Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Religious Orientation are Positively Associated with Attitudes Toward Cleanliness: Exploring Multiple Routes from Godliness to Cleanliness
- 40 Downloads
In the present study, we explore how intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations are associated with cleanliness attitudes. We find that reported importance of religion is associated with increased cleanliness concerns and interest in cleanliness. Attitudes toward cleanliness were also associated with both intrinsic religious orientation and extrinsic religious orientation. Together, religiosity and religious orientation account for 14.7% of cleanliness attitudes and remained significant in the presence of personality, socioeconomic status, age, education, obsessive–compulsive attitudes toward cleanliness, and other covariates. These results show that religiosity is associated with cleanliness via multiple routes. We suggest that intrinsic religious orientation leads to increased interest in cleanliness due to the link between physical and spiritual purity. Extrinsic religious orientation may be linked with cleanliness because of the secondary benefits, including health and the facilitation in communal cohesiveness, that cleanliness rituals offer. The implications of these findings for the relationship between religion and health are discussed.
KeywordsReligiosity Intrinsic religions orientation Extrinsic religious orientation Cleanliness Public health
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bartkowski, J. P., Pearce, L., Alwin, D., Felson, J., Regnerus, M., King, V., et al. (2010). Religion, families, and health: Population-based research in the United States. Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Buyukcelebi, I. (2003). Living in the shade of Islam: A comprehensive reference of theory and practice. Clifton, NJ: Tughra Books.Google Scholar
- Fewtrell, L., Kaufmann, R. B., Kay, D., Enanoria, W., Haller, L., & Colford, J. M. (2005). Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(1), 42–52. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(04)01253-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flere, S., & Lavrič, M. (2008). Is intrinsic religious orientation a culturally specific American Protestant concept? The fusion of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation among non-Protestants. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(3), 521–530. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Flood, G. D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Frank, R. S., & Wollheim, W. (1986). The book of Jewish books: A reader’s guide to Judaism. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
- John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (2008). Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Kark, J. D., Shemi, G., Friedlander, Y., Martin, O., Manor, O., & Blondheim, S. H. (1996). Does religious observance promote health? Mortality in secular versus religious Kibbutzim in Israel. American Journal of Public Health, 86(3), 341–346. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.86.3.341.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Hood, R. W., Jr. (1990). Intrinsic–extrinsic religious orientation: The boon or bane of contemporary psychology of religion? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29, 442–462.Google Scholar
- Koenig, H. (2013). Is religion good for your health?: The effects of religion on physical and mental health. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HS-4AQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=coping,+stress+and+physical+health&ots=rw3zaW4Fvp&sig=SxR749lMJddPh85mEMDXONVDqM8.
- Litman, L., Robinson, J., & Abberbock, T. (2017). TurkPrime.com: A versatile crowdsourcing data acquisition platform for the behavioral sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 49(2), 433–442.Google Scholar
- Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., & Swank, A. B. (2001). Religion in the home in the 1980s and 1990s: A meta-analytic review and conceptual analysis of links between religion, marriage, and parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(4), 559–596. doi: 10.1037/1941-1022.S.1.63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCullough, M. E., Bono, G., & Root, L. M. (2005a). Religion and forgiveness. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 394–411). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- McCullough, M. E., Enders, C. K., Brion, S. L., & Jain, A. R. (2005b). The varieties of religious development in adulthood: A longitudinal investigation of religion and rational choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(1), 78.Google Scholar
- McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. (2009). Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135(1), 69.Google Scholar
- Sanavio, E. (1988). Obsessions and compulsions: The Padua Inventory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26(2), 169–177.Google Scholar
- Schnall, E., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Swencionis, C., Zemon, V., Tinker, L., O’Sullivan, M. J., et al. (2010). The relationship between religion and cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Psychology & Health, 25(2), 249–263. doi: 10.1080/08870440802311322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sum, L. M. (2013). Effect of physical cleanliness and cognitive cleanliness on moral judgment.Google Scholar
- Williams, M. T., Gooden, A. M., & Davis, D. (2012b). African Americans, European Americans, and pathological stereotypes: An African-centered perspective. Psychology of Culture.Google Scholar
- Williams, D. R., & Sternthal, M. J. (2007). Spirituality, religion and health: Evidence and research directions. Medical Journal of Australia, 186(10), S47.Google Scholar