The number of individuals incarcerated for terrorism offences in the West has grown considerably in recent years. However, unlike the extensive literature on recidivism for ordinary criminal offenders, little is known about recidivism for terrorism offenders. Given that many terrorism offenders are to be released in the coming years, the Israeli case is used to explore possible insights into the recidivist characteristics of terrorism offenders.
Using a unique dataset of terrorism offenders from Jerusalem provided by the Israeli Prison Service, proportional hazards regressions were used to assess the risk of terrorism-related recidivism for first-time and repeat terrorism offenders by examining factors related to incarceration history and other background factors known to be relevant for criminal recidivism.
The recidivism rate of terrorism offenders is higher than that for ordinary criminal offenders but follows similar patterns: sentence length and age upon release reduce risk of recidivism, while affiliation with a terrorist organization significantly increase it. For repeat offenders, recidivism to a new terrorism offense increases with the number of prior terrorism-related incarcerations and decreases with the number of additional incarcerations for regular criminal offences. While marital status affected recidivism of first-timers, it had no significant effect for repeat offenders. The effects of offence type for prior incarcerations were similar in the two analyses.
Many factors, including sentence length, age, and prior terrorist criminal records show similar impacts upon terrorist offenders. However, others have opposing impacts. While prior criminality is a known risk factor for criminal offenders, recidivism of terrorists into further terrorism involvement is inhibited by prior criminal records as opposed to prior records for terrorism. Marital status, generally seen as an inhibitor of criminality increases re-offending for the first offender group. This might be explained by the financial incentives that terrorism offenders and their families receive from the Palestinian Authority.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
We calculated these numbers from all TE-SAT reports which can be found at https://www.europol.europa.eu/activities-services/main-reports/eu-terrorism-situation-and-trend-report#fndtn-tabs-0-bottom-2.
Quoted in Drago, T., Spain, Judge Garzon Swoops Down on ETA Youth Group, Inter Press Service News Agency, 6 March 2001, accessed on 21 August 2018 at http://www.ipsnews.net/2001/03/spain-judge-garzon-swoops-down-on-eta-youth-group/.
Other offenses that were not included in these categories were excluded from analysis since they appeared in the data too infrequently.
Data on organizational affiliation is derived from intelligence gathering, which includes interviews with the detainees, as well as secret intelligence developed primarily by the ISA.
The IPS data also has access to personal details of prisoners as held by the Ministry of the Interior, through whom all marriage registrations are processed according to each citizen's and resident's national identification number. As demonstrated by the small number of unknown cases, the data is considered to be highly reliable.
In contrast to the male prisoners, females were mostly not affiliated to any organization (only 6 were affiliated: 3 to Fatah, 2 to Hamas and 1 to a secular faction). Additionally, only 6 were married. Moreover, their mean age was 24.9 (8.4 SD), which also differed significantly from the males. The average sentence length for females was relatively longer than males (mean length: 210 weeks, SD: 257.3). Importantly, 21 of the 28 female prisoners were still serving their sentence at the end of the observation period. Accordingly, only two were incarcerated more than once during the studied period: one with a criminal charge and the other with a second security incarceration.
20 individuals were excluded because they had very high numbers of criminal or security incarcerations relative to other prisoners (a minimum of 7 and 4 prior criminal and security incarcerations, respectively).
As per multiple surveys carried out by the Jerusalem Media and Communication Centre (JMCC). See http://www.jmcc.org/index.aspx.
Ahmed S (2016) Is history repeating itself: sentencing young American muslims in the war on terror. Yale LJ 126:1520
Altier MB, Horgan J, Thoroughgood C (2012) Returning to the fight: what the literature on criminal recidivism can contribute to our understanding of terrorist recidivism. Department of Homeland Security report
Altier MB, Thoroughgood CN, Horgan JG (2014) Turning away from terrorism: lessons from psychology, sociology, and criminology. J Peace Res 51(5):647–661
Altier MB, Boyle EL, Horgan JG (Forthcoming) Returning to the fight: an empirical analysis of terrorist re-engagement and recidivism
Baier D, Manzoni P, Bergmann MC (2016) Einflussfaktoren des politischen Extremismus im Jugendalter. Monatsschrift für Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform 3:171–198
Bakker E (2006) Jihadi terrorists in Europe. Netherlands Institute of International Relations, Den Haag
Bakker E (2011) Characteristics of Jihadi terrorists in Europe (2001–2009). In: Coolsaet R (ed) Jihadi terrorism and the radicalisation challenge European and American experiences. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 131–144
Bakker E, De Bont R (2016) Belgian and Dutch jihadist foreign fighters (2012–2015): characteristics, motivations, and roles in the War in Syria and Iraq. Small Wars Insurg 27(5):837–857
Basra R, Neumann PR (2016) Criminal pasts, terrorist futures: European jihadists and the new crime-terror nexus. Perspect Terror 10(6):25–40
Basra R, Neumann PR (2017) Crime as Jihad. CTC Sentinel 10(9):1–5
Berrebi C (2007) Evidence about the link between education, poverty and terrorism among Palestinians. Peace Econ Peace Sci Public Policy 13(1):1
Berry L, Curtis GE, Hudson RA, Kollars NA (2002) A global overview of narcotics-funded terrorist and other extremist groups. Library of Congress Washington D.C. Federal Research Division
Black D (1983) Crime as social control. Am Sociol Rev 48(1):34–45
Boduszek D, Dhingra K, Hirschfield A (2015) Gang reengagement intentions among incarcerated serious juvenile offenders. J Criminol 2015:1–10
Boncio A (2017) Italian Foreign terrorist fighters: a quantitative analysis of radicalization risk factors. Count Terror Prev Radic Prot Cult Herit Role Human Factors Technol 133:40
Boucek SAC (2008) Extremist re-education and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. In: Bjorgo T, Horgan JG (eds) Leaving terrorism behind. Routledge, pp. 230–241
Bovenkerk F (2011) On leaving criminal organizations. Crime Law Soc Change 55(4):261–276
Clark RP (1983) Patterns in the lives of ETA members. Stud Confl Terror 6(3):423–454
Clarke RVG, Newman GR (2006) Outsmarting the terrorists. Greenwood Publishing Group, Connecticut
Clifford B (2018) Radicalization in custody: towards data-driven terrorism prevention in the United States Federal correctional system. Program on Extremism Policy Paper, The George Washington University, Washington DC
Clubb G, Tapley M (2018) Conceptualising de-radicalisation and former combatant re-integration in Nigeria. Third World Q 39(11):2053–2068
Cox DR (1972) Models and life-tables regression. J R Stat Soc Ser B 34:187–220
Cunningham KJ (2003) Cross-regional trends in female terrorism. Stud Conflict Terrorism 26(3):171–195
Curtis GE, Karacan T (2002) The nexus among terrorists, narcotics traffickers, weapons proliferators, and organized crime networks in Western Europe. In: The Library of Congress, December
De Poot CJ, Sonnenschein A, Soudijn MRJ, Bijen JG, Verkuylen MW (2011) Jihadi terrorism in the Netherlands. Boom juridische uitgevers
De Waele MS, Pauwels L (2014) Youth involvement in politically motivated violence: why do social integration, perceived legitimacy, and perceived discrimination matter? Int J Confl Viol (IJCV) 8(1):134–153
Decker S, Pyrooz D (2011) Gangs, terrorism, and radicalization. J Strat Secur 4(4):8
Decker SH, Pyrooz DC (2015) “I’m down for a Jihad” how 100 years of gang research can inform the study of terrorism, radicalization and extremism. Perspect Terror 9(1):104–112
Deloughery K, King RD, Asal V (2012) Close cousins or distant relatives? The relationship between terrorism and hate crime. Crime Delinq 58(5):663–688
Department of National Intelligence (DNI) (2018) Summary of the reengagement of detainees formerly held at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Department of National Intelligence, Washington DC
Dicter A, Byman D (2006) Israel’s lessons for fighting terrorists and their implications for the United States. Brookings Institution, Saban Center for Middle East Policy
Dooley BD, Seals A, Skarbek D (2014) The effect of prison gang membership on recidivism. J Crim Justice 42(3):267–275
Dugan L, Chenoweth E (2012) Moving beyond deterrence: the effectiveness of raising the expected utility of abstaining from terrorism in Israel. Am Sociol Rev 77(4):597–624
Dunbar E (2003) Symbolic, relational, and ideological signifiers of bias-motivated offenders: toward a strategy of assessment. Am J Orthopsychiatry 73(2):203–211
Dunbar E, Quinones J, Crevecoeur DA (2005) Assessment of hate crime offenders: the role of bias intent in examining violence risk. J Forensic Psychol Pract 5(1):1–19
Ebbe ON, Odo I (2013) The islamic criminal justice system. Comparative and international criminal justice systems: policing, judiciary, and corrections, 217
Ewi M, Salifu U (2017) Money talks—a key reason youths Join Boko Haram. The Institute for Security Studies (Africa), Nairobi
Fahey S (2013) Predictors of release from Guantanamo Bay and detainee recidivism. Int J Criminol Sociol 2:453–468
Fazel S, Wolf A (2015) A systematic review of criminal recidivism rates worldwide: current difficulties and recommendations for best practice. PloS one 10(6):e0130390
Feith D, Gerber S (2017, March). The department of pay-for-slay: how the Palestinian authority not only incites terrorist murder—but supports it with U.S. tax dollars. Commentary. Retrived June 25, 2019 from https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/the-department-of-pay-for-slay/
Freilich CD (2015) Israel’s counter-terrorism policy: how effective? Terrorism Pol Violence 29(2):359–376
Freilich JD, LaFree G (eds) (2017) Criminology theory and terrorism: new applications and approaches. Routledge, London
Gallagher M (2016) ‘Criminalised’ Islamic State Veterans—a future major threat in organised crime development? Perspect Terror 10(5):51–67
Gambetta D, Hertog S (2017) Engineers of jihad: the curious connection between violent extremism and education. Princeton University Press, Princeton
Ganor B (2011) An intifada in Europe? A comparative analysis of radicalization processes among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza versus Muslim immigrants in Europe. Stud Confl Terror 34(8):587–599
Ganor B, Falk O (2013) De-radicalization in Israel’s prison system. Stud Confl Terror 36(2):116–131
Gheordunescu M (1999) Terrorism and organized crime: the Romanian perspective. Terror Polit Viol 11(4):24–29
Gill P, Horgan J, Corner E, Silver J (2016) Indicators of lone actor violent events: the problems of low base rates and long observational periods. J Threat Assess Manag 3(3–4):165
Greenberg DF (1991) Modeling criminal careers. Criminology 29(1):17–46
Haddad S (2004) A comparative study of Lebanese and Palestinian perceptions of suicide bombings: the role of militant Islam and socio-economic status. Int J Comp Sociol 45(5):337–363
Hamm MS, Van de Voorde C (2005) Crimes committed by terrorist groups: theory, research, and prevention. Trends Organ Crime 9(2):18–50
Hecker M (2018) Jihadist Prisoners: the fear of recidivism. Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI). Retrieved June 1, 2018 from https://www.ifri.org/en/espace-media/lifri-medias/jihadist-prisoners-fear-recidivism
Van der Heide L, Schuurman B (2018) Re-integratie van delinquenten met een extremistische achtergrond: evaluatie van de Nederlands aanpak. ISGA Report, Leiden
Heinke DH (2017) German foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq: the updated data and its implications. CTC Sentinel 10(3):17–22
Hoffman B (1998) Inside terrorism. Columbia University Press, New York City
Horgan J (2003) Leaving terrorism behind: an individual perspective. In: Silke A (ed) Terrorists, victims and society: psychological perspectives on terrorism and its consequences. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, pp 109–130
Horgan J (2005) The social and psychological characteristics of terrorism and terrorists. In Bjørgo T (ed) Root causes of terrorism. Routledge, Milton Park, pp 62–71
Horgan J (2009) Disengaging from terrorism. Multidisciplinary perspectives, The faces of terrorism, pp 257–276
Horgan J, Shortland N, Abbasciano S, Walsh S (2016) Actions speak louder than words: a behavioral analysis of 183 individuals convicted for terrorist offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012. J Forensic Sci 61(5):1228–1237
Horgan JG, Taylor M, Bloom M, Winter C (2017) From cubs to lions: a six stage model of child socialization into the Islamic State. Stud Confl Terror 40(7):645–664
Horowitz JM (2009) Declining support for bin laden and suicide bombing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from https://www.pewglobal.org/2009/09/10/rejection-of-extremism/
Huebner BM, Varano SP, Bynum TS (2007) Gangs, guns, and drugs: recidivism among serious, young offenders. Criminol Public Policy 6(2):187–221
Hutchinson S, O’Malley P (2007) A crime–terror nexus? Thinking on some of the links between terrorism and criminality. Stud Confl Terror 30(12):1095–1107
Iganski P, Smith D, Dixon L, Bargen J (2011) Rehabilitation of hate crime offenders. Equality and Human Rights Commission Scotland
Ismail N, Sim S (2016) From prison to carnage in Jakarta: predicting terrorist recidivism in Indonesia’s prisons. Brookings Institute. Retrieved May 1, 2018 from https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/predicting-terrorist-recidivism-in-indonesias-prisons/
Jarallah Y (2008) Marriage patterns in Palestine (MENA Working Paper Series). Population Reference Bureau, Washington
Jasko K, LaFree G, Kruglanski A (2017) Quest for significance and violent extremism: the case of domestic radicalization. Polit Psychol 38(5):815–831
Jonathan Tal (2009) Police involvement in counter-terrorism and public attitudes towards the police in Israel—1998–2007. Br J Criminol 50(4):748–771
Kaplan O, Nussio E (2018) Explaining recidivism of ex-combatants in Colombia. J Confl Resolut 62(1):64–93
Klausen J, Morrill T, Libretti R (2016) The terrorist age-crime curve: an analysis of American Islamist terrorist offenders and age-specific propensity for participation in violent and nonviolent incidents. Soc Sci Q 97(1):19–32
LaFree G, Dugan L (2004) How does studying terrorism compare to studying crime? In: Deflem M (ed) Terrorism and counter-terrorism. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp 53–74
LaFree G, Dugan L (2015) How has criminology contributed to the study of terrorism since 9/11? In: Deflem M (ed) Terrorism and counterterrorism today. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1–23
LaFree G, Freilich J (2016) Bringing criminology into the study of terrorism. In: LaFree G, Freilich JD (eds) The handbook of the criminology of terrorism, vol 3. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp 1–14
LaFree G, Jensen MA, James PA, Safer-Lichtenstein A (2018) Correlates of violent political extremism in the United States. Criminology 56(2):233–268
Lakhani S (2018) Extreme criminals: reconstructing ideas of criminality through extremist narratives. Stud Confl Terror. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1450613
Laqueur W (1977) Terrorism: A study of national and international political violence. Little, Brown, Boston
Laub JH, Sampson RJ (1993) Turning points in the life course: why change matters to the study of crime. Criminology 31(3):301–325
Laub JH, Sampson RJ (2001) Understanding desistance from crime. Crime Justice 28:1–69
Liem M (2013) Homicide offender recidivism: a review of the literature. Aggress Violent Behav 18(1):19–25
Ljujic V, Weerman F (2017) Beyond the crime-terror nexus: socio-economic status, violent crimes and terrorism. J Criminol Res Policy Pract 3(3):158–172
Lloyd M, Kleinot P (2017) Pathways into terrorism: the good, the bad and the ugly. Psychoanal Psychother 31(4):367–377
Loesch J (2017) The GPH-MILF peace process in the Philippines to prevent and transform violent extremism in Mindanao. J Peacebuild Dev 12(2):96–101
Lukas H (2012) Untersuchung zur legalbewährung der teilnehmer an VPN-trainingskursen im jugendstrafvollzug. Kommentierte Kurzfassung. Violence Prevention Network, Berlin
Makarenko T (2004) The crime-terror continuum: tracing the interplay between transnational organised crime and terrorism. Global Crime 6(1):129–145
Malthaner S, Waldmann P (2014) The radical milieu: conceptualizing the supportive social environment of terrorist groups. Stud Confl Terror 37(12):979–998
McCauley C, Moskalenko S (2017) Understanding political radicalization: the two-pyramids model. Am Psychol 72(3):205
McCauley CR, Segal ME (1987) Social psychology of terrorist groups. In: Hendrick C (ed) Review of personality and social psychology, vol 9. Group processes and intergroup relations. Sage Publications Inc, Thousand Oaks, pp 231–256
McShane MD, Williams FP, Dolny HM (2003) The effect of gang membership on parole outcome. J Gang Res 10(4):25–38
Mears DP, Cochran JC, Cullen FT (2015) Incarceration heterogeneity and its implications for assessing the effectiveness of imprisonment on recidivism. Criminal Justice Policy Rev 26(7):691–712
Mills CE, Freilich JD, Chermak SM (2017) Extreme hatred: revisiting the hate crime and terrorism relationship to determine whether they are “Close Cousins” or “Distant Relatives”. Crime Delinq 63(10):1191–1223
Mitchell O, Cochran JC, Mears DP, Bales WD (2017) Examining prison effects on recidivism: a regression discontinuity approach. Justice Q 34(4):571–596
Monahan J (2012) The individual risk assessment of terrorism. Psychol Public Policy Law 18(2):167
National Research Council (2007) Parole, desistance from crime, and community integration. National Academies Press, Washington DC
Pantucci R (2010) The Tottenham Ayatollah and the hook-handed cleric: an examination of all their Jihadi children. Stud Confl Terror 33(3):226–245
Pantucci R (2014) A death in Woolwich: the lone-actor terrorist threat in the UK. RUSI J 159(5):22–30
Pauwels L, Schils N (2016) Differential online exposure to extremist content and political violence: testing the relative strength of social learning and competing perspectives. Terror Polit Viol 28(1):1–29
Pauwels LJ, Svensson R (2017) How robust is the moderating effect of extremist beliefs on the relationship between self-control and violent extremism? Crime Delinq 63(8):1000–1016
Peffley M, Hutchison ML, Shamir M (2015) The impact of persistent terrorism on political tolerance: Israel, 1980 to 2011. Am Polit Sci Rev 109(4):817–832
Perry S, Apel R, Newman GR, Clarke RV (2017) The situational prevention of terrorism: an evaluation of the Israeli West Bank barrier. J Quant Criminol 33(4):727–751
Perry S, Hasisi B, Perry G (2018) Who is the lone terrorist? A study of vehicle-borne attackers in Israel and the West Bank. Stud Confl Terror 41(11):899–913
Piazza JA (2019) Democratic skepticism and support for terrorism in the Palestinian Territories. Public Choice 178(3–4):417–443
Pieth M (2002) Financing of terrorism: following the money. In: Pieth M (ed) Financing terrorism. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 115–126
Pluchinsky DA (2008) Global jihadist recidivism: a red flag. Stud Confl Terror 31(3):182–200
Porges ML (2010) Deradicalisation, the Yemeni way. Survival 52(2):27–33
Rekawek K, Matejka S, Babikova M, Nagy T, Rafay J (2017) From Criminals to Terrorists and Back?. Globsec, Bratislava
Rekawek K, Matejka S, Szucs V, Beňuška T, Kajzarová K, Rafay J (2018) Who are the European Jihadis?. Globsec, Bratislava
Richardson C, Berlouis KM, Cameron PA (2017) Radicalisation of young adults in the Balkan States: counter-measures, healthcare provision, and community involvement. J Deradic 11:87–111
Rostami A, Sturup J, Mondani H, Thevselius P, Sarnecki J, Edling C (2018) The Swedish Mujahideen: an Exploratory Study of 41 Swedish foreign fighters deceased in Iraq and Syria. Stud Confl Terror. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1463615
Russell CA, Miller BH (1977) Profile of a terrorist. Stud Confl Terror 1(1):17–34
Rydberg J, Clark K (2016) Variation in the incarceration length-recidivism dose–response relationship. J Criminal Justice 46:118–128
Sageman M (2004) Understanding terror networks. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia
Sageman M (2014) The stagnation in terrorism research. Terror Polit Violence 26(4):565–580
Sampson RJ, Laub JH (1990) Crime and deviance over the life course: the salience of adult social bonds. Am Sociol Rev 55:609–627
Sampson RJ, Laub JH, Wimer C (2006) Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology 44(3):465–508
Schmid AP (1996) The links between transnational organized crime and terrorist crimes. Transnatl Organ Crime 2(4):40–82
Schuurman B, Bakker E (2016) Reintegrating jihadist extremists: evaluating a Dutch initiative, 2013–2014. Behav Sci Terror Polit Aggress 8(1):66–85
See S (2018) Returning foreign terrorist fighters: a catalyst for recidivism among disengaged terrorists. Counter Terror Trends Anal 10(6):7–15
Seifert K (2010) Can Jihadis be rehabilitated? Middle East Quart 17(2):21–30
Silke A (ed) (2014) Prisons, terrorism and extremism: critical issues in management, radicalisation and reform. Routledge, New York
Singer JD, Willett JB (2003) Survival analysis. In: Schinka JA, Velicer WF (eds) Handbook of psychology. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 555–580
Smith AG (2018) How radicalization to terrorism occurs in the United States: What research sponsored by the National Institute of Justice tells us. National Institute of Justice, Washington DC
Soothill K, Francis B, Ackerley E, Fligelstone R (2002) Murder and Serious Sexual Assault: What criminal histories can reveal about future serious offending. Police Research Series, Home Office, London, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit
Stern J (2010) Mind over martyr: How to deradicalize Islamist extremists. Foreign Affairs 89:95–108
Tartir A (2015) The evolution and reform of palestinian security forces 1993–2013. Stability: Int J Security Dev, 4(1)
Trulson CR, Caudill JW, Haerle DR, DeLisi M (2012) Cliqued up: the postincarceration recidivism of young gang-related homicide offenders. Criminal Justice Rev 37(2):174–190
Ulmer JT, Steffensmeier D (2014) The age and crime relationship: social variation, social explanations. In: The nurture versus biosocial debate in criminology: on the origins of criminal behavior and criminality. SAGE Publications Inc.
Valasik M, Phillips M (2017) Understanding modern terror and insurgency through the lens of street gangs: ISIS as a case study. J Criminol Res Policy Pract 3(3):192–207
van Leyenhorst M, Andreas A (2017) Dutch suspects of terrorist activity: a study of their biographical backgrounds based on primary sources. J Deradic 12:309–344
Veldhuis TM, Kessels EJ (2013) Thinking before leaping: The need for more and structural data analysis in detention and rehabilitation of extremist offenders. International Centre for Counter-Terrorism, The Hague
Vidino L (2015) Sharia4: from confrontational activism to militancy. Perspect Terror 9(2):2–16
Walk D, Berman E (2015) The Recidivism of Israeli Prisoners. Israel Prison Service, Ramla
Weenink AW (2015) Behavioral problems and disorders among radicals in police files. Perspect Terror 9(2):17–33
Weilnböck H (2013) The narrative principle: Good practice in anti-hate crime interventions, within the radicalisation awareness network. In: Melzer R, Serafim S (eds) Right-wing extremism in Europe: country analysis, counter strategies and labor-market oriented exit strategies. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Berlin, pp 379-408
Weilnböck H, Baer S, Wiechmann P (2012) Hate crime prevention and deradicalization in environments vulnerable to extremism: community work with the fair skills approach and the we-among-ourselves group. Zeitschrift des Informations-und Dokumentationzentrums für Antirassismusarbeit in NRW, 3-7
Weiner JR (2015) Leave no man behind: the United States and Israel face risks in their prisoner release policies. Fletcher Forum World Aff 39:7
Weisburd D (1989) Jewish settler violence: deviance as social reaction. Penn State Press, University Park
Weisburd D, Hasisi B, Jonathan T, Aviv G (2009) Terrorist threats and police performance: a study of Israeli communities. Br J Criminol 50(4):725–747
Wiktorowicz Q, Kaltenthaler K (2006) The rationality of radical Islam. Polit Sci Q 121(2):295–319
Yeini SA (2018) Weighing lives: Israel’s prisoner-exchange policy and the right to life. Minn J Int Law 27:493
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 699824.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hasisi, B., Carmel, T., Weisburd, D. et al. Crime and Terror: Examining Criminal Risk Factors for Terrorist Recidivism. J Quant Criminol 36, 449–472 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-019-09415-y