Skip to main content

Quality of Life and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Abstract

Poor quality of life (QoL) is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but its impact on cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERSs) has not yet been extensively investigated. We studied the association between QoL and CERSs in MS patients with taking account socio-demographic variables. Individuals with MS (n = 198, 76.3% female) reported their QoL and CERSs status using the SF-36 and CERQ-36 questionnaires, respectively. Data on socio-demographic variables were also obtained. Univariate tests and bivariate correlation and regression analysis were used to investigate the association between variables and groups. A significant positive correlation was observed between mental QoL with body mass index as well as MBI and self-blame, ruminations, and catastrophizing. Also significant negative correlation was revealed between physical QoL with rumination, other-blame and disease duration. However, regression analysis showed a significant negative association between PCS with catastrophizing, rumination, self-blame, and other-blame. A strong negative correlation was observed between age with catastrophizing and acceptance variables. The female group reported higher score for all CERSs indices but lower score for QoL component than male group. MS patients have troubles with emotion regulation strategies and QoL. These problems may be related to their physical, and physiological characteristics. The results can be applied by physicians, politicians and health policy makers in the health systems and during the treatment process to plan for the improvement of MS patients’ well-being. In general, the difference in psychological and the socio-demographic variables between patients have significantly affected QoL that should be studied in more detail in future studies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Data Availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.

References

  • Aartman, I. H., van Everdingen, T., Hoogstraten, J., & Schuurs, A. H. (1998). Self-report measurements of dental anxiety and fear in children: a critical assessment. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children, 65(4), 252–258.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Aldao, A., & Mennin, D. S. (2012). Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(2), 122–130.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Andrei, F., Nuccitelli, C., Mancini, G., Reggiani, G. M., & Trombini, E. (2018). Emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and affectivity in adults seeking treatment for obesity. Psychiatry Research, 269, 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.08.015

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Appleton, A. A., Buka, S. L., Loucks, E. B., Gilman, S. E., & Kubzansky, L. D. (2013). Divergent associations of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies with inflammation. Health Psychology, 32(7), 748–756. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030068

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Augusto-Landa, J. M., Pulido-Martos, M., & Lopez-Zafra, E. (2011). Does perceived emotional intelligence and optimism/pessimism predict psychological well-being? Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(3), 463–474.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barberis, N., Cernaro, V., Costa, S., Montalto, G., Lucisano, S., Larcan, R., & Buemi, M. (2017). The relationship between coping, emotion regulation, and quality of life of patients on dialysis. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 52(2), 111–123.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barzegar, M., Badihian, S., Mirmosayyeb, O., Ashtari, F., Jamadi, M., Emami, S., & Shaygannejad, V. (2018). Comparative study of quality of life, anxiety, depression, and fatigue among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and multiple sclerosis: The first report from Iran. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 22, 161–165.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benitez-Borrego, S., Guardia-Olmos, J., & Urzúa-Morales, A. (2014). Factorial structural analysis of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-BREF: An exploratory structural equation model study. Quality of Life Research, 23(8), 2205–2212.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Binzer, S., McKay, K. A., Brenner, P., Hillert, J., & Manouchehrinia, A. (2019). Disability worsening among persons with multiple sclerosis and depression. A Swedish Cohort Study. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008617

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blaschek, A., Calabrese, P., Rostásy, K., Huppke, P., Kessler, J., & Kalbe, E. (2019). Fatigue and depression predict health-related quality of life in patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 36, 101368.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bottone, F. G., Hawkins, K., Musich, S., Cheng, Y., Ozminkowski, R. J., Migliori, R. J., & Yeh, C. S. (2013). The relationship between body mass index and quality of life in community-living older adults living in the United States. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17(6), 495–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brummer, L., Stopa, L., & Bucks, R. (2014). The influence of age on emotion regulation strategies and psychological distress. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42(6), 668–681. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1352465813000453

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carta, M. G., Aguglia, E., Caraci, F., Dell’Osso, L., Di Sciascio, G., Drago, F., & Lecca, M. E. (2012). Quality of life and urban/rural living: Preliminary results of a community survey in Italy. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH, 8, 169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cottrell, S. S., & Wilson, S. K. (1926). Original Papers: The affective symptomatology of disseminated sclerosis.: A study of 100 cases. Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, 7(25), 1.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cruz, L. N., Polanczyk, C. A., Camey, S. A., Hoffmann, J. F., & Fleck, M. P. (2011). Quality of life in Brazil: Normative values for the Whoqol-bref in a southern general population sample. Quality of Life Research, 20(7), 1123–1129.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dardiotis, E., Tsouris, Z., Aslanidou, P., Aloizou, A.-M., Sokratous, M., Provatas, A., & Hadjigeorgiou, G. M. (2019). Body mass index in patients with multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis. Neurological Research, 41(9), 836–846.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Extremera, N., & Rey, L. (2014). Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: A cross-sectional survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 172.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fayazi, B., Parnow, A., & Ahsan, B. (2016). Effect Aerobic Exercises on fatigue and quality of life in Women with Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of Holistic Nursing and Midwifery, 26(1), 30–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feinstein, A., & Feinstein, K. (2001). Depression associated with multiple sclerosis: Looking beyond diagnosis to symptom expression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 66(2–3), 193–198.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feliu-Soler, A., Reche-Camba, E., Borràs, X., Pérez-Aranda, A., Andrés-Rodríguez, L., Peñarrubia-María, M. T., & Luciano, J. V. (2017). Psychometric properties of the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ) in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02075

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Fernández, O., Baumstarck-Barrau, K., Simeoni, M.-C., & Auquier, P. (2011). Patient characteristics and determinants of quality of life in an international population with multiple sclerosis: assessment using the MusiQoL and SF-36 questionnaires. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 17(10), 1238–1249.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Finger, S. (1998). A happy state of mind: A history of mild elation, denial of disability, optimism, and laughing in multiple sclerosis. Archives of Neurology, 55(2), 241–250.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fong, C. T. (2006). The effects of emotional ambivalence on creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 1016–1030.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garnefski, N., Koopman, H., Kraaij, V., & ten Cate, R. (2009). Brief report: Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological adjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. Journal of Adolescence, 32(2), 449–454.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1659–1669.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(8), 1311–1327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garnefski, N., Teerds, J., Kraaij, V., Legerstee, J., & van den Kommer, T. (2004). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: Differences between males and females. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(2), 267–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00083-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garnefski, N., Van Den Kommer, T., Kraaij, V., Teerds, J., Legerstee, J., & Onstein, E. (2002). The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems: Comparison between a clinical and a non-clinical sample. European Journal of Personality, 16(5), 403–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gil-González, I., Martín-Rodríguez, A., Conrad, R., & Pérez-San-Gregorio, M. Á. (2020). Quality of life in adults with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. British Medical Journal Open, 10(11), e041249. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hasking, P., Whitlock, J., Voon, D., & Rose, A. (2017). A cognitive-emotional model of NSSI: Using emotion regulation and cognitive processes to explain why people self-injure. Cognition and Emotion, 31(8), 1543–1556.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hojsgaard Chow, H., Schreiber, K., Magyari, M., Ammitzboll, C., Bornsen, L., Romme Christensen, J., & Sellebjerg, F. (2018). Progressive multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, and quality of life. Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective, 8(2), e00875. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.875

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), 36–43.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Isen, A. M., & Means, B. (1983). The influence of positive affect on decision-making strategy. Social Cognition, 2(1), 18–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobsen, P. B., Andrykowski, M. A., & Thors, C. L. (2004). Relationship of catastrophizing to fatigue among women receiving treatment for breast cancer. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(2), 355.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jankowska-Polańska, B., Kasprzyk, M., Chudiak, A., & Uchmanowicz, I. (2016). Effect of disease acceptance on quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Advances in Respiratory Medicine, 84(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.5603/PiAP.a2015.0079

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaracz, K., Pawlak, M., Górna, K., Kołcz, B., Wołoszyn, D., & Kozubski, W. (2010). Quality of life and social support in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, 44(4), 358–365.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jelinek, G. A., De Livera, A. M., Marck, C. H., Brown, C. R., Neate, S. L., Taylor, K. L., & Weiland, T. J. (2016). Lifestyle, medication and socio-demographic determinants of mental and physical health-related quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurology, 16(1), 235.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juenger, J., Schellberg, D., Kraemer, S., Haunstetter, A., Zugck, C., Herzog, W., & Haass, M. (2002). Health related quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure: Comparison with other chronic diseases and relation to functional variables. Heart, 87(3), 235–241.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kargarfard, M., Etemadifar, M., Baker, P., Mehrabi, M., & Hayatbakhsh, R. (2012). Effect of Aquatic Exercise Training on Fatigue and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(10), 1701–1708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2012.05.006

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • KazemiMoghadam, V., Dickerson, A. S., Shahedi, F., Bazrafshan, E., Seyedhasani, S. N., & Sarmadi, M. (2021). Association of the global distribution of multiple sclerosis with ultraviolet radiation and air pollution: An ecological study based on GBD data. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(14), 17802–17811.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khan, R. S., Ahmed, K., Blakeway, E., Skapinakis, P., Nihoyannopoulos, L., Macleod, K., & Darzi, A. (2011). Catastrophizing: A predictive factor for postoperative pain. The American Journal of Surgery, 201(1), 122–131.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • King, C. R., & Hinds, P. S. (2011). Quality of life: from nursing and patient perspectives. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Korhonen, P. E., Seppälä, T., Järvenpää, S., & Kautiainen, H. (2014). Body mass index and health-related quality of life in apparently healthy individuals. Quality of Life Research, 23(1), 67–74.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kovač, A., Tovilović, S., Bugarski-Ignjatović, V., Popović-Petrović, S., & Tatić, M. (2019). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in health related quality of life of breast cancer patients. Vojnosanitetski pregled(00), 178–178.

  • Kraaij, V., van der Veek, S. M., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M., Witlox, R., & Maes, S. (2008). Coping, goal adjustment, and psychological well-being in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 22(5), 395–402.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, L., Zhu, X., Yang, Y., He, J., Yi, J., Wang, Y., & Zhang, J. (2015). Cognitive emotion regulation: Characteristics and effect on quality of life in women with breast cancer. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13(1), 51.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lindsay, E. K., & Creswell, J. D. (2019). Mindfulness, acceptance, and emotion regulation: Perspectives from monitor and acceptance theory (MAT). Current Opinion in Psychology, 28, 120–125.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Livingstone, K. M., Castro, V. L., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2020). Age differences in beliefs about emotion regulation strategies. Journals of Gerontology. Series b, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 75(2), 316–326. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gby022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Livingstone, K. M., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2021). Age and emotion regulation in daily life: Frequency, strategies, tactics, and effectiveness. Emotion, 21(1), 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000672

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Luk, B.H.-K., & Loke, A. Y. (2015). The impact of infertility on the psychological well-being, marital relationships, sexual relationships, and quality of life of couples: A systematic review. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 41(6), 610–625.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marck, C. H., Neate, S. L., Taylor, K. L., Weiland, T. J., & Jelinek, G. A. (2016). Prevalence of comorbidities, overweight and obesity in an international sample of people with multiple sclerosis and associations with modifiable lifestyle factors. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0148573.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, L. L., Allison, A., Nykamp, D., & Lanke, S. (2008). Perceived stress and quality of life among doctor of pharmacy students. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 72(6), 137.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Middelkamp, W., Moulaert, V. R., Verbunt, J. A., van Heugten, C. M., Bakx, W. G., & Wade, D. T. (2007). Life after survival: Long-term daily life functioning and quality of life of patients with hypoxic brain injury as a result of a cardiac arrest. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21(5), 425–431.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moghaddam, V. K., Dickerson, A. S., Bazrafshan, E., Seyedhasani, S. N., Najafi, F., Hadei, M., & Sarmadi, M. (2021). Socioeconomic determinants of global distribution of multiple sclerosis: An ecological investigation based on Global Burden of Disease data. BMC Neurology, 21(1), 1–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moghaddam, V. K., Sarmadi, M., Tatari, M., Najafi, F., Esmaeili, A., & Hadei, M. (2018). Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Torbat-e Heydarieh (Northeast of Iran) during 1982–2016. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 24, 184–189.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montel, S., & Bungener, C. (2007). Coping and quality of life in one hundred and thirty five subjects with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 13(3), 393–401.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muhtaroglu, M., ErtugrulMut, S., Selcuk, F., & Malkoc, M. (2018). Evaluation of respiratory functions and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Acta Neurologica Belgica. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0967-z

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Namazi, A., Rafiey, H., Mousavi, M., SetarehForouzan, A., & GhaedAmini, G. (2021). A systematic review of studies on the factors affecting the quality of life in the general population of Iran. Journal of Health Literacy, 5(4), 17–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nejat, S. M. A., HolakouieNaieni, K., Mohammad, K., & Majdzadeh, S. R. (2006). The World Health Organization quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire: translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, 4(4), 12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nuttall, F. Q. (2015). Body mass index: Obesity, BMI, and health: A critical review. Nutrition Today, 50(3), 117–128. https://doi.org/10.1097/NT.0000000000000092

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Oguzturk, O. (2008). Differences in quality of life in rural and urban populations. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 31, E346–E350.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • O’Kearney, E. L., Brown, C. R., Jelinek, G. A., Neate, S. L., Taylor, K. T., Bevens, W., & Weiland, T. J. (2020). Mastery is associated with greater physical and mental health-related quality of life in two international cohorts of people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 38, 101481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.101481

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ottonello, M., Fiabane, E., Pistarini, C., Spigno, P., & Torselli, E. (2019). Difficulties in emotion regulation during rehabilitation for alcohol addiction: Correlations with metacognitive beliefs about alcohol use and relapse risk. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 2917.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pakdaman, H., AminiHarandi, A., Gharagozli, K., Abbasi, M., Tabassi, A., Ashrafi, F., & Behnam, B. (2017). Health-related quality of life in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with subcutaneous interferon β-1a in Iran. International Journal of Neuroscience, 127(6), 501–507. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2016.1198793

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, L. H., Henry, J. D., Nouzova, E., Cooper, C., Radlak, B., & Summers, F. (2014). Difficulties with emotion regulation in multiple sclerosis: Links to executive function, mood, and quality of life. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36(8), 831–842.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, L. H., Saldias, A., McCarrey, A., Henry, J. D., Scott, C., Summers, F., & Whyte, M. (2009). Attentional lapses, emotional regulation and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(1), 101–106.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Polman, C. H., Reingold, S. C., Banwell, B., Clanet, M., Cohen, J. A., Filippi, M., Fujihara, K., Havrdova, E., Hutchinson, M., Kappos, L., & Lublin, F. D. (2011). Diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: 2010 revisions to the McDonald criteria. Annals of Neurology, 69(2), 292–302.

  • Puente-Martínez, A., Prizmic-Larsen, Z., Larsen, R. J., Ubillos-Landa, S., & Páez-Rovira, D. (2021). Age differences in emotion regulation during ongoing affective life: A naturalistic experience sampling study. Developmental Psychology, 57(1), 126–138. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0001138

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rego, A., Sousa, F., Pina e Cunha, M., Correia, A., & Saur-Amaral, I. (2007). Leader self-reported emotional intelligence and perceived employee creativity: An exploratory study. Creativity and Innovation Management, 16(3), 250–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reinelt, T., Petermann, F., Bauer, F., & Bauer, C. P. (2020). Emotion regulation strategies predict weight loss during an inpatient obesity treatment for adolescents. Obesity Science & Practice, 6(3), 293–299. https://doi.org/10.1002/osp4.410

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, L., Boesen, E., Dalton, S., & Johansen, C. (2002). Mind and cancer: Does psychosocial intervention improve survival and psychological well-being? European Journal of Cancer, 38(11), 1447–1457.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruiz-Aranda, D., Salguero, J. M., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2010). Emotional regulation and acute pain perception in women. The Journal of Pain, 11(6), 564–569.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanai, S. A., Saini, V., Benedict, R. H. B., Zivadinov, R., Teter, B. E., Ramanathan, M., & Weinstock-Guttman, B. (2016). Aging and multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 22(6), 717–725. https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458516634871

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sarmadi, M., Saravani, H., Azizi, O., Najafi, F., Hadei, M., Momeni, J., & Bazrafshan, E. (2022). Temporal trends of incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran. Neurological Sciences, 43(1), 583–591.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schirda, B., Nicholas, J. A., & Prakash, R. S. (2015). Examining trait mindfulness, emotion dysregulation, and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Health Psychology, 34(11), 1107.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, S., & Jöstingmeyer, P. (2019). Depression, fatigue and disability are independently associated with quality of life in patients with multiple Sclerosis: Results of a cross-sectional study. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 35, 262–269.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schroevers, M., Kraaij, V., & Garnefski, N. (2007). Goal disturbance, cognitive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment to different types of stressful life event. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(2), 413–423.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shallcross, A. J., Troy, A. S., Boland, M., & Mauss, I. B. (2010). Let it be: Accepting negative emotional experiences predicts decreased negative affect and depressive symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(9), 921–929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.025

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Shucksmith, M., Cameron, S., Merridew, T., & Pichler, F. (2009). Urban–rural differences in quality of life across the European Union. Regional Studies, 43(10), 1275–1289.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sirois, B. C., & Burg, M. M. (2003). Negative emotion and coronary heart disease: A review. Behavior Modification, 27(1), 83–102.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skevington, S. M., Lotfy, M., O’Connell, K. A., & Organization, W. H. (2004). ’s WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment: psychometric properties and results of the international field trial. A report from the WHOQOL group. Qual Life Res, 13(2), 299–310.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steward, T., Picó-Pérez, M., Mata, F., Martínez-Zalacaín, I., Cano, M., Contreras-Rodríguez, O., & Verdejo-García, A. (2016). Emotion regulation and excess weight: Impaired Affective processing characterized by dysfunctional insula activation and connectivity. PLoS ONE, 11(3), e0152150. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152150

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Tan, Y., Xin, X., Wang, X., & Yao, S. (2018). Cognitive emotion regulation strategies in chinese adolescents with overweight and obesity. Childhood Obesity, 14(1), 26–32. https://doi.org/10.1089/chi.2017.0123

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tejada-Gallardo, C., Blasco-Belled, A., Torrelles-Nadal, C., & Alsinet, C. (2020). How does emotional intelligence predict happiness, optimism, and pessimism in adolescence? Investigating the relationship from the bifactor model. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01061-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Wijk-Herbrink, M., Andrea, H., & Verheul, R. (2011). Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(5), 634–644.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vickrey, B. G., Hays, R. D., Harooni, R., Myers, L. W., & Ellison, G. W. (1995). A health-related quality of life measure for multiple sclerosis. Quality of Life Research, 4(3), 187–206. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02260859

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vikram, M., & Singh, V. (2014). Translation and validation of the Nepalese version of oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Oral Biol Dent, 2(3), 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallin, M. T., Culpepper, W. J., Nichols, E., Bhutta, Z. A., Gebrehiwot, T. T., Hay, S. I., & Naghavi, M. (2019). Global, regional, and national burden of multiple sclerosis 1990–2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Neurology, 18(3), 269–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walton, C., King, R., Rechtman, L., Kaye, W., Leray, E., Marrie, R. A., Robertson, N., La Rocca, N., Uitdehaag, B., van der Mei, I., Wallin, M., Helme, A., Napier, C. A., Rijke, N., & Baneke, P. (2020). Rising prevalence of multiple sclerosis worldwide: Insights from the Atlas of MS, third edition. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 26(14), 1816–1821. https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458520970841

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ware, J., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. (2001). SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales. A user's manual, 1994.

  • Ware, J. E., Jr., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical care, 30(6), 473–483.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • WHO. (2022). Body mass index - BMI. Retrieved 30 March, 2022, from https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi#:~:text=BMI%2C%20formerly%20called%20the%20Quetelet,have%20a%20BMI%20of%2022.9.

  • Wierenga, K. L., Lehto, R. H., & Given, B. (2017). Emotion regulation in chronic disease populations: An integrative review. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 31(3), 247–271.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, L. L., Rowe, A. C., Robinson, E., & Hardman, C. A. (2018). Explaining the relationship between attachment anxiety, eating behaviour and BMI. Appetite, 127, 214–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.04.029

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilski, M., Gabryelski, J., Brola, W., & Tomasz, T. (2019). Health-related quality of life in multiple sclerosis: Links to acceptance, coping strategies and disease severity. Disability and Health Journal, 12(4), 608–614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.06.003

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wootla, B., Eriguchi, M., & Rodriguez, M. (2012). Is multiple sclerosis an autoimmune disease? Autoimmune Diseases, 2012, 12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/969657

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wynia, K., Middel, B., Van Dijk, J., De Keyser, J., & Reijneveld, S. (2008). The impact of disabilities on quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 14(7), 972–980.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Young, K. S., Sandman, C. F., & Craske, M. G. (2019). Positive and negative emotion regulation in adolescence: Links to anxiety and depression. Brain Sciences, 9(4), 76.

    PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ysrraelit, M. C., Fiol, M. P., Gaitán, M. I., & Correale, J. (2018). Quality of life assessment in multiple sclerosis: Different perception between patients and neurologists. Frontiers in Neurology, 8, 729–729. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2017.00729

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Zagon, I. S., & McLaughlin, P. J. (2017). Experimental In Vivo Models of Multiple Sclerosis: State of the Art-Multiple Sclerosis: Perspectives in Treatment and Pathogenesis. Codon Publications.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Zarbo, I. R., Minacapelli, E., Falautano, M., Demontis, S., Carpentras, G., & Pugliatti, M. (2016). Personality traits predict perceived health-related quality of life in persons with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 22(4), 551–558. https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458515594045

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang, M., Xv, G., Luo, C., Meng, D., & Ji, Y. (2016). Qigong Yi Jinjing promotes pulmonary function, physical activity, quality of life and emotion regulation self-efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 22(10), 810–817.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou, Y., Daukantaitė, D., Lundh, L.-G., Wångby-Lundh, M., & Ryde, A. (2020). Adolescents’ emotion regulation strategies questionnaire: Initial validation and prospective associations with nonsuicidal self-injury and other mental health problems in adolescence and young adulthood in a Swedish youth cohort. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 462.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu, Y.-X., Li, T., Fan, S.-R., Liu, X.-P., Liang, Y.-H., & Liu, P. (2016). Health-related quality of life as measured with the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14(1), 65. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0470-2

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Zhu, Y., Wang, Q., Pang, G., Lin, L., Origasa, H., Wang, Y., & Shi, H. (2015). Association between body mass index and health-related quality of life: The" obesity paradox" in 21,218 adults of the Chinese general population. PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0130613.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences for their financial support (Grant Number: 1397.0014).

Funding

This study support by Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences (Grant Number: 1397.0014).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization: SE, MS, RH and TSHA; Methodology: MS, SR, MT, ME and AA; Formal analysis and investigation: MS, TSHA, MT, SA, HS, MRN; Writing—original draft preparation: SE, MS, SA and TSHA; Writing—review and editing: All authors; Funding acquisition: MS; Resources: MS; Supervision: MS. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Sajjad Rahimi or Mohammad Sarmadi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclaimer

The funder had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was obtained from the patient’s parents.

Ethical Approval

Ethics code (IR.THUMS.REC. 1397.0014) was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Eshaghzadeh, S., Abbaspour, S., Sarboozi-hoseinabadi, T. et al. Quality of Life and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Multiple Sclerosis Patients. J Rat-Emo Cognitive-Behav Ther (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-022-00474-y

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-022-00474-y

Keywords

  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Quality of life
  • Cognitive emotion regulation
  • Neuroscience