Reduced Sense of Coherence Due to Neuroticism: Are Transcendent Beliefs Protective Among Catholic Pastoral Workers?
- 186 Downloads
In this study, we examined a third variable effect on the relationship of personality traits, especially neuroticism and the salutogenetic concept sense of coherence. Specifically, we were interested in the moderating role of religious trust (RT) and transcendence perception operationalized as daily spiritual experiences (DSE) on the aforementioned relationship among religious individuals. We applied a cross-sectional study among a sample of 8594 pastoral workers using standardized questionnaires. Multiple regression and moderator analysis displayed the relationships between big five personality variables and sense of coherence. Neuroticism was identified as a negative predictor to sense of coherence, indicating impairment on this psychological resource. RT and DSE appear to function as moderators that buffer the negative effects of neuroticism on sense of coherence among religious persons. This is an interesting finding because people with expressions of neurotic personality tendencies often struggle to find helpful methods of coping and may find a helpful resource in the concepts studied here.
KeywordsNeuroticism Sense of coherence Religious trust Daily spiritual experiences German pastoral ministry study
This study was an investigator-initiated trial without any influence of Church authorities. All authors are members of the respective universities; three of the authors are Catholic priests (E. F., K. B. and C. J.) working at universities as researchers.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors disclose any financial or other competing interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health. How people manage stress and stay well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Baumann, K. (2015). Spannung gehört dazu (Tension is inevitably part of life). Neue Caritas, (15), 9–13.Google Scholar
- Büssing, A., Fischer, J., Ostermann, T., & Matthiessen, P. (2009). Reliance on God’s help as a measure of intrinsic religiosity in healthy elderly and patients with chronic diseases. Correlations with health-related quality of life? Applied Research in Quality of Life, 4(1), 77–90. doi: 10.1007/s11482-009-9068-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Büssing, A., Günther, A., Baumann, K., Frick, E., & Jacobs, C. (2013). Spiritual dryness as a measure of a specific spiritual crisis in catholic priests: Associations with symptoms of burnout and distress. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 2013, 246797. doi: 10.1155/2013/246797.Google Scholar
- Büssing, A., & Recchia, D. (2015). Spiritual and non-spiritual needs among german soldiers and their relation to stress perception, PTDS symptoms, and life satisfaction: Results from a structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Religion and Health,. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0073-y.Google Scholar
- Büssing, A., Wirth, A. G., Reiser, F., Zahn, A., Humbroich, K., Gerbershagen, K., et al. (2014). Experience of gratitude, awe and beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 63. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-12-63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., et al. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 375–390. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1685.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dehne, M., & Schupp, J. (2007). Persönlichkeitsmerkmale im Sozio-oekonomischen Panel (SOEP)-Konzept, Umsetzung und empirische Eigenschaften. DIW Research Notes, 26, 1–70.Google Scholar
- Frick, E., Büssing, A., Baumann, K., Weig, W., & Jacobs, C. (2015). Do self-efficacy expectation and spirituality provide a buffer against stress-associated impairment of health? A comprehensive analysis of the German Pastoral Ministry Study. Journal of Religion and Health. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0040-7.Google Scholar
- Gall, T. L., & Guirguis-Younger, M. (2013). Religious and spiritual coping: Current theory and research. In K. I. Pargament, J. Exline, & J. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (pp. 349–364). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Gerlitz, J.-Y., & Schupp, J. (2005). Zur Erhebung der Big-Five-basierten persönlichkeitsmerkmale im SOEP. DIW Research Notes, 4, 2005.Google Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Methodology in the social sciences. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Hill, P. C., Pargament, K., II, Hood, R. W., McCullough, Jr, Michael, E., Swyers, J. P., et al. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 51–77. doi: 10.1111/1468-5914.00119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hood, R. W., Hill, Peter C., & Spilka, Bernard. (2009). Psychology of religion: An empirical approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The “big five” inventory—Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Personality and Social Research.Google Scholar
- Koenig, H., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Paloutzian, R. F., & Park, C. L. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I. (2011). Religion and coping: The current state of knowledge. In S. Folkman (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 269–288). Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
- Piedmont, R. L., & Wilkins, T. A. (2014). The role of personality in understanding religious and spiritual constructs. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 292–311). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., Knopik, V. S., & Neiderheiser, J. (2013). Behavioral genetics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Thune-Boyle, I. C., Stygall, J. A., Keshtgar, M. R., & Newman, S. P. (2006). Do religious/spiritual coping strategies affect illness adjustment in patients with cancer? A systematic review of the literature. Social Science and Medicine, 63(1), 151–164. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.11.055.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Underwood, L. G., & Teresi, J. A. (2002). The daily spiritual experience scale: Development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 22–33. doi: 10.1207/S15324796ABM2401_04.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar