Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale: Development and Initial Evidence
- 125 Downloads
In this study, the Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) was developed with Latter-day Saints (Mormons) across two samples. Sample 1 (N = 421) was used for EFA to select items for the Perceived Standards from God (5 items) and the Perceived Discrepancy from God (5 items) subscales. Sample 2 (N = 420) was used for CFA and cross-validated the 2-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Perceived Standards from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .78, and Perceived Discrepancy from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .82 to .84. Standards from God scores were positively correlated with positive affect, whereas Discrepancy from God scores was positively correlated with negative affect, shame and guilt. Moreover, these two PPGS subscale scores added significant incremental variances in predicting associated variables over and above corresponding personal perfectionism scores.
KeywordsPerfectionism Scale development Latter-day Saints Religiosity Psychometric
The authors wish to acknowledge an internal research grant from the David O. McKay School of Education at Brigham Young University that supported this study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the Declaration of Helsinki 1964 and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Craddock, A. E., Church, W., Harrison, F., & Sands, A. (2010). Family of origin qualities as predictors of religious dysfunctional perfectionism. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 38, 205–214.Google Scholar
- DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Ellis, A. (1986). Do some religious beliefs help create emotional disturbance? Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 4, 101–106.Google Scholar
- Marschall, D., Sanftner, J., & Tangney, J. P. (1994). The state shame and guilt scale. Fairfax: George Mason University.Google Scholar
- Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (Eds.). (2003). Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 119–125. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:1119::AID-JCLP22703801183.0.CO;2-I.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rice, K. G., & Slaney, R. B. (2002). Clusters of perfectionists: Two studies of emotional adjustment and academic achievement. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 35, 35–48.Google Scholar
- Shea, A. J., Slaney, R. B., & Rice, K. G. (2006). Perfectionism in intimate relationships: The dyadic almost perfect scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 39, 107–125.Google Scholar
- Slaney, R. B., Rice, K. G., Mobley, M., Trippi, J., & Ashby, J. S. (2001). The revised almost perfect scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 130–145.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Watson, P. J., Chen, Z., & Sisemore, T. A. (2011). Grace and Christian psychology—Part 2: Psychometric refinements and relationships with self-compassion, depression, beliefs about sin, and religious orientation. Edification: The Transdisciplinary Journal of Christian Psychology, 4, 64–72.Google Scholar
- Worthington, E. J., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., et al. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory–10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar