Predicting the Happiness of Adolescents Based on Coping Styles and Religious Attitudes
- 135 Downloads
The study aimed to predict the happiness of adolescents based on coping styles and religious attitudes. To this end, the correlational research methodology was used. In total, 381 subjects were selected from adolescents of Semnan (Eastern province of Iran), using multistage clustering sampling method. Research tools were Ways of Coping Questionnaire by Lazarus, Golriz and Barahani’s Religious Attitude Questionnaire, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. Results of Pearson’s correlation demonstrated a significant positive relationship between happiness of adolescents and variables of problem-focused coping styles (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and religious attitudes (r = 0.129, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, a negative significant association was observed between emotion-focused coping styles and happiness (r = −0.184, P < 0.01). Moreover, results of multiple regression analysis indicated that the listed variables explained 17% of the variance of happiness in totality. According to the results, it is recommended that use of problem-focused styles be emphasized in addition to strengthening of religious attitudes to increase the happiness of adolescents.
KeywordsReligious attitudes Problem-focused coping styles Emotion-focused coping strategies Happiness
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consents were obtained from all of the participants.
- Afshinmehr, H., Weisi, F., Mortazavi, S. S., Zinat-Motlagh, F., & Mahboubi, M. (2014). Relationship between Islamic copying styles and happiness state in parents of exceptional children. Journal of Science and Today’s World, 3(12), 567–570.Google Scholar
- Aghili, M., & Kumar, G. V. (2008). Relationship between religious attitudes and happiness among professional employees. Journal of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 66–69. http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/15047.
- Aliakbari Dehkordi, M., Peymanfar, E., Mohtashami, T., & Borjali, A. (2015). The comparison of different levels of religious attitude on sense of meaning, loneliness and happiness in life of elderly persons under cover of social welfare organization of urmia city. Journal of Salmand, 9(4), 297–305. Retrieved from http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-682-en.html.
- Alipour, A., & Agah Harris, M. (2007). OHI reliability and validity in Iranians. Journal of Iranian Psychologists, 3(12), 287–298.Google Scholar
- Argyle, M. (2001). The psychology of happiness. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Babamiri, M., Vatankhah, M., Karami Rad, B., & Ghasemi, M. (2013). Relationship between stress coping styles, negative automatic thoughts, life quality and happiness in hospitalized cardiovascular patients. Jentashapir Journal of Health Research, 5(2), 27–35.Google Scholar
- Campante, F. R., & Yanagizawa-Drott, D. H. (2013). Does religion affect economic growth and happiness? Evidence from Ramadan. The National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w19768.pdf.
- Campos, M., Iraurgui, J., Paez, D., & Velasco, C. (2004). Afrontamiento y regulación emocional de hechos estresantes: Un meta-análisis de 13 estudios. Boletin-de-Psicologia, (82), 25–44. Retrieved from http://www.uv.es/seoane/boletin/previos/N82-2.pdf.
- Fishter, J. H. (1981). Religion and pain. New York: Crossroads.Google Scholar
- Forouhari, S., Ghaemi, S. Z., Tobesaz, P., & Sharif, F. (2014). Relation between religious beliefs and mental health among students of Hazrat-e-Fatemeh Nursing and Midwifery College Shiraz-Iran. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 3(2), 1459–1462.Google Scholar
- Francis, L. J., Jones, S. H., & Wilcox, C. (2000). Religiosity and happiness: During adolescence, young adulthood and later life. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 19, 245–257.Google Scholar
- Golshekoh, F. (2015). The relationship between religious attitudes, anxiety, and self-concept in students. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2(3), 59–64.Google Scholar
- Hadyanfard, H. (2005). Subjective feelings of well-being and religious activity in a group of Muslims. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 11(2), 224–232.Google Scholar
- Hassanvand Amouzadeh, M. (2016). A study of relationship between religious attitude and quality of life among welfare organization clients. Journal of Health, 6(5), 488–497. Retrieved From http://en.journals.sid.ir/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=485554.
- Hicks, J. A., & King, L. A. (2009). Meaning in life as a subjective judgment and a lived experience. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(4), 638–653. Retrieved from http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/15047.
- Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Isen, A. M. (1999). Positive affect. In T. Dalglesh & M. J. Parveen (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 521–539). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Jenaabadi, H., & Mohammadi Esfahrood, M. (2014). The Relationship between happiness and defensive methods among primary school teachers in Birjand. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 4(4), 112–115.Google Scholar
- Jones, J. W. (1993). Living on the boundary between psychology and religion. Religion Newsletter, 18(4), 1–7.Google Scholar
- Joshanloo, M., & Weijers, D. (2013). Religiosity’s quadratic moderation effect on the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being around the world. Retrieved from http://www.danweijers.com/pdf/Gender%20inequality%20religiosity%20and%20happiness%20Joshanloo%20Weijers.pdf.
- Kawa, M. H., Khan, M. L., Khan, M. O., & Baby, S. (2015). A study of religious orientation and life satisfaction among university students. International of Modern Social Sciences, 4(2), 118–129.Google Scholar
- Khodabakhsh, M., Hashemi Razini, H., & Roozbahani, A. (2015). Effectiveness of problem solving training program in happiness and coping styles of individuals suffering from drug abuse. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 3(3), 209–216.Google Scholar
- Khosla, M. (2006). Positive affect and coping with stress. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 23(3), 185–192.Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Lesani, M., & Sharifi Yazdi, A. (2014). The study of relationship between Understanding sentences and Worship God and happiness Leaders Education District 1 in Kerman. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 4(3), 115–119.Google Scholar
- Levin, J. (2010). Religion and mental health: Theory and research. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7(2), 102–115.Google Scholar
- Mashili, B., & Heydari, A. (2015). Relationship between religious attitude and social acceptance with happiness among MA. Students Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz 2014–15. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 4(12), 1212–1219.Google Scholar
- McClure, R. F., & Lodden, M. (1982). Religious activity, denomination, membership & life satisfaction. Psychology, A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 9(4), 12–17.Google Scholar
- Mosallanejad, L., Badiye Peyma, Z., & Mahmoodi, Y. (2013). The Association between religious attitude and optimism in students of Nursing and Para medicine Faculty of Jahrom University. Islamic Lifestyle Centered on Health, 1(4), 27–30.Google Scholar
- Nunes, R. P., Melo, R. L. P. D., Júnior, E. G. D. S., & Eulálio, M. D. C. (2016). Relationship between coping and subjective well-being of elderly from the interior of the Brazilian Northeast. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 29. Retrieved From http://www.scielo.br/pdf/prc/v29/1678-7153-prc-s41155-016-0032-x.pdf.
- Pargament, K. I., Falb, M. D., Ano, G. G., & Wachholtz, A. B. (2013). The religious dimension of coping: Advances in theory, research, and practice. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 560–579). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Park, C. L. (2013a). Religion and meaning. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 357–378). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Park, C. L. (2013b). The meaning making model: A framework for understanding meaning, spirituality, and stress-related growth in health psychology. The European Health Psychologist, 15(2), 40–47.Google Scholar
- Phillips, D., Chamberlain, A., & Goreczny, A. J. (2014). The relationship between religious orientation and coping styles among older adults and young adults. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 2(1), 29–43.Google Scholar
- Rajaei, A. R., Khoynezhad, Gh R, Javanmard, J., & Abdollahpour, M. (2016). The relation between positive psychological states and coping styles. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 18(1), 57–63.Google Scholar
- Salahodjaev, R. (2014). Can religion buy happiness? The case of Singapore. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper, No. 56777. Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/56777/1/MPRA_paper_56777.pdf.
- Steger, M. F. (2009). Meaning in life. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 679–687). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Taheri, N., Hojati, H., Kamangar, S., Mosavi, Z., Ghorbani, S., Farhadi, S., et al. (2013). Investigating defensive methods employed by nurses in stressful situations. Journal of Health Promotion Management, 2(4), 57–64.Google Scholar
- Veenhoven, R. (1997). Advances in understanding happiness. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 18(2), 29–74.Google Scholar
- Zhang, D., Wu, Y., & Pan, X. (2013). Chinese personality traits and mental health: Mediating effect of coping style. Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 2(2), 68–72.Google Scholar
- Ziapour, S. S., Dusti, Y. A., & Abbasi Asfajir, A. (2014). The correlation between happiness and death anxiety: A case study in health personnel of Zareh hospital of Sari. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 4(2), 172–177. Retrieved from http://pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/european-journal-of-experimental-biology/vol4-iss2/EJEB-2014-4-2-172-177.pdf.
- Zokaee Kheyrabi, M., Yaghoubi, A., & Golestani Bakht, T. (2014). Comparing the personality types, quality of life and coping styles in men consuming crack and healthy individuals. European online Journal of Natural & Social Sciences, 3(4), 1236–1244.Google Scholar