Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale: Development and Initial Evidence

  • Kenneth T. Wang
  • G. E. Kawika Allen
  • Hannah I. Stokes
  • Han Na Suh
Original Paper


In this study, the Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) was developed with Latter-day Saints (Mormons) across two samples. Sample 1 (N = 421) was used for EFA to select items for the Perceived Standards from God (5 items) and the Perceived Discrepancy from God (5 items) subscales. Sample 2 (N = 420) was used for CFA and cross-validated the 2-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Perceived Standards from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .78, and Perceived Discrepancy from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .82 to .84. Standards from God scores were positively correlated with positive affect, whereas Discrepancy from God scores was positively correlated with negative affect, shame and guilt. Moreover, these two PPGS subscale scores added significant incremental variances in predicting associated variables over and above corresponding personal perfectionism scores.


Perfectionism Scale development Latter-day Saints Religiosity Psychometric 



The authors wish to acknowledge an internal research grant from the David O. McKay School of Education at Brigham Young University that supported this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the Declaration of Helsinki 1964 and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth T. Wang
    • 1
  • G. E. Kawika Allen
    • 2
  • Hannah I. Stokes
    • 2
  • Han Na Suh
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologyFuller Theological SeminaryPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Counseling Psychology and Special EducationBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Education, School and Counseling PsychologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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