Advertisement

Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive-Behavioral Aspect of Anger: Schema Model Perspective

  • Iman AskariEmail author
Article
  • 184 Downloads

Abstract

Anger in Novaco model (in: Monahan, Steadman (eds) Violence and mental disorder: developments in risk assessment, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994) follows in cognitive, arousal and behavioral dimensions. Considerable research (Anderson and Bushman in Annu Rev Psychol 53(1):27–51, 2002; Dozois et al. in Early maladaptive schemas, styles of humor and aggression, 2013; Huesmann, in: Geen, Donnerstein (eds) Human aggression, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 73–109, 1998) has documented that one’s underlying belief system may influence dispositions toward anger and aggression. The aggressive individuals tend to hold several kinds of elaborate and readily accessible aggression-related cognitions (Gilbert et al. in Crim Justice Behav 40(2):119–138.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854812467943, 2013). Recognizing the schemas or core beliefs that are associated with anger and aggression would facilitate the therapy for patients with anger and aggression. This study examined the relationships between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), anger, and aggression among 86 adult individuals in Anger therapy group (n = 24), Control group (n = 29) and Outpatients group (n = 33). The results indicated that the mistrust/abuse schema among five schemas in disconnection/rejection domain, and the entitlement/grandiosity schema among two schemas in impaired limits domain were the strongest predictors of anger and aggression. The next schemas that were associated or predicted anger and aggression and might be considered in therapy are insufficient self-control, abandonment, emotional deprivation, unrelenting standards, approval seeking, subjugation, self-sacrifice, and punitiveness. A comprehensive assessment, interpretation, and intervention for these EMSs, their interaction, and the coping styles would be helpful in anger and aggression therapies.

Keywords

Anger Aggression Early maladaptive schemas 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Special Thanks to my supervisor, Prof. Dr. Gisela Steins, university of Duisburg-Essen. This research would not have been possible without her advice and support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards

The author confirms that the present research complies with ethical guidelines.

Supplementary material

10942_2018_311_MOESM1_ESM.docx (76 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 76 kb)

References

  1. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 27–51.Google Scholar
  2. Askari, I. (2018). The role of the belief system for anger management of couples with anger and aggression: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-018-0307-5.Google Scholar
  3. Atkins, L. (2017). Childhood maltreatment and adult aggression: The mediating role of maladaptive schemas. Oxford: Miami University.Google Scholar
  4. Bach, B., & Farrell, J. M. (2018). Schemas and modes in borderline personality disorder: The mistrustful, shameful, angry, impulsive, and unhappy child. Psychiatry Research, 259, 323–329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.10.039.Google Scholar
  5. Bach, B., Lee, C., Mortensen, E. L., & Simonsen, E. (2016). How do DSM-5 personality traits align with schema therapy constructs? Journal of Personality Disorders, 30(4), 502–529.Google Scholar
  6. Bach, B., Simonsen, E., Christoffersen, P., & Kriston, L. (2017). The Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3): Psychometric properties and association with personality disorders in a Danish mixed sample. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33(2), 134.Google Scholar
  7. Baranoff, J., Oei, T. P., Cho, S. H., & Kwon, S.-M. (2006). Factor structure and internal consistency of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Korean and Australian samples. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93(1), 133–140.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T. (2002). Prisoners of hate. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(3), 209–216.Google Scholar
  9. Bushman, B. J. (2002). Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame? Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger, and aggressive responding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(6), 724–731.Google Scholar
  10. Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(3), 452.Google Scholar
  11. Calvete, E., Estévez, A., López de Arroyabe, E., & Ruiz, P. (2005). The Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: Structure and relationship with automatic thoughts and symptoms of affective disorders. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21(2), 90.Google Scholar
  12. Calvete, E., & Orue, I. (2009). Social information processing assessment in Spanish adolescents and its relationship with aggressive behavior. Behavioral Psychology-Psicología Conductual, 17(3), 523–542.Google Scholar
  13. Calvete, E., & Orue, I. (2012). Social information processing as a mediator between cognitive schemas and aggressive behavior in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(1), 105–117.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9546-y.Google Scholar
  14. Calvete, E., Orue, I., & González-Diez, Z. (2013). An examination of the structure and stability of early maladaptive schemas by means of the Young Schema Questionnaire-3. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 283.Google Scholar
  15. Chakhssi, F., Bernstein, D., & Ruiter, C. (2014). Early maladaptive schemas in relation to facets of psychopathy and institutional violence in offenders with personality disorders. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 19(2), 356–372.Google Scholar
  16. Coccaro, E. F., Berman, M. E., & Kavoussi, R. J. (1997). Assessment of life history of aggression: Development and psychometric characteristics. Psychiatry Research, 73(3), 147–157.Google Scholar
  17. Crawford, E., & Wright, M. O. D. (2007). The impact of childhood psychological maltreatment on interpersonal schemas and subsequent experiences of relationship aggression. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 7(2), 93–116.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v07n02_06.Google Scholar
  18. Crick, N. R. (1997). Engagement in gender normative versus nonnormative forms of aggression: Links to social–psychological adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 610.Google Scholar
  19. Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, P. (1993). Brief symptom inventory: BSI. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  20. Derogatis, L. R., & y Cols, J. G. d. R. (2002). SCL-90-R: Cuestionario de síntomas: Tea ediciones.Google Scholar
  21. Dobson, K. S. (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  22. Dozois, D., Martin, R., & Faulkner, B. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas, styles of humor and aggression. Humor, 26(1), 97–116.  https://doi.org/10.1515/humor-2013-0006.Google Scholar
  23. Dunne, A. L., Gilbert, F., Lee, S., & Daffern, M. (2018). The role of aggression-related early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in aggression in a prisoner sample. Aggressive Behavior, 44, 246.Google Scholar
  24. Ellis, A. (2003). Anger: Hot to live with and without it. New York: Citadel Press. (Rev).Google Scholar
  25. Frias, A., Navarro, S., Palma, C., Farriols, N., Aliaga, F., Salvador, A., et al. (2018). Early maladaptive schemas associated with dimensional and categorical psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(1), e30–e41.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2123.Google Scholar
  26. Gay, L. E., Harding, H. G., Jackson, J. L., Burns, E. E., & Baker, B. D. (2013). Attachment style and early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and intimate partner violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 22(4), 408–424.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2013.775982.Google Scholar
  27. Geen, R. G., & Quanty, M. B. (1977). The catharsis of aggression: An evaluation of a hypothesis1. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 1–37). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  28. Gilbert, F., Daffern, M., Talevski, D., & Ogloff, J. R. P. (2013). The role of aggression-related cognition in the aggressive behavior of offenders: A general aggression model perspective. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 40(2), 119–138.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854812467943.Google Scholar
  29. Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R. G. Geen & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression (pp. 73–109). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  30. Jacob, G., & Arntz, A. (2014). Schema therapy. In R.L. Cautin & S.O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), The encyclopedia of clinical psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118625392.wbecp039.
  31. Kachadourian, L. K., Taft, C. T., Holowka, D. W., Woodward, H., Marx, B. P., & Burns, A. (2013). Maladaptive dependency schemas, posttraumatic stress hyperarousal symptoms, and intimate partner aggression perpetration. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(5), 580–587.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21850.Google Scholar
  32. Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1988). Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240(4849), 167–171.Google Scholar
  33. Kassinove, H., & Tafrate, R. C. (2002). Anger management: The complete treatment guidebook for practitioners. Atascadero, CA: Impact Publishers.Google Scholar
  34. Kehn, A., Culhane, S. E., Kolmans, L., & Bongard, S. J. (2015). The German translation of the Novaco anger scale and provocation inventory (Ger-NAS-PI). Current Psychology, 34(2), 294–310.Google Scholar
  35. Koss, M. P., Abbey, A., Campbell, R., Cook, S., Norris, J., Testa, M., et al. (2007). Revising the SES: A collaborative process to improve assessment of sexual aggression and victimization. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(4), 357–370.Google Scholar
  36. Kriston, L., Schäfer, J., Jacob, G. A., Härter, M., & Hölzel, L. P. (2013). Reliability and validity of the German version of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 205.Google Scholar
  37. Lobbestael, J., Van Vreeswijk, M. F., & Arntz, A. (2008). An empirical test of schema mode conceptualizations in personality disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(7), 854–860.Google Scholar
  38. Loper, A. B. (2003). The relationship of maladaptive beliefs to personality and behavioral adjustment among incarcerated women. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 17(3), 253.Google Scholar
  39. Louis, J. P., Wood, A. M., Lockwood, G., Ho, M.-H. R., & Ferguson, E. (2018). Positive Clinical Psychology and Schema Therapy (ST): The development of the Young Positive Schema Questionnaire (YPSQ) to complement the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form (YSQ-S3). Psychological Assessment, 30(9), 1199–1213.Google Scholar
  40. Marais, I., Moir, V., & Lee, C. (2017). The effects of item placement in the Young Schema Questionnaire. Journal of Applied Measurement, 18(4), 370–382.Google Scholar
  41. McKee, M., Roring, S., Winterowd, C., & Porras, C. (2012). The relationship of negative self-schemas and insecure partner attachment styles with anger experience and expression among male batterers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(13), 2685–2702.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260512436395.Google Scholar
  42. Morey, L. C., & Staff, P. (1991). Personality assessment inventory. Personality assessment, 2, 181–228.Google Scholar
  43. Nighswander, J. K., & Mayer, G. R. (1969). Catharsis: A means of reducing elementary school students’ aggressive behaviors? The Personnel and Guidance Journal, 47(5), 461–466.Google Scholar
  44. Novaco, R. W. (1994). Anger as a risk factor for violence among the mentally disordered. In J. Monahan & H. J. Steadman (Eds.), Violence and mental disorder: Developments in risk assessment (pp. 21–59). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Novaco, R. W. (2012). The Novaco anger scale and provocation inventory. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  46. Phillips, K., Brockman, R., Bailey, P. E., & Kneebone, I. I. (2017). Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3): Preliminary validation in older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 10, 1–8.Google Scholar
  47. Raine, A., Dodge, K., Loeber, R., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Lynam, D., Reynolds, C., et al. (2006). The reactive–proactive aggression questionnaire: Differential correlates of reactive and proactive aggression in adolescent boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 159–171.Google Scholar
  48. Riso, L. P., du Toit, P. L., Stein, D. J., & Young, J. E. (2007). Cognitive schemas and core beliefs in psychological problems: A scientist-practitioner guide. Washington: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  49. Shorey, R. C., Elmquist, J., Anderson, S., & Stuart, G. L. (2015). Early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men seeking residential substance use treatment. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 6–12.Google Scholar
  50. Sigre-Leirós, V. L., Carvalho, J., & Nobre, P. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas and aggressive sexual behavior: A preliminary study with male college students. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(7), 1764–1772.Google Scholar
  51. Spielberger, C. D. (1999). Sate-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2: STAXI-2: PAR. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Ressources.Google Scholar
  52. Stopa, L., & Waters, A. (2005). The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: Short form. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78(1), 45–57.Google Scholar
  53. Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316.Google Scholar
  54. Tremblay, P. F., & Dozois, D. J. (2009). Another perspective on trait aggressiveness: Overlap with early maladaptive schemas. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(5–6), 569–574.Google Scholar
  55. Young, J. E. (2005). Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3). New York, NY: Cognitive Therapy Center.Google Scholar
  56. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  57. Yudofsky, S. C., Silver, J. M., Jackson, W., Endicott, J., & Williams, D. (1986). The Overt Aggression Scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 35.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for PsychologyUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany

Personalised recommendations