iranian baha’is in saskatchewan: The reconstruction of their existence, faith, and religious experience. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(2), 293–309.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thorson, J. A. (1998). Chapter 10 religion and anxiety: Which anxiety? Which religion? Handbook of religion and health (pp. 147–160). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torskenæs, K. B., Baldacchino, D. R., Kalfoss, M., Baldacchino, T., Borg, J., Falzon, M., & Grima, K. (2015). Nurses’ and caregivers’ definition of spirituality from the christian perspective: A comparative study between malta and norway. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 39–53.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tuck, A., Robinson, M., Agic, B., Ialomiteanu, A. R., & Mann, R. E. (2017). Religion, alcohol use and risk drinking among canadian adults living in Ontario. Journal of Religion and Health, 56(6), 2023–2038.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Unruh, A. M. (2007). Spirituality, religion, and pain. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 39(2), 66–86.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vahabi, M., & Lofters, A. (2016). Muslim immigrant women’s views on cervical cancer screening and HPV self-sampling in Ontario, Canada. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 868. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3564-1.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Vonarx, N., & Hyppolite, S. (2013). Religion, spirituality, and cancer: The question of individual empowerment. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 12(1), 69–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Waugh, E. (2015). Global contextualities and Alberta Muslim women’s health. Religious Studies and Theology, 34(2), 201–233. https://doi.org/10.1558/rsth.v34i2.29296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • WHOQOL-SRPB. (2002). WHO-SRPB users manual. Geneva: World Health Organisation. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77778/WHO_MSD_MER_Rev.2012.05_eng.pdf?sequence=1

  • Wiebe, M. (2014). Social work, religion, and palliative care. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought: Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Spirituality, 33(3–4), 339–352. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2014.930638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Willaime, J. (2006). La sécularisation: Une exception européenne? retour sur un concept et sa discussion en sociologie des religions. Revue Française De Sociologie, 47(4), 755–783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, A. (2010). Spiritual therapeutic landscapes and healing: A case study of st anne de beaupre, quebec, Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 70(10), 1633–1640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, C. M., Stiller, C. H., Doherty, D. J., & Thompson, K. A. (2017). The role of physical therapists within hospice and palliative care in the United States and Canada. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 34(1), 34–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049909115604668.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wong, E., Chow, E., Zhang, L., Bedard, G., Lam, K., Fairchild, A., & Bottomley, A. (2013). Factors influencing health related quality of life in cancer patients with bone metastases. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 16(8), 915–921. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2012.0623.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wuthnow, R. (2003). Religious involvement and status-bridging social capital. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 669–684. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.00153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ysseldyk, R., Haslam, S. A., & Haslam, C. (2013). Abide with me: Religious group identification among older adults promotes health and well-being by maintaining multiple group memberships. Aging & Mental Health, 17(7), 869–879. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2013.799120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Internal Research Grant (IRG), Nipissing University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manuel Litalien.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendix

Appendix

See Table 5.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Litalien, M., Atari, D.O. & Obasi, I. The Influence of Religiosity and Spirituality on Health in Canada: A Systematic Literature Review. J Relig Health 61, 373–414 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-020-01148-8

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-020-01148-8

Keywords

Navigation