Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 641–661 | Cite as

Perceptual Experience Norms for 506 Russian Nouns: Modality Rating, Spatial Localization, Manipulability, Imageability and Other Variables

  • Alex MiklashevskyEmail author


A number of new psycholinguistic variables has been proposed during the last years within embodied cognition framework: modality experience rating (i.e., relationship between words and images of a particular perceptive modality—visual, auditory, haptic etc.), manipulability (the necessity for an object to interact with human hands in order to perform its function), vertical spatial localization. However, it is not clear how these new variables are related to each other and to such traditional variables as imageability, AoA and word frequency. In this article, normative data on the modality (visual, auditory, haptic, olfactory, and gustatory) ratings, vertical spatial localization of the object, manipulability, imageability, age of acquisition, and subjective frequency for 506 Russian nouns are presented. Strongest correlations were observed between olfactory and gustatory modalities (.81), visual modality and imageability (.78), haptic modality and manipulability (.7). Other modalities also significantly correlate with imageability: olfactory (.35), gustatory (.24), and haptic (.67). Factor analysis divided variables into four groups where visual and haptic modality ratings were combined with imageability, manipulability and AoA (the first factor); word length, frequency and AoA formed the second factor; olfactory modality was united with gustatory (the third factor); spatial localization only is included in the fourth factor. Present norms of imageability and AoA are consistent with previous as correlation analysis has revealed. The complete database can be downloaded from supplementary material.


Embodied cognition Modality rating Spatial localization Manipulability Imageability AoA Word frequency Russian Database 



This study was carried out in 2014–2016 with support from The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program under Grant (No. The work on this article in 2017 was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (the RF Government Grant No. 14.Y26.31.0014). The author thanks Zoya I. Rezanova and Armina Janyan for valuable discussion at all stages, from planning the study to working on the article, Valeria V. Kashpur for style editing, all the volunteers who helped to collect data and all the participants of the rating study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Laboratory for Cognitive Studies of Language (Tomsk State University). All the procedures were performed according to APA Ethical Standards.

Supplementary material

10936_2017_9548_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (108 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (xlsx 108 KB)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Potsdam Embodied Cognition Group, Cognitive SciencesUniversity of PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.Laboratory for Cognitive Studies of LanguageNational Research Tomsk State UniversityTomskRussia

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