Advertisement

Journal of Quantitative Criminology

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 527–548 | Cite as

Quantifying the Exposure of Street Segments to Drinking Places Nearby

  • Elizabeth R. GroffEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Objectives

Introduce and test the relative efficacy of two methods for modeling the impact of cumulative ‘exposure’ to drinking facilities on violent crime at street segments.

Methods

One method, simple count, sums the number of drinking places within a distance threshold. The other method, inverse distance weighted count, weights each drinking place within a threshold based on its distance from the street segment. Closer places are weighted higher than more distant places. Distance is measured as the street length from a street segment to a drinking place along the street network. Seven distance thresholds of 400, 800, 1,200, 1,600, 2,000, 2,400 and 2,800 feet are tested. A negative binomial regression model controlling for socio-economic characteristics, opportunity factors and spatial autocorrelation is used to evaluate which of the measure/threshold combinations produce a better fit as compared to a model with no exposure measures.

Results

Exposure measured as an inverse distance weighted count produces the best fitting model and is significantly related to violent crime at longer distances than simple count (from 400 to 2,800 feet). Exposure to drinking places using a simple count is significantly related to violent crime up to 2,000 feet. Both models indicate the influence of drinking places is highest at shorter distance thresholds.

Conclusions

Both researchers and practitioners can more precisely quantify the influence of drinking places in multivariate models of street segment level violent crime by incorporating proximity in the development of a cumulative exposure measure. The efficacy of using exposure measures to quantify the influence of other types of facilities on crime patterns across street segments should be explored.

Keywords

Drinking places Facilities Street segment Exposure Inverse distance weighting 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to Alex Piquero, Cathy Spatz Widom and the three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on previous drafts as well as to Lauren Holt for editorial assistance. Data were collected under the “Understanding Developmental Crime Trajectories at Places: Social Disorganization and Opportunity Perspectives at Micro Units of Geography” led by David Weisburd, Elizabeth Groff and Sue-Ming Yang and funded by the National Institute of Justice (2005-IJ-CX-0006).

References

  1. Abbott A (1997) Of time and space: the contemporary relevance of the Chicago School. Soc Forces 75(4):1149–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andresen MA (2006) Crime measures and the spatial analysis of criminal activity. Br J Criminol 46:258–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Appleyard D (1981) Liveable streets. University of California Press, BerkleyGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashe M, Jernigan D, Kline R, Galaz R (2003) Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants. Am J Public Health 93(9):1404–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey TC, Gatrell AC (1995) Interactive spatial data analysis. Longman Group Limited, EssexGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker RG (1968) Ecological psychology: concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker RG (1987) Prospecting in environmental psychology: Oskaloosa revisited. In: Stokels D, Altman I (eds) Handbook of environmental psychology. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 1413–1432Google Scholar
  8. Bernasco W (2010) Modeling micro-level crime location choice: application of the discrete choice framework to crime at places. J Quant Criminol 26(1):113–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernasco W, Block R (2011) Robberies in Chicago: a block-level analysis of the influence of crime generators, crime attractors, and offender anchor points. J Res Crime Delinq 48(1):33–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blumstein A, Cohen J, Rosenfeld R (1991) Trend and deviation in crime rates: a comparison of UCR and NCS data for burglary and robbery. Criminology 29(2):237–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brantingham PJ, Brantingham PL (1978) A theoretical model of crime site selection. In: Krohn MD, Akers RL (eds) Crime, law, and sanctions: theoretical perspectives. Sage, Beverly Hills, pp 105–118Google Scholar
  12. Brantingham PJ, Brantingham PL (1981) Notes on the geometry of crime. In: Brantingham P, Brantingham P (eds) Environmental criminology. Waveland Press Inc., Prospect Heights, IL, pp 27–54Google Scholar
  13. Brantingham PJ, Brantingham PL (1984) Patterns in crime. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Brantingham PJ, Brantingham PL (1991) Introduction to the 1991 reissue: notes on environmental criminology. In: Brantingham P, Brantingham P (eds) Environmental criminology. Waveland Press Inc., Prospect Heights, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  15. Brantingham PJ, Brantingham PL (1991 [1981]) Environmental criminology. Waveland Press, Inc., Prospect Heights, ILGoogle Scholar
  16. Brantingham PL, Brantingham PJ (1993a) Environment, routine, and situation: toward a pattern theory of crime. In: Clarke RV, Felson M (eds) Routine activity and rational choice, vol 5. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, pp 259–294Google Scholar
  17. Brantingham PL, Brantingham PJ (1993b) Nodes, paths and edges: considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment. J Environ Psychol 13:3–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brantingham PL, Brantingham PJ (1995) Criminality of place: crime generators and crime attractors. Eur J Crim Pol Res 3(3):5–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brower S (1980) Territory in urban settings. In: Altman I, Werner CM (eds) Human behavior and environment: current theory and research, vol 4. Plenun, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarke RV (ed) (1997) Situational crime prevention: successful case studies, 2nd edn. Harrow and Heston Publishers, Albany, NYGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen LE, Felson M (1979) Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activity approach. Am Sociol Rev 44:588–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Day P, Breetzke G, Kingham S, Campbell M (2012) Close proximity to alcohol outlets is associated with increased serious violent crime in New Zealand. Aust NZ J Publ Heal 36(1):48–54Google Scholar
  23. Eck JE (1995) A general model of the geography of illicit retail marketplaces. In: Eck JE, Weisburd D (eds) Crime and place. Willow Tree Press, Monsey, NY, pp 67–93Google Scholar
  24. Felson M (1987) Routine activities and crime prevention in the developing metropolis. Criminology 25(4):911–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Felson M (1995) Those who discourage crime. In: Eck JE, Weisburd D (eds) Crime and place. Willow Tree Press, Monsey, NY, pp 53–66Google Scholar
  26. Felson M, Clarke RV (1998) Opportunity makes the thief: practical theory for crime prevention. Retrieved from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs98.pdf
  27. Golledge RG, Stimson RJ (1997) Spatial behavior: a geographical perspective. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Gorman DM, Speer PW, Labouvie EW, Subaiya AP (1998) Risk of assaultive violence and alcohol availability in New Jersey. Am J Public Health 88(1):97–100Google Scholar
  29. Grannis R (1998) The importance of trivial streets: residential streets and residential segregation. Am J Sociol 103(6):1530–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Groff ER (2011) Exploring ‘near’: characterizing the spatial extent of drinking place influence on crime. Aust NZ J Criminol 44:156–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Groff ER (2013) Measuring a place’s exposure to facilities using geoprocessing models: an illustration using drinking places and crime. In: Leitner M (ed) Crime modeling and mapping using geospatial technologies. Springer, New York, NY, pp 269–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Groff ER, Thomas D (1998) Characterizing crime ‘within a distance of’: a comparison of radius vs. street distance. Paper presented at the ESRI Mid-Atlantic users group meetingGoogle Scholar
  33. Groff ER, Weisburd D, Yang S-M (2010) Is it important to examine crime trends at a local ‘micro’ level?: a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. J Quant Criminol 26:7–32Google Scholar
  34. Harries KD (1990) Geographic factors in policing. DC Police Executive Research Forum, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  35. Harries KD (1999) Mapping crime: principle and practice. U.S. National Institute of Justice, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  36. Horton FE, Reynolds DR (1971) Action space differentials in cities. In: McConnell H, Ya\n D (eds) Perspectives in geography: models of spatial interaction. Northern Illinois University Press, Dekab, IL, pp 83–102Google Scholar
  37. Jacobs J (1961) The death and life of great American cities. Vintage Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Jeffery CR (1971) Crime prevention through environmental design. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  39. Katzman MT (1981) The supply of criminals: a geo-economic examination. In: Hakim S, Rengert GF (eds) Crime spillover. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp 119–134Google Scholar
  40. Kumar N, Waylor CRM (2003) Proximity to alcohol-serving establishments and crime probabilities in Savannah, Georgia: a statistical and GIS analysis. Southeast Geogr 43(1):125–142Google Scholar
  41. Long JS, Freese J (2006a) Regression models for categorical dependent variables, 2nd edn. Stata Press, College Station, TXGoogle Scholar
  42. Long JS, Freese J (2006b) Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata, 2nd edn. Stata Press, College Station, TXGoogle Scholar
  43. Lynch K (1960) The image of the city. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  44. Madensen TD, Eck JE (2008) Violence in bars: exploring the impact of place manage decision-making. Crime Prev Commun Saf 10:111–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Madensen T, Eck J (2013) Crime places and crime management. In: Cullen FT, Wilcox P (eds) The Oxford handbook of criminological theory. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 554–578Google Scholar
  46. McCord ES, Ratcliffe JH (2009) Intensity value analysis and the criminogenic effects of land use features on local crime patterns. Crime Patterns Anal 2(1):17–30Google Scholar
  47. McLafferty S, Williamson D, McGuire PG (2000) Identifying crime hot spots using kernel density. In: Goldsmith V, McGuire PG, Mollenkopf JH, Ross TA (eds) Analyzing crime patterns: frontiers of practice. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, p 187Google Scholar
  48. Miller H (2004) Tobler’s first law and spatial analysis. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 94(2):284–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mitchell A (2005) The ESRI guide to GIS analysis (vol. 2: Spatial measurements and statistics). Environmental Systems Research Institute Press, Redlands, CAGoogle Scholar
  50. Murray RK, Roncek DW (2008) Measuring diffusion of assaults around bars through radius and adjacency techniques. Crim Justice Rev 33(2):199–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Newman O (1972) Defensible space: crime prevention through environmental design. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Newman O (1975) Design guidelines for creating defensible space. US Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  53. Pridemore WA, Grubesic TH (2013) Alcohol outlets and community levels of interpersonal violence: spatial density, outlet type, and seriousness of assault. J Res Crime Delinq 50(1):132–159Google Scholar
  54. Ratcliffe JH (2004) Geocoding crime and a first estimate of a minimum acceptable hit rate. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 18(1):61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ratcliffe JH (2011) How near is near? Quantifying the spatial influence of crime attractors and generators. In: Andresen M, Kinney JB (eds) Patterns, prevention, and geometry of crime. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. Ratcliffe JH (2012) The spatial extent of criminogenic places: a change-point regression of violence around bars. Geogr Anal 44(4):302–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Roman CG, Reid SE, Bhati AS, Tereshchenko B (2008) Alcohol outlets as attractors of violence and disorder: a closer look at the neighborhood environment. The Urban Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  58. Roncek DW, Bell R (1981) Bars, blocks and crimes. J Environ Syst 11:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roncek DW, Maier PA (1991) Bars, blocks, and crime revisited: linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of “hot spots”. Criminology 29(4):725–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roncek DW, Pravatiner MA (1989) Additional evidence that taverns enhance nearby crime. Sociol Soc Res 73(4):185–188Google Scholar
  61. Rossmo DK, Rombouts S (2008) Geographic profiling. In: Wortley R, Mazerolle L (eds) Environmental criminology and crime analysis. Willan Publishing, Portland, pp 78–93Google Scholar
  62. Schneider RH, Kitchen T (2007) Crime prevention and the built environment. Rutledge, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  63. Seattle City Government (2009) Quick information: area of the city. Retrieved from, http://www.cityofseattle.net/CityArchives/Facts/info.htm
  64. Sherman LW (1995) Hot spots of crime and criminal careers of places. In: Eck J, Weisburd D (eds) Crime and place, vol 4. Willow Tree Press, Monsey, NYGoogle Scholar
  65. Sherman LW, Gartin P, Buerger ME (1989) Hot spots of predatory crime: routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology 27(1):27–56Google Scholar
  66. Skogan WG (1974) The validity of official crime statistics: an empirical investigation. Soc Sci Q 55(1):25–38Google Scholar
  67. Speer PW, Gorman DM, Labouvie EW, Ontkush MJ (1998) Violent crime and alcohol availability: relationships in an urban community. J Public Health Pol 19(3):303–318Google Scholar
  68. Taylor RB (1997) Social order and disorder of street blocks and neighborhoods: ecology, microecology, and the systemic model of social disorganization. J Res Crime Delinq 34(1):113–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor RB (1998) Crime and Small-scale places: what we know, what we can prevent, and what else we need to know. In: Taylor RB, Bazemore G, Boland B, Clear TR, Corbett RPJ, Feinblatt J, Berman G, Sviridoff M, Stone C (eds) Crime and place: Plenary papers of the 1997 conference on criminal justice research and evaluation. National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  70. Taylor RB, Gottfredson SD, Brower S (1984) Block crime and fear: defensible space, local social ties, and territorial functioning. J Res Crime Delinq 21(4):303–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tobler W (1970) A computer model simulation of urban growth in the Detroit region. Econ Geogr 46(2):234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Unger D, Wandersman A (1983) Neighboring and its role in block organizations: an exploratory report. Am J Commun Psychol 11(3):291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. U.S. Census Bureau (2010) NAICS 7224: drinking places (alcoholic beverages). Retrieved 2/11/2010, from U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/epcd/ec97/def/7224.HTM
  74. U.S. Census Bureau (2011) Census 2010. U. S. Census Bureau, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  75. Weisburd D, Bushway S, Lum C, Yang S-M (2004) Trajectories of crime at places: a longitudinal study of street segments in the city of Seattle. Criminology 42(2):283–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Weisburd D, Morris N, Groff ER (2009) Hot spots of juvenile crime: a longitudinal study of street segments in Seattle, Washington. J Quant Criminol 25(4):443–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weisburd D, Groff E, Yang S-M (2011) Understanding developmental crime trajectories at places: social disorganization and opportunity perspectives at micro units of geography. Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  78. Weisburd D, Groff E, Yang S-M (2012) The criminology of place: street segments and our understanding of the crime problem. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wicker AW (1987) Behavior settings reconsidered: temporal stages, resources, internal dynamics, context. In: Stokels D, Altman I (eds) Handbook of environmental psychology. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 613–653Google Scholar
  80. Zipf G (1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Addison Wesley, Reading, MAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Criminal JusticeTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations