Skip to main content

Behavioral Management in Encephalitis Rehabilitation: Review of Clinical Research with Clinical Recommendations


Encephalitis is a serious condition which can affect emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and intellectual functioning. Psychologists’ role in encephalitis rehabilitation is not standardized, but cognitive-behavioral therapy is well explored in other neurological conditions for the treatment of its comorbidities. For that reason, the aim of this article is to explore usefulness of behavioral interventions in encephalitis rehabilitation. In combined sample, only 32 patients were reportedly treated with behavioral interventions, out of which 17 (53.1%) were female. Majority of them were rehabilitated in post-encephalitis phase. Most popular treatment setting was rehabilitation institution, followed by combination of institutionalized and community rehabilitation. Researchers usually treated with behavioral interventions aggression, agitation, and deficits in functional living skills. Post-assessment measures showed that improvement is maintained from 1–12 months. Popular interventions included in vivo exposure, reinforcement, shaping, and aversion therapy. The author presents and discusses in detail practical guidelines for behavioral management techniques in encephalitis patients.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


Download references




The research has received no specific funding grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ivan Zečević.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zečević, I. Behavioral Management in Encephalitis Rehabilitation: Review of Clinical Research with Clinical Recommendations. J Rat-Emo Cognitive-Behav Ther 39, 620–637 (2021).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Behavior management
  • Behavioral therapy
  • Encephalitis
  • Intellectual disability
  • Rehabilitation
  • Cognitive dysfunction