Skip to main content

Black Male Mental Health and the Black Church: Advancing a Collaborative Partnership and Research Agenda

Abstract

This article explores the role the Black Church could play in facilitating spiritually sensitive, culturally relevant and gender-specific services to address the mental health and well-being of Black males. The help-seeking behaviors of Black men are examined as the authors offer two theories: the body, mind, spirit, environment, social, transcendent, and health, illness, men, and masculinities that may assist the Black Church in functioning as an effective support networks for healthy Black male mental health. Next, the authors discuss implications for practice, research, and education, and lastly, eight recommendations for Black Church leadership, social workers, and mental health professionals are also discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Alegría, M., Chatterji, P., Wells, K., Cao, Z., Chen, C., Takeuchi, D., et al. (2008). Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.), 59(11), 1264–1272. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.59.11.1264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Allen, A., Davey, M., & Davey, A. (2010). Being examples to the Flock: The role of church leaders and African American families seeking mental health care services. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 32(2), 117–134.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Allen, J. D., Kennedy, M., Wilson-Glover, A., & Gilligan, T. D. (2007). African-American men’s perceptions about prostate cancer: Implications for designing educational interventions. Social Science and Medicine, 64, 2189–2200.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Anandarajah, G. (2008). The 3 H and BMSEST models for spirituality in multicultural whole-person medicine. The Annals of Family Medicine, 6(5), 448–458.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Anandarajah, G., Craigie, F., Jr., Hatch, R., Kliewer, S., Marchand, L., King, D., et al. (2010). Toward competency-based curricula in patient-centered spiritual care: Recommended competencies for family medicine resident education. Academic Medicine, 85(12), 1897–1904.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Anglin, D. M., Alberti, P. M., Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. C. (2008). Racial differences in beliefs about the effectiveness and necessity of mental health treatment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 17–24.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. Anthony, J. S., Johnson, A., & Schafer, J. (2015). African American clergy and depression: What they know; What they want to know. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 22(4), 118–126.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Ayalon, L., & Young, M. A. (2005). Racial group differences in help-seeking behaviors. Journal of Social Psychology, 145(4), 391–403.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Ayalon, L., & Young, M. A. (2009). Using the SCL-90-R to assess distress in African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 39(3), 420–433.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Banks, A. (2015). Black churches bucking the trend of decline. Retrieved from http://religionnews.com/2015/08/13/black-churches-bucking-trend-decline/.

  11. Bergin, A. E. (1983). Religiosity and mental health: A critical reevaluation and meta-analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14(2), 170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bergin, A. E. (1991). Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and mental health. American Psychologist, 46(4), 394.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Bond, M. J., & Herman, A. A. (2016). Lagging life expectancy for Black Men: A public health imperative. American Journal of Public Health, 106(7), 1167–1169.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Brown, D. R., & Gary, L. E. (1987). Stressful life events, social support networks, and the physical and mental health of urban black adults. Journal of Human Stress, 13(4), 165–174.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Brown, D. R., & Gary, L. E. (1994). Religious involvement and health status among African-American males. Journal of the National Medical Association, 86(11), 825.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Brown, D. R., Ndubuisi, S. C., & Gary, L. E. (1990). Religiosity and psychological distress among blacks. Journal of Religion and Health, 29(1), 55–68.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Brown, R. K., & Brown, R. E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources And African American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2), 617–641.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Campbell, R. D., & Long, L. A. (2014). Culture as a social determinant of mental and behavioral health: A Look at culturally shaped beliefs and their impact on help-seeking behaviors and service use patterns of Black Americans with depression. Best Practice in Mental Health, 10(2), 48–62.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Cannon, M. S., & Locke, B. Z. (1977). Being Black is detrimental to one’s mental health: Myth or reality? Phylon, 38(4), 408–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Chandra, A., Copen, C. E., & Mosher, W. D. (2013). Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: Data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth. In A. K. Baumle (Ed.), International handbook on the demography of sexuality (pp. 45–66). Dordrecht: Springer.

  21. Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Lincoln, K. D. (1999). African American religious participation: A multi-sample comparison. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38, 132–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Cheng, T. C., & Robinson, M. A. (2013). Factors leading African Americans and Caribbean Blacks to use social work services for treating mental and substance use disorders. Health and Social Work, 38(2), 99–109. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlt002.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Clark, W. H. (1958). How do social scientists define religion? The Journal of Social Psychology, 47(1), 143–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Collins, W., & Perry, A. (2015). Black Men’s perspectives on the role of the Black church in healthy relationship promotion and family stability. Social Work & Christianity, 42(4), 430–448.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Cooperman, A. (2015). Racial and ethnic composition among adults who attend services weekly or more. Pew Research Center, 50, 52, 60. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/racial-and-ethnic-composition/among/attendance-at-religious-services/at-least-once-a-week/.

  26. Corrigan, P., McCorkle, B., Schell, B., & Kidder, K. (2003). Religion and spirituality in the lives of people with serious mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 39(6), 487–499.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Davis, J. A. (2004). General Social Survey. Retrieved from http://www.thearda.com/.

  28. Elder, K., & Griffith, D. M. (2016). Men’s health: Beyond masculinity. American Journal of Public Health, 106(7), 1157.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Ellis, A. (1980). Psychotherapy and atheistic values: A response to AE Bergin’s” Psychotherapy and religious values”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48(5), 635.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Evans, J., Frank, B., Oliffe, J. L., & Gregory, D. (2011). Health, illness, men and masculinities (HIMM): A theoretical framework for understanding men and their health. Journal of Men’s Health, 8(1), 7–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Fish, J. A., Prichard, I., Ettridge, K., Grunfeld, E. A., & Wilson, C. (2015). Psychosocial factors that influence men’s help-seeking for cancer symptoms: A systematic synthesis of mixed methods research. Psycho-Oncology, 24(10), 1222–1232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Fisher, F., Reitzel, L., Nga, N., Savoy, E., Advani, P., Cuevas, A., et al. (2014). Loneliness and self-rated health among Church-Attending African Americans. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(4), 481–491.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Flaskerud, J. H. (2014). Depression in men: Issues for practice and research. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 35(8), 635–639.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Ford, M. E., Vernon, S. W., Havstad, S. L., Thomas, S. A., & Davis, S. D. (2006). Factors influencing behavioral intention regarding prostate cancer screening among older African-American men. Journal of the National Medical Association, 98, 505–514.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Freud, S. (1961). A religious experience. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXI (19271931): The future of an illusion, civilization and its discontents, and other works (pp. 167–172).

  36. Fulton, B. (2011). Black churches and HIV/AIDS: Factors influencing congregations’ responsiveness to social issues. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50(3), 617–630. Retrieved May 17, 2012 from http://web.ebscohost.com.libdata.lib.ua.edu/ehost/detail?sid=6aac2155-e16e-44d9-aee9-8ba174c9c17f%40sessionmgr114&vid=5&hid=122.

  37. Gilbert, K. L., Ray, R., Siddiqi, A., Shetty, S., Baker, E. A., Elder, K., et al. (2016). Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men’s Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health. Annual Review of Public Health, 37, 295.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Griffith, D. M. (2015). “I AM a Man”: Manhood, Minority Men’s Health and Health Equity. Ethnicity and Disease, 25(3), 287–293.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Griffith, D. M., Mason, M. A., Rodela, M., Matthews, D. D., Tran, A., Royster, M., et al. (2007). A structural approach to examining prostate cancer risk for rural southern African American men. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 18, 73–101.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Hammond, W. P. (2010). Psychosocial correlates of medical mistrust among African American men. American Journal of Community Psychology, 45(1–2), 87–106.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Hankerson, S. H., Lee, Y. A., Brawley, D. K., Braswell, K., Wickramaratne, P. J., & Weissman, M. M. (2015a). Screening for depression in African-American Churches. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 526–533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.03.039.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Hankerson, S. H., Suite, D., & Bailey, R. K. (2015b). Treatment disparities among African American Men with depression: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 26(1), 21.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Hays, K. (2015). Black churches’ capacity to respond to the mental health needs of African Americans. Social Work & Christianity, 42(3), 296–312.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hays, K., & Aranda, M. P. (2015). Faith-based mental health Interventions with African Americans: A review. Research on Social Work Practice. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731515569356.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Heron, M. (2016). Death leading causes for 2013. National Vital Statistics Report, 65(2), 34–36.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Hill, P. C., & Pargament, K. I. (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality. Implications for physical and mental health research. The American Psychologist, 58(1), 64–74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I., Hood, R. W., McCullough, M. E., Jr., Swyers, J. P., Larson, D. B., et al. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 51–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Hooker, S. P., Wilcox, S., Burroughs, E. L., Rheaume, C. E., & Courtenay, W. (2012). The potential influence of masculine identity on health-improving behavior in midlife and older African American men. Journal of Men’s Health, 9(2), 79–88.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Ivtzan, I., Chan, C. P., Gardner, H. E., & Prashar, K. (2013). Linking religion and spirituality with psychological well-being: Examining self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 915–929.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Jacobs, C. F. (1990). Healing and prophecy in the black spiritual churches: A need for re-examination. Medical Anthropology, 12(4), 349–370.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Jones, S. L. (1994). A constructive relationship for religion with the science and profession of psychology: Perhaps the boldest model yet. American Psychologist, 49(3), 184.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Keyes, C. L. (2009). The Black-White paradox in health: Flourishing in the face of social inequality and discrimination. Journal of Personality, 77(6), 1677–1706.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Koenig, H. G. (2009). Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 283–291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3671693/.

  55. Koenig, H. G., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Religion and mental health: Evidence for an association. International Review of Psychiatry, 13(2), 67–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Krause, N., Ellison, C. G., Shaw, B. A., Marcum, J. P., & Boardman, J. D. (2001). Church-based social support and religious coping. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(4), 637–656.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Lancaster, K. J., Schoenthaler, A. M., Midberry, S. A., Watts, S. O., Nulty, M. R., Cole, H. V., et al. (2014). Rationale and design of faith-based approaches in the treatment of hypertension (FAITH), a lifestyle intervention targeting blood pressure control among black church members. American Heart Journal, 167(3), 301–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2013.10.026.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Levin, J., Chatters, L. M., & Taylor, R. J. (2005). Religion, health and medicine in African Americans: Implications for physicians. Journal of the National Medical Association, 97(2), 237.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. Lewis, T. T., Cogburn, C. D., & Williams, D. R. (2015). Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: Scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 407–440.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. Lincoln, C. E. (1989). Knowing the Black Church: What it is and why? The State of Black America (pp. 137–150). National Urban League.

  61. Lincoln, C., & Mamiya, L. (1990). The black church in the African American experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  62. Lindner, E. (Ed.) (2012). Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 2012 (80th ed.). Nashville: Abingdon Press.

  63. Maslow, A. H. (1964). Religions, values, and peak-experiences (Vol. 35). Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Masters, K. S., & Bergin, A. E. (1992). Religious orientation and mental health. Religion and Mental Health, 221–232.

  65. Masuda, A., Anderson, P. L., Twohig, M. P., Feinstein, A. B., Chou, Y. Y., Wendell, J. W., et al. (2009). Help-seeking experiences and attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American college students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 31(3), 168–180.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Mattis, J. S. (2002). Religion and spirituality in the meaning–making and coping experiences of African American women: A qualitative analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26(4), 309–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Mattis, J. S., Eubanks, S., Zapata, A., Belkin, M., Grayman, N., Mitchell, N., et al. (2004). Factors influencing religious non-involvement among African American men. Review of Religious Research, 45(4), 386–403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Mattis, J., Mitchell, N., Zapata, A., Taylor, R., Chatters, L., Neighbors, H., et al. (2007). Uses of ministerial support by African Americans: A focus group study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 249–258.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. McKether, W. (2011). Roots of Civil Rights politics in Northern churches: Black migration to Saginaw, Michigan 1915 to 1960. Critical Sociology (Sage Publications, Ltd.), 37(5), 689–707.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Miller, W. R., & Thoresen, C. E. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist, 58(1), 24.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Möller-Leimkühler, A. M. (2002). Barriers to help-seeking by men: A review of sociocultural and clinical literature with particular reference to depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71(1), 1–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Moore, S. E. (2011). African American megachurches and community empowerment: Fostering life in dry places. Journal of African American Studies, 15(2), 129–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Moore, S. E., Robinson, M. A., & Adedoyin, A. C. (2016). Introduction to the special issue on police shooting of unarmed African American males: Implications for the individual, the family, and the community. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26(3–4), 247–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Neighbors, H. W., Caldwell, C., Williams, D. R., Nesse, R., Taylor, R. J., Bullard, K. M., et al. (2007). Race, ethnicity, and the use of services for mental disorders: Results from the National Survey of American Life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(4), 485–494.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Neighbors, H. W., Jackson, J. S., Bowman, P. J., & Gurin, G. (1983). Stress, coping, and black mental health: Preliminary findings from a national study. Prevention in Human Services, 2(3), 5–29.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Newlin, K., Melkus, G. D., Tappen, R., Chyun, D., & Koenig, H. G. (2008). Relationships of religion and spirituality to glycemic control in Black women with type 2 diabetes. Nursing Research, 57(5), 331–339.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Olafsdottir, S., & Pescosolido, B. A. (2009). Drawing the line: The cultural cartography of utilization recommendations for mental health problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 228–244.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Pew Research Center (2015). U.S. public becoming less religious. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/2015/11/03/u-s-public-becoming-less-religious/.

  79. Phillips, A. G. (2002). John Dewey and his religious critics. Religion and Education, 29(1), 31–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Powell, W., Adams, L. B., Cole-Lewis, Y., Agyemang, A., & Upton, R. D. (2016). Masculinity and race-related factors as barriers to health help-seeking among African American men. Behavioral Medicine, 42(3), 150–163.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. Ravenell, J. E., Whitaker, E. E., & Johnson, W. E. (2008). According to him: Barriers to healthcare among African-American men. Journal of the National Medical Association, 100, 1153–1160.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Robinson, M. A., & Cheng, T. C. (2014). Exploring African Americans’ physical health: A social determinants model. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 24(8), 899–909. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2014.914993.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Robinson, M. A., Perry, A. R., Alexander, R., & Moore, S. E. (2011). Beyond the myth: Addressing suicide among African American males. In A. J. Lemelle Jr., W. Reed, & S. Taylor (Eds.), Handbook of African American health: Social and behavioral interventions. Springer Science + Business Media: Berlin, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Rosenfield, S. (2012). Triple jeopardy? Mental health at the intersection of gender, race, and class. Social Science and Medicine, 74(11), 1791–1801.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Rowland, M., & Isaac-Savage, E. (2014). As I See It: A Study of African American Pastors’ Views on Health and Health Education in the Black Church. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(4), 1091–1101.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Schoenthaler, A., Lancaster, K., Midberry, S., Nulty, M., Ige, E., Palfrey, A., et al. (2015). The FAITH trial: Baseline characteristics of a church-based trial to improve blood pressure control in Blacks. Ethnicity and Disease, 25(3), 337–344. https://doi.org/10.18865/ed.25.3.337.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  87. Seybold, K. S. (2007). Physiological mechanisms involved in religiosity/spirituality and health. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(4), 303–309.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Sharma, P., Charak, R., & Sharma, V. (2009). Contemporary perspectives on spirituality and mental health. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 31(1), 16.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  89. Stark, R. (1999). Atheism, faith, and the social scientific study of religion. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 14(1), 41–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Stark, R., Iannaccone, L. R., & Finke, R. (1996). Religion, science, and rationality. The American Economic Review, 86(2), 433–437.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Taylor, R., Ellison, C., Chatters, L., Levin, J., & Lincoln, K. (2000). Mental health services in faith communities: The role of clergy in Black churches. Social Work, 45(1), 73–87.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Taylor, R., Woodward, A., Chatters, L., Mattis, J., & Jackson, J. (2011). Seeking help from clergy among black Caribbeans in the United States. Race and Social Problems, 3(4), 241–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Thompson, V. L. S., Bazile, A., & Akbar, M. (2004). African Americans’ perceptions of psychotherapy and psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 19–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Turner, R. P., Lukoff, D., Barnhouse, R. T., & Lu, F. G. (1995). Religious or spiritual problem. A culturally sensitive diagnostic category in the DSM-IV. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183(7), 435.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. Watkins, D. C., Walker, R. L., & Griffith, D. M. (2009). A meta-study of Black male mental health and well-being. Journal of Black Psychology, 36(3), 303–330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Wexler, R., Elton, T., Pleister, A., & Feldman, D. (2009). Barriers to blood pressure control as reported by African American patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 101, 597–603.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  97. Whaley, A. L. (2001). Cultural mistrust and mental health services for African Americans a review and meta-analysis. The Counseling Psychologist, 29(4), 513–531.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Whitley, E. M., Samuels, B. A., Wright, R. A., & Everhart, R. M. (2005). Identification of barriers to healthcare access for underserved men in Denver. Journal of Men’s Health and Gender, 2(4), 421–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Williams, D. R. (2003). The health of men: Structured inequalities and opportunities. American Journal of Public Health, 93(5), 724–731.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  100. Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 200–208.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  101. Williams, D. R., & Williams-Morris, R. (2000). Racism and mental health: The African American experience. Ethnicity & Health, 5(3–4), 243.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. World Health Organization. (2014). Mental health: A state of well-being. Retrieved August 2, 2016 from http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en/.

  103. Young, J. L., Griffith, E. E., & Williams, D. R. (2003). The integral role of pastoral counseling by African-American clergy in community mental health. Psychiatric Services, 54(5), 688–692. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.54.5.688.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butter, E. M., Belavich, T. G., et al. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 36, 549–564.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Zoratti, E. M., Havstad, S., Rodriguez, J., Robens-Paradise, Y., Lafata, J. E., & McCarthy, B. R. (1998). Health service use by African Americans and Caucasians with asthma in a managed care setting. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 158(2), 371–377.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael A. Robinson.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Robinson, M.A., Jones-Eversley, S., Moore, S.E. et al. Black Male Mental Health and the Black Church: Advancing a Collaborative Partnership and Research Agenda. J Relig Health 57, 1095–1107 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-018-0570-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Black mental health
  • Black men
  • African American men
  • Black Church
  • Masculinity
  • Health disparities
  • Religion
  • Help-seeking behaviors