Religiosity, Gender, and Natural Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Disaster-Stricken Regions in Iran
- 168 Downloads
While religiosity is emerging as one of the more important subjects in disaster management, identifying gender differences in using religion as a coping method has attracted very little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of religiosity on disaster-affected women and men in the setting of Iran. A field-based investigation using a qualitative approach was carried out to achieve the study’s purpose. Data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with 25 participants who had been damaged by recent disasters. Two themes, negative and positive effects of religiosity, and five categories were extracted from the data. Women may be influenced by religion more than men, and thus, they can play key roles in strengthening the positive effects of religiosity.
KeywordsReligiosity Gender Natural disaster Iran
The authors gratefully appreciate the collaborations of the disaster-affected people and health officials in order to collecting data in the fields.
The study was funded by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
- Bentzen, J. S. (2013). Origins of religiousness: The role of natural disasters. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
- Bradley, R., Schwartz, A. C., & Kaslow, N. J. (2005). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: Self-esteem, social support, and religious coping. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(6), 685–696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brown, J. S., Cherry, K. E., Marks, L. D., Jackson, E. M., Volaufova, J., Lefante, C., et al. (2010). After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Gender differences in health and religiosity in middle-aged and older adults. Health Care for Women International, 31(11), 997–1012.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Delaney, P. L., & Shrader, L. (2000). Gender and post-disaster reconstruction: The case of Hurricane Mitch in Honduras and Nicaragua. Washington, D.C: The World Bank Press.Google Scholar
- Ensor, M. O. (2003). Disaster evangelism: Religion as a catalyst for change in post-mitch honduras. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 21(2), 31–50.Google Scholar
- Fatemi, A. M. (2009). National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. Tehran: Building and Housing Research Center.Google Scholar
- Harville, E. W., Xiong, X., Smith, B. W., Pridjian, G., Elkind-Hirsch, K., & Buekens, P. (2011). Combined effects of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Gustav on the mental health of mothers of small children. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 18(4), 288–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hood, R., Spilka, B., Hunsberger, B., & Gorsuch, R. (1996). The psychology of religion: An empirical approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hussain, A. (2013). Religion in Iran. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 2(3), 2319–7714.Google Scholar
- International Federation of Red Cross. (2014). World disasters report: Focus on culture and risk. Geneva: The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.Google Scholar
- Iranian Student News Agency. (2012). Report on Behshahr flood. Retrieved February 20, 2012 from http://isna.ir/fa/news/91072315103/.
- Iranian Student News Agency. (2013). ISNA Report on Bushehr earthquake. Retrieved May 15, 2012 from http://www.isna.ir/fa/news/92012106419/37.
- Jafari, M. (2012). East Azerbaijan earthquakes: Internet file. Retrieved October 20, 2012 from http://anthropology.ir/node/14565.
- Koenig, H. (1998). Handbook of religion and mental health. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, J. (2000). The hazards of one’s faith: Hazard perceptions of South Carolina Christian clergy. Environmental Hazards, 2, 25–41.Google Scholar
- Nabi, S. (2001). Role of religion in humanitarian action from the community’s perspective. Paper presented at the World Conference of Religions for Peace.Google Scholar
- Nabi, S. (2012). Role of religion in designing mental health interventions for women in a post disaster scenario: A reference guide for mental health professionals in India and Bangladesh. Groningen, Netherlands: University of Groningen.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. USA: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Penick, J. L. (1981). The New Madrid Earthquakes (p. 176). Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press.Google Scholar
- Schipper, L., Merli, C., & Nunn, P. (2014). World disasters report: How religion and belief influence attitudes to risk. Retrieved June 6, 2015 from https://www.ifrc.org/en/publications-and-reports/world-disasters-report/world-disasters-report-2014/world-disasters-report-2014–chapter-2/.
- Schumak, W. (2000). An act of Allah: religious explanations for floods in Bangladesh as survival strategy. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 18(1), 85–95.Google Scholar
- Sohrabizadeh, S., Tourani, S., Khankeh HR. (2015). Developing gender analysis factors in disaster management: The case of Iran. PhD. diss., Iran University of Medical Sciences.Google Scholar
- Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research, techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.Google Scholar
- World Economic Forum. (2013). The global gender gap report 2013. Switzerland: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar