Perfectionism as a Predictor of Post-event Rumination in a Socially Anxious Sample

Original Article

Abstract

Socially anxious individuals tend to have elevated levels of perfectionism and engage in excessive rumination following social situations. The present research aimed to examine perfectionism, in both state and trait forms, as a predictor of post-event rumination. Socially anxious students (N = 104) completed measures of trait perfectionism prior to, and state perfectionism following, an anxiety inducing speech task. Post-event rumination was assessed 2 days later. State and trait perfectionism were significant predictors of post-event rumination (2 days later), while controlling for baseline social anxiety, depression and state anxiety. These results support the need to target perfectionism in treatments for social anxiety disorder.

Keywords

Social anxiety Perfectionism Post-event processing Rumination 

References

  1. Antony, M. M., Purdon, C. L., Huta, V., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Dimensions of perfectionism across the anxiety disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 1143–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashbaugh, A., Antony, M. M., Liss, A., Summerfeldt, L. J., McCabe, R. E., & Swinson, R. P. (2007). Changes in perfectionism following cognitive-behavioral treatment for social phobia. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Bieling, P. J., & Alden, L. E. (1997). The consequences of perfectionism for patients with social phobia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 387–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bieling, P. J., Summerfeldt, L. J., Israeli, A. L., & Antony, M. M. (2004). Perfectionism as an explanatory construct in comorbidity of axis I disorders. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boone, L., Soenens, B., Mouratidis, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Verstuyf, J., & Braet, C. (2012a). Daily fluctuations in perfectionism dimensions and their relation to eating disorder symptoms. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 678–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boone, L., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Braet, C. (2012b). Is there a perfectionist in each of us? An experimental study on perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms. Appetite, 59, 531–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, D., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneider (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Edwards, S., Rapee, R. M., & Franklin, J. (2003). Post event rumination and recall bias for a social performance event in high and low socially anxious individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 603–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellis, A. (2002). The role of irrational beliefs in perfectionism. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research and treatment (pp. 217–229). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Endler, N. S., & Kocovski, N. L. (2001). State and trait anxiety revisited. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 231–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fehm, L., Hoyer, J., Schneider, G., Lindemann, C., & Klusmann, U. (2008). Assessing post-event processing after social situations: A measure based on the cognitive model for social phobia. Anxiety Stress Coping, 21, 129–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frost, R. O., Marten, P. L., Larhart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gaydukevych, D., & Kocovski, N. L. (2012). Effect of self-focused attention on post-event processing in social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harvey, B., Pallant, J., & Harvey, D. (2004). An evaluation of the factor structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64, 1007–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heimberg, R. G., Mueller, G. P., Holt, C. S., & Holt, D. A. (1992). Assessment of anxiety in social interactions and being observed by others: The social interaction anxiety scale and the social phobia scale. Behavior Therapy, 23, 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hewitt, P., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Juster, H. R., Heimberg, R. G., Frost, R. O., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I., & Faccenda, K. (1996). Social phobia and perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 403–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kluemper, D. H., Little, L. M., & Degroot, T. (2009). State or trait: Effects of state optimism on job-related outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kocovski, N. L., & Rector, N. A. (2007). Predictors of post-event rumination related to social anxiety. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36, 112–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kocovski, N. L., & Rector, N. A. (2008). Post-event processing in social anxiety disorder: Idiosyncratic priming during the course of CBT. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Laposa, J. M., & Rector, N. (2011). A prospective examination of predictors of post-event processing following videotaped exposures in group cognitive behavioral therapy for individuals with social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 568–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liebowitz, M. R. (1987). Social phobia. Modern Problems in Pharmacopsychiatry, 22, 141–173.Google Scholar
  24. Lundh, L. G., & Öst, L. G. (2001). Attentional bias, self-consciousness and perfectionism in social phobia before and after cognitive-behaviour therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 30, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Makkar, S. R., & Grisham, J. R. (2011). The predictors and contents of post-event processing in social anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 118–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mushquash, A. R., & Sherry, S. B. (2012). Understanding the socially prescribed perfectionist’s cycle of self-defeat: A 7-day, 14-occasion daily diary study. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 700–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nepon, R., Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & Molnar, D. S. (2011). Perfectionism, negative social feedback, and interpersonal rumination in depression and social anxiety. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43, 297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perini, S. J., Abbott, M. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2006). Perception of performance as a mediator in the relationship between social anxiety and negative post-event rumination. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 645–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rachman, S., Gruter-Andrew, J., & Shafran, R. (2000). Post-event processing in social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 611–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. H. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: Empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rosser, S., Issakidis, C., & Peters, L. (2003). Perfectionism and social phobia: Relationship between the constructs and impact on cognitive behavior therapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saboonchi, F., & Lundh, L. G. (1999). State perfectionism and its relation to trait perfectionism, type of situation, priming, and being observed. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 28, 154–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saboonchi, F., Lundh, L. G., & Öst, L. G. (1999). Perfectionism and self-consciousness in social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 799–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stöber, J. (1998). The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale: More perfect with four (instead of six) dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 481–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolpe, J. (1969). The practice of behaviour therapy. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  38. Wong, Q. J. J., & Moulds, M. L. (2009). Impact of rumination versus distraction on anxiety and maladaptive self-beliefs in socially anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 861–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wilfrid Laurier UniversityWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations