Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 72–83 | Cite as

Sex-Specific Impact of Spiritual Beliefs and Sleep Quality on Degree of Psychological Distress

  • Adam P. KnowldenEmail author
  • Meghan E. Shewmake
  • Maranda Burns
  • Andy Harcrow
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to test a set of hypotheses suggesting sleep quality and spiritual beliefs differed according to degree of psychological distress and biological sex. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index measured sleep quality, the Beliefs and Values Scale measured spiritual beliefs, and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale measured distress. A factorial MANOVA tested the model. Higher sleep quality and greater spiritual beliefs were associated with lower levels of distress. Women exhibited lower sleep quality than men, whereas spiritual beliefs were equivalent between sexes. To decrease psychological distress, interventions should improve sleep quality and increase spiritual engagement.


Mental health Mental stress Sleep health Sleep quality Spirituality 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam P. Knowlden
    • 1
    Email author
  • Meghan E. Shewmake
    • 2
  • Maranda Burns
    • 1
  • Andy Harcrow
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Health ScienceThe University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health ScienceThe University of AlabamaTuscaloosaUSA

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