The objective of the present research was to develop and validate an indigenous scale of religious tolerance for young adults, based on Van der Walt (2014) model of religious tolerance. The two independent studies were conducted in this regard. In the first study, a pool of 81 items was generated and after qualitative analysis and pilot study, 53 items were retained for exploratory factor analysis. Using the data from the sample of (N = 500) students, the items were then subjected to principal component analysis using varimax rotation method. A factor solution based on 25 items and 7 well-structured factors was obtained. Afterward, a similar sample of (N = 282) students was obtained for confirmatory factor analysis that confirmed the factor structure of the scale with 23 items. In the second study, validation of the scale was determined by examining its convergent and discriminant validity with the original religious tolerance questionnaire and balanced dogmatism sale, respectively. The results of the study uphold religious tolerance scale as a promising indigenous psychometric measure for religious tolerance.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abu Bakar, I. (2013). The religious tolerance in Malaysia: An exposition. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 7(1), 90–97. Retrieved August 22, 2018 from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/90478011/religious-tolerance-malaysia-exposition.
Ahmad, S. (2018). Unleashing the potential of a young Pakistan. Human Development Report (UNDP). Retrieved January 27, 2019 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/unleashing-potential-young-pakistan.
Anderson, D. S., & Western, J. S. (1967). An inventory to measure students’ attitudes. University of Queensland Papers,1(3), 175–206.
Bakar, O. (2010). The evolving face of religious tolerance in post-colonial Malaysia: Understanding its shaping factors. Islam and Civilizational Renewal,12, 621–638.
Broer, N. A., Muyck, A. D., Potgieter, F. J., Walt, J. L., & Wolhuter, C. C. (2016). Het vaststellen van de mate van religieuze tolerantiebijleraren in opleiding. Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies,72(3), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4102/hts.v72i3.3158.
Broer, N. A., Muynck, B., Potgieter, F. J., Wolhuter, C. C., & Van der Walt, J. L. (2014). Measuring religious tolerance among final year education students. International Journal of Religious Freedom,7(1/2), 77–96.
Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.
Carlson, K. D., & Herdman, A. O. (2012). Understanding the impact of convergent validity on research results. Organizational Research Methods,15(1), 292–301. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110392383.
Coakes, S. J., & Steed, L. G. (2003). Analysis without anguish using SPSS Version 11.0 For windows. Milton, QLD: Wiley.
DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Skitka, L. J., Hanson, B. E., Washburn, A. N., & Mueller, A. B. (2018). Moral and religious convictions: Are they the same or different things? PLoS ONE, 13(6). Retrieved September 1, 2018 from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199311.
Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement,20(1), 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000116.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principle and practice of strucural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Kline, R. B. (2013). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In Y. Petscher & C. Schatsschneider (Eds.), Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences (pp. 171–207). New York: Routledge.
Korn, H. A., & Giddan, N. S. (1964). Scoring methods and construct validity of the dogmatism scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement,24(4), 867–874. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446402400414.
Laursen, J. C. (2005). Toleration. In M. C. Horowitz (Ed.), New dictionary of the history of ideas (Vol. 6, p. 2337). London: Thomson Gale.
Martin, J. D., & Morris, D. A. (1982). Relationship of the scores on the Tolerance Scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory to those on Rokeach’s Dogmatism Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement,42(1), 377–381. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164482421047.
Muhammad, A. H. (2009). The politics of peace in Islam. In L. Hogan & D. L. Lehrke (Eds.), Religions and the politics of peace and conflict. Eugene Oregon: Pickwick Publications.
Pew Research Center. (2012). Rising tides of restriction on religion. Retrieved September 7, 2018 from http://www.pewforum.org/2012/09/20/rising-tide-of-restrictions-on-religion-findings/.
Potgieter, F. J., Van der Walt, J. L., & Wolhuter, C. C. (2014). Towards understanding tolerance in education. Hts Theological Studies,70(3), 01–08.
Ray, J. J. (1970). The development and validation of a balanced dogmatism scale. Australian Journal of Psychology,22(3), 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049537008254581.
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996). A Beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods,9(2), 221–232. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105284955.
Thowfeek, M. I. M. (2017). Understanding religious tolerance in Islamic perspective. Retrieved June 3, 2018 from http://www.bpu.ac.lk/resources/170/Mr.%20M.I.M.%20Thowfeek.pdf.
Van der Walt, J. L. (2014). Measuring religious tolerance in education. Retrieved June 26, 2018 from file:///I:/Dell%20data%20D/thesis%20topics/2014-VanderWalt-Measuring-religious-tolerance-in-education_5.pdf.
Vogt, W. P. (2007). What is tolerance and why should we teach it? Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies,16(3–4), 277296. https://doi.org/10.1080/1071441940160304.
Warder, A. K. (1997). Indian Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass (pp. 520–522), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers.
Conflict of interest
The authors claim no conflict of interest.
As the study involves human participants, all the ethical obligations were followed in this regard including the ethical standards of institutional/national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Batool, M., Akram, B. Development and Validation of Religious Tolerance Scale for Youth. J Relig Health 59, 1481–1493 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-019-00897-5
- Religious tolerance
- Exploratory factor analysis
- Confirmatory factor analysis