Altruism and Religion: A New Paradigm for Organ Donation

Abstract

Activity of NGO’s supporting living donor kidney donations can affect the shortage of kidneys. Matnat Chaim is a Jewish orthodox organization active in Israel since 2009. This is a voluntary organization with aims to shorten and eliminate the waiting list for kidneys. Since the beginning of its activity, it has said to play a key role in 379 kidney transplantations. In 2015, out of 174 live donor kidney transplantations that took place in Israel, Matnat Chaim had a key role in 88 of them (50.6%). We found some ethical issues concerning the organization's activity. The donor can restrict his or her donation to specific characteristics of recipient which can result in organs transplanted in a homogeneous group of the population. Another issue is the question of whether nudging people to kidney donation takes place and whether it is valid to do so. We found that Matnat Chaim does a great deal for promotion and intermediation of kidney donations in Israel. This form of promotion can be implemented by other organizations and countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Transplant Foundation. http://www.americantransplantfoundation.org/.

  2. A study of the deceased organ donation environment in Delhi/NCR. http://organindia.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/ORGAN-Research-Report.pdf.

  3. Ashlagi, I., Gilchrist, D. S., Roth, A. E., & Rees, M. A. (2011). Nonsimultaneous chains and dominos in kidney- paired donation-revisited. American Journal of Transplantation, 11(5), 984–994. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03481.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Branco, F., Cavadas, V., Rocha, A., et al. (2013). Living versus cadaveric-donor renal transplant recipients: A comparison on sexual function. Transplantation Proceedings, 45(3), 1066–1069. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.03.011.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Et DG, Et DG, Ricci A, et al. (2016). Newsletter transplant international figures on donation and transplantation produced by the council of EUROPE EUROPEAN committee, vol 21. https://www.edqm.eu/sites/default/files/newsletter_transplant_2015.pdf.

  6. Gentry, S. E., Montgomery, R. A., Swihart, B. J., & Segev, D. L. (2009). The roles of dominos and nonsimultaneous chains in kidney paired donation. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(6), 1330–1336. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02622.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Ghods, A. J., & Savaj, S. (2006). Iranian model of paid and regulated living-unrelated kidney donation. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 1(6), 1136–1145. doi:10.2215/CJN.00700206.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Grunnet, N., Bödvarsson, M., Jakobsen, A., et al. (2010). Scandiatransplant report 2009. Transplantation Proceedings, 42(10), 4429–4431. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.09.111.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Hart, A., Smith, J. M., Skeans, M. A., et al. (2017). OPTN/SRTR 2015 Annual data report: kidney. American Journal of Transplantation, 17(S1), 21–116. doi:10.1111/ajt.14124.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Horvat, L. D., Shariff, S. Z., & Garg, A. X. (2009). Global trends in the rates of living kidney donation. Kidney International, 75(10), 1088–1098. doi:10.1038/ki.2009.20.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Ibrahim, H. N., Akkina, S. K., Leister, E., et al. (2009a). Pregnancy outcomes after kidney donation. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(4), 825–834. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02548.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Ibrahim, H. N., Foley, R., Tan, L., et al. (2009b). Long-term consequences of kidney donation. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(5), 459–469. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804883.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Israel ministry of health–organ transplant. http://www.health.gov.il/Subjects/Organ_transplant/transplant/Pages/default.aspx.

  14. Marteau, T. M., Ogilvie, D., Roland, M., Suhrcke, M., & Kelly, M. P. (2011). Judging nudging: can nudging improve population health? BMJ, 342, d228.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Matas, A. J., Smith, J. M., Skeans, M. A., et al. (2014). OPTN/SRTR 2012 Annual Data Report: Kidney. American Journal of Transplantation, 14(SUPPL. 1), 11–44. doi:10.1111/ajt.12579.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Purnell, T. S., Auguste, P., Crews, D. C., et al. (2013). Comparison of life participation activities among adults treated by hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation: A systematic review. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 62(5), 953–973. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.03.022.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Reisæter, A. V., Røislien, J., Henriksen, T., Irgens, L. M., & Hartmann, A. (2009). Pregnancy and birth after kidney donation: The norwegian experience. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(4), 820–824. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02427.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Rodrigue, J. R., Schold, J. D., & Mandelbrot, D. A. (2013). The decline in living kidney donation in the United States: random variation or cause for concern? Transplantation, 96(9), 767–773. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e318298fa61.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. SCOT Data. (2014). Dialysis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 25(4), 918–926.

  20. Shroff, S. (2009). Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation. Indian Journal of Urology, 25(3), 348–355. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.56203.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Sickand, M., Cuerden, M. S., Klarenbach, S. W., et al. (2009). Reimbursing live organ donors for incurred non-medical expenses: A global perspective on policies and programs. American Journal of Transplantation, 9(12), 2825–2836. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02829.x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Stoler, A., Kessler, J. B., Ashkenazi, T., Roth, A. E., & Lavee, J. (2016). Incentivizing authorization for deceased organ donation with organ allocation priority: The first 5 years. American Journal of Transplantation, 7, 1–7. doi:10.1111/ajt.13802.

    Google Scholar 

  23. The Israeli organ transplantation law, english translation. http://www.declarationofistanbul.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=267:israel-transplantlaw-organ-transplant-act-2008&catid=83:legislation&Itemid=130. Published 2008.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aviad Rabinowich.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rabinowich, A., Jotkowitz, A. Altruism and Religion: A New Paradigm for Organ Donation. J Relig Health 57, 360–365 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0488-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Kidney transplantation
  • Motivating living kidney donation
  • Religious-based non-government organization