Development and Validation of Religious Tolerance Scale for Youth


The objective of the present research was to develop and validate an indigenous scale of religious tolerance for young adults, based on Van der Walt (2014) model of religious tolerance. The two independent studies were conducted in this regard. In the first study, a pool of 81 items was generated and after qualitative analysis and pilot study, 53 items were retained for exploratory factor analysis. Using the data from the sample of (N = 500) students, the items were then subjected to principal component analysis using varimax rotation method. A factor solution based on 25 items and 7 well-structured factors was obtained. Afterward, a similar sample of (N = 282) students was obtained for confirmatory factor analysis that confirmed the factor structure of the scale with 23 items. In the second study, validation of the scale was determined by examining its convergent and discriminant validity with the original religious tolerance questionnaire and balanced dogmatism sale, respectively. The results of the study uphold religious tolerance scale as a promising indigenous psychometric measure for religious tolerance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Abu Bakar, I. (2013). The religious tolerance in Malaysia: An exposition. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 7(1), 90–97. Retrieved August 22, 2018 from

  2. Ahmad, S. (2018). Unleashing the potential of a young Pakistan. Human Development Report (UNDP). Retrieved January 27, 2019 from

  3. Anderson, D. S., & Western, J. S. (1967). An inventory to measure students’ attitudes. University of Queensland Papers,1(3), 175–206.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bakar, O. (2010). The evolving face of religious tolerance in post-colonial Malaysia: Understanding its shaping factors. Islam and Civilizational Renewal,12, 621–638.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Broer, N. A., Muyck, A. D., Potgieter, F. J., Walt, J. L., & Wolhuter, C. C. (2016). Het vaststellen van de mate van religieuze tolerantiebijleraren in opleiding. Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies,72(3), 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Broer, N. A., Muynck, B., Potgieter, F. J., Wolhuter, C. C., & Van der Walt, J. L. (2014). Measuring religious tolerance among final year education students. International Journal of Religious Freedom,7(1/2), 77–96.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Carlson, K. D., & Herdman, A. O. (2012). Understanding the impact of convergent validity on research results. Organizational Research Methods,15(1), 292–301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Coakes, S. J., & Steed, L. G. (2003). Analysis without anguish using SPSS Version 11.0 For windows. Milton, QLD: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  10. DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Skitka, L. J., Hanson, B. E., Washburn, A. N., & Mueller, A. B. (2018). Moral and religious convictions: Are they the same or different things? PLoS ONE, 13(6). Retrieved September 1, 2018 from

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement,20(1), 141–151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principle and practice of strucural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Kline, R. B. (2013). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In Y. Petscher & C. Schatsschneider (Eds.), Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences (pp. 171–207). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Korn, H. A., & Giddan, N. S. (1964). Scoring methods and construct validity of the dogmatism scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement,24(4), 867–874.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Laursen, J. C. (2005). Toleration. In M. C. Horowitz (Ed.), New dictionary of the history of ideas (Vol. 6, p. 2337). London: Thomson Gale.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Martin, J. D., & Morris, D. A. (1982). Relationship of the scores on the Tolerance Scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory to those on Rokeach’s Dogmatism Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement,42(1), 377–381.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Muhammad, A. H. (2009). The politics of peace in Islam. In L. Hogan & D. L. Lehrke (Eds.), Religions and the politics of peace and conflict. Eugene Oregon: Pickwick Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Pew Research Center. (2012). Rising tides of restriction on religion. Retrieved September 7, 2018 from

  21. Potgieter, F. J., Van der Walt, J. L., & Wolhuter, C. C. (2014). Towards understanding tolerance in education. Hts Theological Studies,70(3), 01–08.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Ray, J. J. (1970). The development and validation of a balanced dogmatism scale. Australian Journal of Psychology,22(3), 253–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (1996). A Beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods,9(2), 221–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Thowfeek, M. I. M. (2017). Understanding religious tolerance in Islamic perspective. Retrieved June 3, 2018 from

  26. Van der Walt, J. L. (2014). Measuring religious tolerance in education. Retrieved June 26, 2018 from file:///I:/Dell%20data%20D/thesis%20topics/2014-VanderWalt-Measuring-religious-tolerance-in-education_5.pdf.

  27. Vogt, W. P. (2007). What is tolerance and why should we teach it? Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies,16(3–4), 277296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Warder, A. K. (1997). Indian Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass (pp. 520–522), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mehak Batool.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors claim no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

As the study involves human participants, all the ethical obligations were followed in this regard including the ethical standards of institutional/national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Batool, M., Akram, B. Development and Validation of Religious Tolerance Scale for Youth. J Relig Health 59, 1481–1493 (2020).

Download citation


  • Religious tolerance
  • Youth
  • Exploratory factor analysis
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Validation