Disputing Irrational Beliefs Among Convicted Terrorists and Extremist Beliefs
This study investigated the most common irrational beliefs among samples of: (1) convicted terrorists and (2) extremists, all of whom were prisoners in the country of Jordan. It also investigated the effectiveness of a program of disputing irrational beliefs (DIBP) with the same populations. The subjects were assigned randomly to two groups: an experimental group (EG) that consisted of 43 prisoners who received an training program, and a control group that consisted of 48 prisoners who received no training. The irrational beliefs scale (IBS) scores were assessed for both groups before and after exposure to the DIBP. To test the hypotheses of the study, means and standard deviations of the IBS measures were submitted to a two-way analysis of covariance. The results revealed that the most common irrational belief loaded on the factors of musts, exaggerations, and perfectionism. Moreover, the results revealed significant differences between the means of the two groups on the total IBS scores at post-test, with the EG scoring lower, which indicated the effectiveness of the training program in reducing the level of IBS. The results yielded significant differences in the effect of the reason for imprisonment in favor of extremists and the interaction between the reason for prison and treatment in favor of the EG and extremists.
KeywordsDisputing Irrational beliefs Terrorism Extremism
The research leading to these results received funding from Mutah University under the Grant Agreement No. 390/14/120.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
- Aldahadha, B. (2007). Violence, terrorism, suicide from socio psych-perspective: The reasons, effects and interventions. http://www.gulfkids.com/pdf/Onf_Erhab.pdf. Accessed February 11, 2017.
- Aldahadha, B. (2008). The effectiveness of two group-counseling programs in disputing irrational thoughts and self-assertiveness, in reducing depression and enhancing self-concept, among depressed students. Journal of Umm Al-Qura University Psychological and Educational Sciences, 20(1), 11–18.Google Scholar
- Aldahadha, B. (2017). The extremism beliefs between the French rebellion and Stalin rebellion. http://www.ammonnews.net/article/296801. Accessed February 11, 2017.
- Caplan, J. (2000). The psychology of cults, violence and religion: Rational emotive therapy as a psychotherapeutic treatment: A case study. Carlos Albizu University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, UMI Number 9975594.Google Scholar
- Davis, M., Eshelman, E. R., & McKay, M. (2000). The relaxation and stress reduction workbook. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
- Di Paolo, M. R. (2016). A brief rational disputation exercise enhances cardiovascular, anxiety, and affective recovery following worry-recall. Dissertation Abstracts, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, ProQuest Number: 10124143.Google Scholar
- DiGiuseppe, R., Doyle, K., Dryden, W., & Backx, W. (2014). A practitioner’s guide to rational emotive behavior therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dryden, W. (2012). Flexibility and passionate non-extremism versus absolutism and extremism: Teaching the basics of REBT theory and showing its wider applicability. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30(1), 38–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-010-0119-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Birch Lane Press.Google Scholar
- Ellis, A. (2004). The road to tolerance: The philosophy of rational emotive behavior therapy. New York, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
- Ellis, A., & Joffe-Ellis, D. (2011). Rational emotive behavior therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Hyland, P., & Boduszek, D. (2012). A unitary or binary model of emotions: A discussion on a fundamental difference between cognitive therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy. Journal of Humanistic and Social Sciences, 1(1), 49–61.Google Scholar
- Laor, N., Yanay-Shani, A., Wolmer, L., & Khoury, O. (2010). A trauma-like model of political extremism: Psycho-political fault lines in Israel. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Psychiatric and Neurologic Aspects of War, 1208, 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05693.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (1999). Rational emotive behavior therapy: Advances in theory and practice. London: Whurr.Google Scholar
- Robertson, D. (2010). The philosophy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): Stoic philosophy as rational and cognitive psychotherapy. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
- Schorn, D. (2006). Ed Bradley reports on extremists now deemed biggest domestic terror threat. 60 Minutes. Wikipedia. http://www.soc.iastate.edu/sapp/Terrorism.pdf. Accessed May 15, 2017.