Journal of Religion and Health

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 337–350 | Cite as

Religion, Evolution, and Mental Health: Attachment Theory and ETAS Theory

  • Kevin J. FlannellyEmail author
  • Kathleen Galek
Original Paper


This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs—including beliefs about God and life-after-death—should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.


Brain Evolution Mental health Religion Psychiatry 



This research was supported, in part, by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. The authors thank HealthCare Chaplaincy’s Research Assistant Kathryn M. Murphy for helping prepare the manuscript and Research Librarian Helen P. Tannenbaum for assisting with the literature review.


  1. Ainsworth, M. S. (1979). Infant–mother attachment. The American Psychologist, 34(10), 932–937. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.932.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. D. (1985). Attachments across the life span. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 61(9), 792–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth, M. S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. The American Psychologist, 44(4), 709–716. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. The American Psychologist, 46(4), 333–341. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, N. B., & Badcock, P. B. (2006). Darwinian models of depression: A review of evolutionary accounts of mood and mood disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 30(5), 815–826. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.01.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Angels among us. (1993, December 27). Time, 5.Google Scholar
  7. Atran, S., & Norenzayan, A. (2004). Religion’s evolutionary landscape: Counter intuition, commitment, compassion, communion. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27(6), 713–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baxter, L. R. (2003). Basal ganglia systems in ritualistic social displays: Reptiles and humans; function and illness. Physiology & Behavior, 79, 451–460. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00164-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beck, A. T. (1991). Cognitive therapy. A 30-year retrospective. The American Psychologist, 46(4), 368–375. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beck, A. T. (1996). Beyond belief: A theory of modes, personality, and psychopathology. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 1–25). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Beck, A. T., Leahy, R. L., & Dowd, E. T. (2002). Cognitive models of depression. Clinical advances in cognitive psychotherapy: Theory and application (pp. 29–61). New York: Springer Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  13. Belavich, T. G., & Pargament, K. I. (2002). The role of attachment in predicting spiritual coping with a loved one in surgery. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 13–29. doi: 10.1023/A:1013873100466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benson, P., & Spilka, B. (1973). God image as a function of self-esteem and locus of control. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 12(3), 297–310. doi: 10.2307/1384430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhar, S. S., Brown, G. K., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Dysfunctional beliefs and psychopathology in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(2), 165–177. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2008.22.2.165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Biregard, A., & Granqvist, P. (2004). The correspondence between attachment to parents and God: Three experiments using subliminal separation cues. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(9), 1122–1135. doi: 10.1177/0146167204264266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blanchard, R. J., & Blanchard, D. C. (2003). Bringing natural behaviors into the laboratory: A tribute to Paul MacLean. Physiology & Behavior, 79(3), 515–524. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00157-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blanchard, D. C., Griebel, G., & Blanchard, R. J. (2001). Mouse defensive behaviors: Pharamacological and behavioral assays for anxiety and panic. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 205–218. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7634(01)00009-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child’s tie to his mother. The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39, 350–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  21. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Volume 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Volume 3. Loss. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  23. Bowlby, J. (1984). Psychoanalysis as a natural science. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 1(1), 7–21. doi: 10.1037/0736-9735.1.1.7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Bradshaw, M., Ellison, C. G., & Flannelly, K. J. (2008). Prayer, God imagery, and symptoms of psychopathology. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(4), 644–659. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00432.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bretherton, I. (1992). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28(5), 759–775. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.28.5.759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brody, A. L., Barsom, M. W., Bota, R. G., & Saxena, S. (2001). Prefrontal-subcortical and limbic circuit mediation of major depressive disorder. Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 6(2), 102–112. doi: 10.1053/scnp.2001.21837.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cassibba, R., Granqvist, P., Costantini, A., & Gatto, S. (2008). Attachment and god representations among lay Catholics, priests, and religious: A matched comparison study based on the adult attachment interview. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 1753–1763. doi: 10.1037/a0013772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cavallaro, R., Cavedini, P., Mistretta, P., Bassi, T., Angelone, S. M., Ubbiali, A., et al. (2003). Basal-corticofrontal circuits in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder: A controlled, double dissociation study. Biological Psychiatry, 54(4), 437–443. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01814-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Charney, D. S. (2003). Neuroanatomical circuits modulating fear and anxiety behaviors Neuroanatomical circuits modulating fear and anxiety behaviors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 38. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.108.s417.3.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 644–663. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.4.644.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dantzer, R. (2005). Somatization: A psychoneuroimmune perspective. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(10), 947–952. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.03.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Davidson, R. J. (2002). Anxiety and affective style: Role of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 51(1), 68–80. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01328-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Drevets, W. C. (1999). Prefrontal cortical-amygdalar metabolism in major depression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 614–637. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09292.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Drevets, W. C. (2000). Functional anatomical abnormalities in limbic and prefrontal cortical structures in major depression. Progress in Brain Research, 126, 413–431. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(00)26027-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Feeney, J. A., & Noller, P. (1990). Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 281–291. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.2.281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Flannelly, K. J. (2008). Review of “Six impossible things before breakfast: The evolutionary origins of beliefs”, L. Wolpert, NY: W.W. Norton. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(7), 581–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flannelly, K. J., Ellison, C. G., Galek, K., & Koenig, H. G. (2008a). Beliefs about life-after-death, psychiatric symptomology and cognitive theories of psychopathology. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 36(2), 94–103.Google Scholar
  39. Flannelly, K. J., Galek, K., Ellison, C. G., & Koenig, H. G. (2009). Beliefs about god, psychiatric symptoms, and evolutionary psychiatry. Journal of Religion and Health. doi: 10.1007/s10943-009-9244-z.
  40. Flannelly, K. J., Galek, K., & Porter, M. (2008b). The importance of cognitions in measuring spirituality and religion: The case for personal theological beliefs. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Spirituality, Theology & Health.Google Scholar
  41. Flannelly, K. J., Koenig, H. G., Galek, K., & Ellison, C. G. (2007). Beliefs, mental health, and evolutionary threat assessment systems in the brain. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195(12), 996–1003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Francis, L. J., Gibson, H. M., & Robbins, M. (2001). God images and self-worth among adolescents in Scotland. Mental Health Religion & Culture, 4(2), 103–108. doi: 10.1080/13674670110048327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Freud, S. (1920). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Horace Liveright.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fyer, A. J. (1998). Current approaches to etiology and pathophysiology of specific phobia. Biological Psychiatry, 44(12), 1295–1304. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3223(98)00274-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gilbert, P. (1984). Depression: From psychology to brain state. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Gilbert, P. (1993). Defence and safety: Their function in social behaviour and psychopathology. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32(Pt 2), 131–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gilbert, P. (1995). Biopsychosocial approaches and evolutionary theory as aids to integration in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 2(3), 135–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gilbert, P. (1998a). Evolutionary psychopathology: Why isn’t the mind designed better than it is? The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71(Pt 4), 353–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gilbert, P. (1998b). The evolved basis and adaptive functions of cognitive distortions. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71(Pt 4), 447–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gilbert, P. (2001a). Evolution and social anxiety. The role of attraction, social competition, and social hierarchies. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24(4), 723–751. doi: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70260-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gilbert, P. (2001b). Evolutionary approaches to psychopathology: The role of natural defences. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35(1), 17–27. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00856.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gilbert, P. (2002). Evolutionary approaches to psychopathology and cognitive therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 16(3), 263–294. doi: 10.1891/jcop. Scholar
  53. Gilbert, P. (2006). Evolution and depression: Issues and implications. Psychological Medicine, 36(3), 287–297. doi: 10.1017/S0033291705006112.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilbert, P. (2007). Evolved minds and compassion in the therapeutic relationship. In P. Gilbert & R. L. Leahy (Eds.), The therapeutic relationship in cognitive behavioural psychotherapies (pp. 107–142). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Gilbert, P. (in press). Developing a compassion focused approach in cognitive behavioural therapy. In G. Simos (Ed.), Cognitive behaviour therapy: A guide to the practicing clinician. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Gilbert, P., Gilbert, P., & Bailey, K. G. (2000). Social mentalities: Internal “social’ conflict and the role of inner warmth and compassion in cognitive therapy. Genes on the couch: Explorations in evolutionary psychotherapy (pp. 118–150). New York: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Granqvist, P. (1998). Religiousness and perceived childhood attachment: On the question of compensation or correspondence. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37(2), 350–367. doi: 10.2307/1387533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Granqvist, P. (2005). Building a bridge between attachment and religious coping: Tests of moderators and mediators. Mental Health Religion & Culture, 8(1), 35–47. doi: 10.1080/13674670410001666598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Granqvist, P., & Hagekull, B. (1999). Religiousness and perceived childhood attachment: Profiling socialized correspondence and emotional compensation. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38(2), 254–273. doi: 10.2307/1387793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Granqvist, P., & Hagekull, B. (2000). Religiosity, adult attachment, and why “singles” are more religious. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(2), 111–123. doi: 10.1207/S15327582IJPR1002_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Granqvist, P., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2004a). Religious conversion and perceived childhood attachment: A meta-analysis. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14(4), 223–250. doi: 10.1207/s15327582ijpr1404_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Granqvist, P., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2004b). Religious conversion and perceived childhood attachment: A meta-analysis. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14, 223–250. doi: 10.1207/s15327582ijpr1404_1. Article.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gray, T. S. (1999). Functional and anatomical relationships among the amygdala, basal forebrain, ventral striatum, and cortex. An integrative discussion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 29, 439–444. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09281.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Green, M. J., & Phillips, M. L. (2004). Social threat perception and the evolution of paranoia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28(3), 333–342. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.03.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Groenewegen, H. J., Berendse, H. W., & Wolters, J. G. (1990). The anatomical relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striayopallidal system, the thalamus and the amygdala: Evidence for parallel organization. Progress in Brain Research, 85, 95–116. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(08)62677-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Groenewegen, H. J., Wright, C. I., & Uylings, H. B. (1997). The anatomical relationships of the prefrontal cortex with limbic structures and the basal ganglia. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 11(2), 99–106. doi: 10.1177/026988119701100202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. The American Psychologist, 13(12), 673–685. doi: 10.1037/h0047884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Harris, S., Sheth, S. A., & Cohen, M. S. (2008). Functional neuroimaging of belief, disbelief, and uncertainty. Annals of Neurology, 63(2), 141–147. doi: 10.1002/ana.21301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1998). God as a substitute attachment figure: A longitudinal study of adult attachment style and religious change in college students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(9), 961–973. doi: 10.1177/0146167298249004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2005). Attachment, evolution, and the psychology of religion. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  71. Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1990). Attachment theory and religion: Childhood attachments, religious beliefs, and conversations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29(3), 315–334. doi: 10.2307/1386461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1992). An attachment-theoretical approach to romantic love and religious belief. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(3), 266–275. doi: 10.1177/0146167292183002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kirkpatrick, L. A., Shillto, D. J., & Kellas, S. L. (1999). Loneliness, social support, and perceived relationships with God. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 16(4), 513–522. doi: 10.1177/0265407599164006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Levin, J. (2002). Is depressed affect a function of one’s relationship with God?: Findings from a study of primary care patients. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 32(4), 379–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Li, D., Chokka, P., & Tibbo, P. (2001). Toward an integrative understanding of social phobia. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 26(3), 190–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lorenz, K. Z. (1952). King Solomon’s ring: New light on animal ways. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
  77. Lorenz, K. Z. (1981). The foundations of ethology. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  78. MacLean, P. D. (1972). Cerebral evolution and emotional processes: New findings on the striatal complex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 193, 137–149. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1972.tb27830.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. MacLean, P. D. (1977). The triune brain in conflict. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 28, 207–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. MacLean, P. D. (1985). Evolutionary psychiatry and the triune brain. Psychological Medicine, 15(2), 219–221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. MacLean, P. D. (1990). The triune brain in evolution: Role in paleocerebral functions. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  82. Marazziti, D., Del Debbio, A., Roncaglia, I., Bianchi, C., Piccinni, A., & Dell’Osso, L. (2008). Neurotrophins and attachment. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 5(2), 100–106.Google Scholar
  83. Marks, I. M., & Nesse, R. M. (1994). Fear and fitness: An evolutionary analysis of anxiety disorders. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15(5–6), 247–261. doi: 10.1016/0162-3095(94)90002-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mathew, S. J., Coplan, J. D., & Gorman, J. M. (2001). Neurobiological mechanisms of social anxiety disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(10), 1558–1567. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.10.1558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McNaughton, N., & Corr, P. J. (2004). A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: Fear/Anxiety and defensive distance. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 285–305. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Miner, M. H. (2008). Healthy questing and mature religious reflection: Critique, antecedents, and relevance of attachment theory? Journal of Psychology and Theology, 36(3), 222–233.Google Scholar
  87. Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Ploog, D. W. (2003). The place of the triune brain in psychiatry. Physiology & Behavior, 79(3), 487–493. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00154-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Poulton, R., & Menzies, R. G. (2002). Non-associative fear acquisition: A review of the evidence from retrospective and longitudinal research. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(2), 127–149. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00045-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Price, J. S., Gardner, R., Jr, & Erickson, M. (2004). Can depression, anxiety and somatization be understood as appeasement displays? Journal of Affective Disorders, 79(1–3), 1–11. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00452-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Radin, P. (1957). Primitive religion: Its nature and origin. New York: Dover Press.Google Scholar
  92. Rapoport, J. L., & Fiske, A. (1998). The new biology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Implications for evolutionary psychology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 41(2), 159–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rogan, M. T., Leon, K. S., Perez, D. L., & Kandel, E. R. (2005). Distinct neural signatures for safety and danger in the amygdala and striatum of the mouse. Neuron, 46(2), 309–320. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.02.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rowatt, W. C., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2002). Two dimensions of attachment to God and their relation to affect, religiosity, and personality constructs. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 637–651. doi: 10.1111/1468-5906.00143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schlager, D. (1995). Evolutionary perspectives on paranoid disorder. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(2), 263–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Schore, A. N. (1999). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  97. Sloman, L., Gilbert, P., & Hasey, G. (2003). Evolved mechanisms in depression: The role of attachment and social rankin depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74(2), 107–121. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00116-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stein, D. J. (2000). Advances in the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Implications for conceptualizing putative obsessive-compulsive and spectrum disorders. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 23(2), 545–562. doi: 10.1016/S0193-953X(05)70180-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Thouless, R. (1971). An introduction to the psychology of religion (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Tinbergen, N. (1972). The animal in its world: Explorations of an ethologist, 1932–1972. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Wenzel, A., Sharp, I. R., Brown, G. K., Greenberg, R. L., & Beck, A. T. (2006). Dysfunctional beliefs in panic disorder: The panic belief inventory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(6), 819–833. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wolpert, L. (2007). Six impossible things before breakfast: The evolutionary origins of beliefs. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  103. Zald, D. H., & Kim, S. W. (1996). Anatomy and function of the orbital frontal cortex, I: Anatomy, neurocircuitry; and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 8(2), 125–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Spears Research InstituteHealthCare ChaplaincyNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations