Profiling Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese as a Second Language Learners in University Settings
- 465 Downloads
This study revisited Reid’s (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners’ learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid’s six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners’ learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context. A four-factor PLSPQ was successfully constructed including auditory/visual, kinaesthetic/tactile, group, and individual styles. Such a measurement model was cross-validated through CFAs with 118 CSL learners. The study not only lends evidence to the literature that Reid’s PLSPQ lacks construct validity, but also provides CSL teachers and learners with insightful and practical guidance concerning learning styles. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.
KeywordsPLSPQ Learning style CSL Exploratory factor analysis Confirmatory factor analysis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Cohen, A., & Dörnyei, Z. (2002). Focus on the language learner: Motivation, styles and strategies. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (pp. 170–190). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
- Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Curry, L. (1987). Integrating concepts of cognitive or learning style a review with attention to psychometric standards. Ottawa: Canadian College of Health Service Executives.Google Scholar
- DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T. (2010). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Felder, R. M. (1996). Matters of style. ASEE Prism, 6, 18–23.Google Scholar
- Felder, R. M. & Soloman B. A. (1991). Index of learning styles. Retrieved form September 20, 2015. http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html
- Felder, R. M., & Spurlin, J. (2005). Applications, reliability and validity of the index of learning style. International Journal of Engineering Education, 21, 103–12.Google Scholar
- Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Griffiths, C. (2013). The strategy factor in successful language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
- Hair, J. F, Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
- Hanban. (2010). Chinese proficiency test syllabus level 6. Beijing, China: The Commercial Press.Google Scholar
- Hinton, P. R., McMurray, I., & Brownlow, C. (2014). SPSS explained (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Honey, P., & Mumford, A. (1992). The manual of learning styles. Maidenhead: Peter Honey.Google Scholar
- Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6, 53–60.Google Scholar
- Keefe, J. W. (1979). Learning style: An overview. In J. W. Keefe (Ed.), Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs (pp. 1–17). Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.Google Scholar
- Kinsella, K. (1995). Understanding and empowering diverse learners in ESL classrooms. In J. M. Reid (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp. 170–194). Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.Google Scholar
- Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Kolb, D. A. (1976). The learning styles inventory: Technical manual. Boston, MA: McBer & Co.Google Scholar
- Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Lauriola, M., Lord, F., Novick, M., Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (2004). Reliability coefficient. In M. S. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman & T. F. Liao (Eds.), The SAGE encyclopedia of social science research methods (pp. 959–961). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781412950589.n847.
- Naserieh, F., & Anani Sarab, M. R. (2013). Perceptual learning style preferences among Iranian graduate students. System, 41, 122–133. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2013.01.018.
- Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding second language acquisition. London: Hodder Education.Google Scholar
- Reid, J. M. (1995). Preface. In J. M. Reid (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (p. xvii). Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.Google Scholar
- Segalowitz, N. (2010). Cognitive bases of second language fluency. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Shipman, S., & Shipman, V. (1985). Cognitive styles: Some conceptual, methodological, and applied issues. In E. Dordon (Ed.), Review of research in education (pp. 229–291). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Sun, P. P., & Yuan, R. (2017). Understanding collaborative language learning in novice-level foreign language classrooms: Perceptions of teachers and students. Interactive Language Environments. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2017.1285790.
- Willingham, D. T. (2005). Do visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners need visual, auditory, and kinesthetic instruction? American Educator, 29, 31–44.Google Scholar