Advertisement

The Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 345–360 | Cite as

Weight Management, Weight Perceptions, and Health-Compromising Behaviours Among Adolescent Girls in the COMPASS Study

  • Amanda Raffoul
  • Scott T. Leatherdale
  • Sharon I. KirkpatrickEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Evidence suggests associations between weight management intentions, weight perceptions, and health-compromising behaviours among adolescent girls. Drawing on cross-sectional data for 21,456 girls, we employed multinomial logistic regression to examine whether smoking, binge drinking, and breakfast-skipping were associated with weight management intentions and weight perceptions. According to self-reported heights and weights, 61.4% of girls were in the healthy weight category. However, most reported trying to manage their weight, with 58% trying to lose, 4.5% trying to gain, and 18% trying to maintain their weight. Smokers were more likely than non-smokers to report intentions to lose, gain, or maintain weight versus to do nothing. However, smokers were less likely than non-smokers to perceive themselves as underweight or overweight versus about the right weight. Binge drinkers were more likely than other girls to report an intention to gain and less likely to be trying to maintain their weight versus doing nothing, and breakfast-skippers were more likely to report trying to lose or gain weight but less likely to report trying to maintain weight versus doing nothing. Binge drinkers and breakfast-skippers were more likely than non-binge drinkers and non-breakfast-skippers, respectively, to perceive themselves as underweight, overweight or very overweight versus about the right weight. In sum, the majority of girls reported trying to manage their weight, and those engaging in other health-compromising behaviours were more likely to do so, though the exact nature of the associations differed by behaviour. Recognition of shared underlying risk factors for this clustering of behaviours may inform comprehensive health promotion efforts.

Keywords

Weight management Dieting Weight perception Smoking Binge drinking Meal-skipping 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The COMPASS study was supported by a bridge grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Nutrition, Metabolism and Diabetes (INMD) through the “Obesity – Interventions to Prevent or Treat” priority funding awards (OOP-110,788; grant awarded to ST. Leatherdale) and an operating grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Institute of Population and Public Health (IPPH) (MOP-114875; grant awarded to ST. Leatherdale). Dr. Leatherdale is a Chair in Applied Public Health Research funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) in partnership with Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Sharon Kirkpatrick is funded by a Capacity Development Award from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (702855).

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Ethics Approval

Ethics approval was granted by the University of Waterloo Office of Research Ethics.

References

  1. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K. P., Faulkner, G. E., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2010). Learning from non-reported data: Interpreting missing body mass index values in young children. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 14(4), 241–251.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1091367X.2010.520243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bombak, A. (2014). Obesity, health at every size, and public health policy. American Journal of Public Health, 104(2), e60–e67.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Boutelle, K., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Resnick, M. (2002). Weight control behaviors among obese, overweight, and nonoverweight adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27(6), 531–540.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/27.6.531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Camp, D. E., Klesges, R. C., & Relyea, G. (1993). The relationship between body weight concerns and adolescent smoking. Health Psychology, 12(1), 24–32.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.1.24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Alcohol and public health: Binge drinking. http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/binge-drinking.htm. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  6. Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ, 320(7244), 1240–1243.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Croll, J., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Ireland, M. (2002). Prevalence and risk and protective factors related to disordered eating behaviors among adolescents: Relationship to gender and ethnicity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31(2), 166–175.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00368-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Crow, S., Eisenberg, M. E., Story, M., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2006). Psychosocial and behavioral correlates of dieting among overweight and non-overweight adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(5), 569–574.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.05.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Daee, A., Robinson, P., Lawson, M., Turpin, J. A., Gregory, B., & Tobias, J. D. (2002). Psychologic and physiologic effects of dieting in adolescents. The Southern Medical Journal, 95(9), 1032–1041.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00007611-200295090-00016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Diez Roux, A. V. (2011). Complex systems thinking and current impasses in health disparities research. American Journal of Public Health, 101(9), 1627–1634.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300149.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Field, A. E., Austin, S. B., Frazier, A. L., Gillman, M. W., Camargo, C. A., Jr., & Colditz, G. A. (2002). Smoking, getting drunk, and engaging in bulimic behaviors: In which order are the behaviors adopted? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(7), 846–853.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200207000-00018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Field, A. E., Austin, S. B., Taylor, C. B., Malspeis, S., Rosner, B., Rockett, H. R., et al. (2003). Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics, 112(4), 900–906.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.112.4.900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Field, A. E., Haines, J., Rosner, B., & Willett, W. C. (2010). Weight-control behaviors and subsequent weight change among adolescents and young adult females. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(1), 147–153.  https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.28321.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. French, S. A., Perry, C. L., Leon, G. R., & Fulkerson, J. A. (1994). Weight concerns, dieting behavior, and smoking initiation among adolescents: A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health, 84(11), 1818–1820.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.84.11.1818.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnston, L. M., Matteson, C. L., & Finegood, D. T. (2014). Systems science and obesity policy: A novel framework for analyzing and rethinking population-level planning. American Journal of Public Health, 104(7), 1270–1278.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.301884.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Krahn, D., Piper, D., King, M., Olson, L., Kurth, C., & Moberg, D. P. (1996). Dieting in sixth grade predicts alcohol use in ninth grade. Journal of Substance Abuse, 8(3), 293–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289(96)90161-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Larson, N. I., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2009). Weight control behaviors and dietary intake among adolescents and young adults: Longitudinal findings from Project EAT. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(11), 1869–1877.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.08.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Leatherdale, S. T. (2015). An examination of the co-occurrence of modifiable risk factors associated with chronic disease among youth in the COMPASS study. Cancer Causes and Control, 26(4), 519–528.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-015-0529-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Leatherdale, S. T., Brown, K. S., Carson, V., Childs, R., Dubin, J., Elliott, S. J., et al. (2014). The COMPASS study: A longitudinal hierarchical research platform for evaluating natural experiments related to changes in school-level programs, policies and built environment resources. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 331.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-331.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Leatherdale, S. T., & Laxer, R. E. (2013). Reliability and validity of the weight status and dietary intake measures in the COMPASS questionnaire: Are the self-reported measures of body mass index (BMI) and Canada’s food guide servings robust? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 42.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Leatherdale, S. T., & Rynard, V. (2013). A cross-sectional examination of modifiable risk factors for chronic disease among a nationally representative sample of youth: Are Canadian students graduating high school with a failing grade for health? BMC Public Health, 13(1), 569.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-569.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Lohr, S. L. (1999). Sampling: Design and analysis. Boston, MA: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Google Scholar
  23. McKee, H., Ntoumanis, N., & Smith, B. (2013). Weight maintenance: Self-regulatory factors underpinning success and failure. Psychology & Health, 28(10), 1207–1223.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2013.799162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McVey, G., Tweed, S., & Blackmore, E. (2004). Dieting among preadolescent and young adolescent females. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170(10), 1559–1561.  https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.1031247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Minaker, L. M., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2016). Association between weight and smoking not mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40(1), 21–30.  https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.40.1.3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Haines, J., Story, M., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2007). Why does dieting predict weight gain in adolescents? Findings from Project EAT-II: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107(3), 448–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2006.12.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Wall, M., Story, M., & Standish, A. R. (2012). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: Associations with 10-year changes in body mass index. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(1), 80–86.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.05.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pasch, K. E., Klein, E. G., Laska, M. N., Velazquez, C. E., Moe, S. G., & Lytle, L. A. (2011). Weight misperception and health risk behaviors among early adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(6), 797–806.  https://doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.35.6.15.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Pérez, A., Gabriel, K., Nehme, E. K., Mandell, D. J., & Hoelscher, D. M. (2015). Measuring the bias, precision, accuracy, and validity of self-reported height and weight in assessing overweight and obesity status among adolescents using a surveillance system. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(Suppl 1), S2.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-12-S1-S2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Pirkle, E. C., & Richter, L. (2006). Personality, attitudinal and behavioral risk profiles of young female binge drinkers and smokers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(1), 44–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.09.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Public Health Agency of Canada. (2011). Obesity in Canada. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/oic-oac/index-eng.php. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  32. Public Health Agency of Canada. (2012). Curbing childhood obesity: A federal, provincial and territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/hl-mvs/framework-cadre/index-eng.php. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  33. Raffoul, A., Leatherdale, S. T., & Kirkpatrick, S. I. (2018). Dieting predicts engagement in multiple risky behaviours among adolescent Canadian girls: A longitudinal analysis. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 109(1), 61–69.  https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0025-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Roehrig, M., Thompson, J. K., & Cafri, G. (2008). Effects of dieting-related messages on psychological and weight control variables. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41(2), 164–173.  https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sarafrazi, N., Hughes, J. P., Borrud, L., Burt, V., & Paulose-Ram, R. (2014). Perception of weight status in U.S. children and adolescents aged 8-15 years, 2005-2012. NCHS Data Brief, no 158. National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db158.htm. Accessed 5 June 2017.
  36. Seo, D. C., & Jiang, N. (2009). Associations between smoking and extreme dieting among adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(10), 1364–1373.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9421-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sherry, B., Jefferds, M. E., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2007). Accuracy of adolescent self-report of height and weight in assessing overweight status: A literature review. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(12), 1154–1161.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.12.1154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sonneville, K. R., Thurston, I. B., Milliren, C. E., Kamody, R. C., Gooding, H. C., & Richmond, T. K. (2016). Helpful or harmful? Prospective association between weight misperception and weight gain among overweight and obese adolescents and young adults. International Journal of Obesity, 40(2), 328–332.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2015.166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Stewart, S. H., Baker, J. M., Boland, F. J., Angelopoulos, M., Mcpherson, P., & Barton, S. (2000). Relations between dietary restraint and patterns of alcohol use in young adult women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(1), 77–82.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0893-164X.14.I.77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Vander Wal, J. S., & Thelen, M. H. (2000). Eating and body image concerns among obese and average-weight children. Addictive Behaviors, 25(5), 775–778.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(00)00061-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda Raffoul
    • 1
  • Scott T. Leatherdale
    • 1
  • Sharon I. Kirkpatrick
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Public Health and Health SystemsUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations