The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani’s Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson’s correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and religious attitudes (r = 0.129, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a negative significant association was observed between emotion-focused coping styles and happiness (r = −0.184, P < 0.01). Moreover, results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the listed variables explained 17% of the variance of happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abolmaali, K., Ghafari, T., & Ajilchi, B. (2014). The prediction of high school girls’ happiness based on their educational major and their mothers’ gender stereotypes. Advances in Applied Sociology, 4(4), 121–127.
Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., & Mahoney, A. (2011). Examining coping methods with stressful interpersonal events experienced by Muslims living in the United States following the 9/11 attacks. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(1), 1–14.
Afshinmehr, H., Weisi, F., Mortazavi, S. S., Zinat-Motlagh, F., & Mahboubi, M. (2014). Relationship between Islamic copying styles and happiness state in parents of exceptional children. Journal of Science and Today’s World, 3(12), 567–570.
Aghili, M., & Kumar, G. V. (2008). Relationship between religious attitudes and happiness among professional employees. Journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 66–69. http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/15047.
Aliakbari Dehkordi, M., Peymanfar, E., Mohtashami, T., & Borjali, A. (2015). The comparison of different levels of religious attitude on sense of meaning, loneliness and happiness in life of elderly persons under cover of social welfare organization of urmia city. Journal of Salmand, 9(4), 297–305. Retrieved from http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-682-en.html.
Alipour, A., & Agah Harris, M. (2007). OHI reliability and validity in Iranians. Journal of Iranian Psychologists, 3(12), 287–298.
Andrews, F. M., & McKannell, A. C. (1980). Measure of self-reported Well-being: Their affective, cognitive and other components. Social Indicators Research, 8(2), 127–155.
Angner, E., Miller, M. J., Ray, M. N., Saag, K. G., & Allison, J. J. (2010). Health literacy and happiness: A community-based study. Social Indicators Research, 95(2), 325–338.
Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. Abingdon: Routledge.
Babamiri, M., Vatankhah, M., Karami Rad, B., & Ghasemi, M. (2013). Relationship between stress coping styles, negative automatic thoughts, life quality and happiness in hospitalized cardiovascular patients. Jentashapir Journal of Health Research, 5(2), 27–35.
Bahri Najafi, F., & Mehrshad Jafari, E. (2015). Investigating the relationship between religious beliefs and elementary teacher’s happiness in the working environment. International Journal of Educational and Psychological Researches, 1(2), 171–178.
Ben-Zur, H. (2009). Coping styles and affect. International Journal of Stress Management, 16(2), 87–101.
Campante, F. R., & Yanagizawa-Drott, D. H. (2013). Does religion affect economic growth and happiness? Evidence from Ramadan. The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w19768.pdf.
Campos, M., Iraurgui, J., Paez, D., & Velasco, C. (2004). Afrontamiento y regulación emocional de hechos estresantes: Un meta-análisis de 13 estudios. Boletin-de-Psicologia, (82), 25–44. Retrieved from http://www.uv.es/seoane/boletin/previos/N82-2.pdf.
Clements, A. D., & Ermakova, A. V. (2012). Surrender to God and stress: A possible link between religiosity and health. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 4(2), 93–107.
Cohen, A. B. (2002). The importance of spirituality in well-being for Jews and Christians. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(3), 287–310.
Costa, P. T., & McCare, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on subjective well-being, and happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(4), 668–678.
Delbridge, J., Headey, B., & Wearing, A. J. (1994). Happiness and religious beliefs. In L. B. Brown (Ed.), Religion, personality, and mental health (pp. 50–68). New York: Springer.
Diong, S. M., Bishop, G. D., Enkelmann, H. Chong, Tong, E. M. W., Why, Y. P., Ang, J. C. H., et al. (2005). Anger, stress, coping, social support and health: Modeling the relationships. Psychology & Health, 20(4), 467–495.
Ellison, C. G. (1991). Religious involvement and subjective well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32(1), 80–99.
Feldman, P. J., & Steptoe, A. (2003). Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with glycated hemoglobin in nondiabetic middle-aged men and women. Health Psychology, 22(4), 398–405.
Fishter, J. H. (1981). Religion and pain. New York: Crossroads.
Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. T. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55(6), 647–654.
Forouhari, S., Ghaemi, S. Z., Tobesaz, P., & Sharif, F. (2014). Relation between religious beliefs and mental health among students of Hazrat-e-Fatemeh Nursing and Midwifery College Shiraz-Iran. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 3(2), 1459–1462.
Francis, L. J., Jones, S. H., & Wilcox, C. (2000). Religiosity and happiness: During adolescence, young adulthood and later life. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 19, 245–257.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.
French, S., & Joseph, S. (1999). Religiosity and its association with happiness, purpose in life, and selfactualisation. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 2(2), 117–120.
García-Alandete, J., & Bernabé Valero, G. (2013). Religious orientation and psychological well-being among Spanish undergraduates. Acción psicológica, 10(1), 133–148.
Ghobary Bonab, B., Miner, M., & Proctor, M. (2013). Attachment to God in Islamic spirituality. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 7(2), 77–104.
Głaz, S. (2015). The importance of terminal values and religious experience of God’s presence and God’s absence in the lives of university students with various levels of empathy. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(3), 1052–1067.
Golshekoh, F. (2015). The relationship between religious attitudes, anxiety, and self-concept in students. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2(3), 59–64.
Gustems-Carnicer, J., & Calderón, C. (2013). Coping strategies and psychological well-being among teacher education students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(4), 1127–1140.
Hadyanfard, H. (2005). Subjective feelings of well-being and religious activity in a group of Muslims. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 11(2), 224–232.
Hahn, S. E. (2006). The effects of locus of control on daily exposure. Coping and reactivity to work interpersonal stressors: A diary study. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 29(4), 729–748.
Hassanvand Amouzadeh, M. (2016). A study of relationship between religious attitude and quality of life among welfare organization clients. Journal of Health, 6(5), 488–497. Retrieved From http://en.journals.sid.ir/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=485554.
Hefti, R. (2011). Integrating religion and spirituality into mental health care, psychiatry and psychotherapy. Religions, 2(4), 611–627.
Hicks, J. A., & King, L. A. (2008). Religious commitment and positive mood as information about meaning in life. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(1), 43–57.
Hicks, J. A., & King, L. A. (2009). Meaning in life as a subjective judgment and a lived experience. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(4), 638–653. Retrieved from http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/15047.
Holder, M. D., Coleman, B., & Wallace, J. M. (2010). Spirituality, religiousness and happiness in children aged 8–12 years. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(2), 131–150.
Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalglesh & M. J. Parveen (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 521–539). Chichester: Wiley.
Ismail, A. G., & Haron, N. (2014). Happiness in economics as understood across Ism and religion. Sage Open, 4(4), 1–14.
Jenaabadi, H., & Mohammadi Esfahrood, M. (2014). The Relationship between happiness and defensive methods among primary school teachers in Birjand. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 4(4), 112–115.
Jones, J. W. (1993). Living on the boundary between psychology and religion. Religion Newsletter, 18(4), 1–7.
Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2013). Religiosity’s quadratic moderation effect on the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being around the world. Retrieved from http://www.danweijers.com/pdf/Gender%20inequality%20religiosity%20and%20happiness%20Joshanloo%20Weijers.pdf.
Kate, L. J., Rebecca, M., & Joseph, H. (2010). Anxiety, depression and students, religiosity. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13(3), 267–271.
Kawa, M. H., Khan, M. L., Khan, M. O., & Baby, S. (2015). A study of religious orientation and life satisfaction among university students. International of Modern Social Sciences, 4(2), 118–129.
Khodabakhsh, M., Hashemi Razini, H., & Roozbahani, A. (2015). Effectiveness of problem solving training program in happiness and coping styles of individuals suffering from drug abuse. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 3(3), 209–216.
Khosla, M. (2006). Positive affect and coping with stress. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 23(3), 185–192.
Krok, D. (2014a). The role of meaning in life within the relations of religious coping and psychological well-being. Journal of Religion Journal and Health, 54(6), 2292–2308.
Krok, D. (2014b). The mediating role of coping in the relationships between religiousness and mental health. Archives of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy, 16(2), 5–13.
Krok, D. (2014c). Religiousness and social support as predictive factors for mental health outcomes. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychother, 16(4), 65–76.
Krok, D. (2015a). Striving for significance: The relationships between religiousness, spirituality, and meaning in life. Implicit Religion, 18(2), 233–257.
Krok, D. (2015b). Value systems and religiosity as predictors of nonreligious and religious coping with stress in early adulthood. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 17(3), 21–31.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Lesani, M., & Sharifi Yazdi, A. (2014). The study of relationship between Understanding sentences and Worship God and happiness Leaders Education District 1 in Kerman. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4(3), 115–119.
Levasseur, M., & Couture, M. (2015). Coping strategies associated with participation and quality of life in older adults. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 82(1), 44–53.
Levin, J. (2010). Religion and mental health: Theory and research. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7(2), 102–115.
Levin, J. (2014). Religion and happiness among Israeli Jews: Findings from the ISSP religion III survey. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 593–611.
Lewis, C. A., & Cruise, S. (2006). Religion and happiness: Consensus, contradictions, comments and concerns. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(3), 213–225.
Lewis, C. A., Maltby, J., & Day, L. (2005). Religious orientation, religious coping and happiness among UK adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(5), 1193–1202.
Lohman, B. J., & Jarvis, P. A. (2000). Adolescent stressors, coping strategies, and psychological Health studied the family context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(1), 10–43.
Loukzadeh, Z., & Mazloom Bafrooi, N. (2013). Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses. Journal of Caring Sciences, 2(4), 313–319.
Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkada, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 111–131.
MacCann, C., Fogarty, G. J., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2011). Coping mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and academic achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 60–70.
Maheshwari, S., & Singh, P. (2009). Psychological well-being and pilgrimage: Happiness and life satisfaction of Ardh-Kumbh Mela pilgrims (Kalpvasis) at Prayag. India. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 12(4), 285–292.
Mashili, B., & Heydari, A. (2015). Relationship between religious attitude and social acceptance with happiness among MA. Students Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz 2014–15. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 4(12), 1212–1219.
McClure, R. F., & Lodden, M. (1982). Religious activity, denomination, membership & life satisfaction. Psychology, A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 9(4), 12–17.
Moltafet, G., Mazidi, M., & Sadati, S. (2010). Personality traits, religious orientation and happiness. Procedia Social and Behavior sciences, 9, 63–69.
Mosallanejad, L., Badiye Peyma, Z., & Mahmoodi, Y. (2013). The Association between religious attitude and optimism in students of Nursing and Para medicine Faculty of Jahrom University. Islamic Lifestyle Centered on Health, 1(4), 27–30.
Newman, J. S., & Pargament, K. I. (1990). The role of religion in the problem-solving process. Review of Religious Research, 31, 390–404.
Niknami, M., Dehghani, F., Bouraki, Sh, Kazemnejad, E., & Soleimani, R. (2015). An assessment of the stressors and ways of coping in Iranian medical sciences students. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 20(4), 521–525.
Nunes, R. P., Melo, R. L. P. D., Júnior, E. G. D. S., & Eulálio, M. D. C. (2016). Relationship between coping and subjective well-being of elderly from the interior of the Brazilian Northeast. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 29. Retrieved From http://www.scielo.br/pdf/prc/v29/1678-7153-prc-s41155-016-0032-x.pdf.
Pargament, K. I., Ensing, D. S., Falgout, K., Olsen, H., Reilly, B., Van Haitsma, K., et al. (1990). God help me: I. Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant negative life events. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18(6), 793–824.
Pargament, K. I., Falb, M. D., Ano, G. G., & Wachholtz, A. B. (2013). The religious dimension of coping: Advances in theory, research, and practice. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 560–579). New York: Guilford Press.
Park, C. L. (2007). Religiousness/spirituality and health: A meaning systems perspective. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(4), 319–328.
Park, C. L. (2013a). Religion and meaning. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 357–378). New York: Guilford Press.
Park, C. L. (2013b). The meaning making model: A framework for understanding meaning, spirituality, and stress-related growth in health psychology. The European Health Psychologist, 15(2), 40–47.
Park, C. L., Armeli, S., & Tennen, H. (2004). The daily stress and coping process and alcohol use among college students. Journal of the Study of Alcohol, 65(1), 126–135.
Park, C., Cohen, L. H., & Herb, L. (1990). Intrinsic religiousness and religious coping as life stress moderators for Catholics versus Protestants. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(3), 562–574.
Paula Júnior, W., & Zanini, D. (2011). Estratégias de coping de pacientes oncológicos em tratamento radioterápico. Psicologia Teoria e Pesquisa, 27(4), 491–497.
Phillips, D., Chamberlain, A., & Goreczny, A. J. (2014). The relationship between religious orientation and coping styles among older adults and young adults. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 2(1), 29–43.
Pollner, M. (1989). Divine relations, social relations, and well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30(1), 92–104.
Rajaei, A. R., Khoynezhad, Gh R, Javanmard, J., & Abdollahpour, M. (2016). The relation between positive psychological states and coping styles. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 18(1), 57–63.
Sahraian, A., Gholami, A., Javadpour, A., & Omidvar, B. (2013). Association between religiosity and happiness among a group of muslim undergraduate students. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(2), 450–453.
Salahodjaev, R. (2014). Can religion buy happiness? The case of Singapore. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper, No. 56777. Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/56777/1/MPRA_paper_56777.pdf.
Schimmel, J. (2009). Development as happiness: The subjective perception of happiness and UNDP’s analysis of poverty, wealth and development. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(1), 93–111.
Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 679–687). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, M. E., Watson, R., Clark, A., Ebmeier, K. P., & Deary, I. A. (2010). Hierarchy of happiness? Mokken scaling analysis of the Oxford happiness inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(7), 845–848.
Strumpfer, D. J. W. (2006). The strengths perspective: Fortigenesis in adult life. Social Indicators Research, 77(1), 11–36.
Taheri, N., Hojati, H., Kamangar, S., Mosavi, Z., Ghorbani, S., Farhadi, S., et al. (2013). Investigating defensive methods employed by nurses in stressful situations. Journal of Health Promotion Management, 2(4), 57–64.
Veenhoven, R. (1997). Advances in understanding happiness. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 18(2), 29–74.
Willard, A. K., & Norenzayan, A. (2013). Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life’s purpose. Cognition, 129(2), 379–391.
Yang, K. P., & Mao, X. Y. (2007). A study of nurses, spiritual intelligence: A cross sectional questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(6), 999–1010.
Yeganeh, T., & Shaikhmahmoodi, H. (2013). Role of religious orientation in predicting marital adjustment and psychological well-being. Sociology Mind, 3(2), 131–136.
Yehya, N., & Dutta, M. (2010). Health, religion, and meaning: A culture-centered study of Druze women. Qualitative Health Research, 20(6), 845–858.
Zhang, D., Wu, Y., & Pan, X. (2013). Chinese personality traits and mental health: Mediating effect of coping style. Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2(2), 68–72.
Ziapour, S. S., Dusti, Y. A., & Abbasi Asfajir, A. (2014). The correlation between happiness and death anxiety: A case study in health personnel of Zareh hospital of Sari. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 4(2), 172–177. Retrieved from http://pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/european-journal-of-experimental-biology/vol4-iss2/EJEB-2014-4-2-172-177.pdf.
Zokaee Kheyrabi, M., Yaghoubi, A., & Golestani Bakht, T. (2014). Comparing the personality types, quality of life and coping styles in men consuming crack and healthy individuals. European online Journal of Natural & Social Sciences, 3(4), 1236–1244.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consents were obtained from all of the participants.
About this article
Cite this article
Fariddanesh, M., Rezaei, A.M. Predicting the Happiness of Adolescents Based on Coping Styles and Religious Attitudes. J Relig Health 58, 537–553 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0497-7
- Religious attitudes
- Problem-focused coping styles
- Emotion-focused coping strategies