The Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 191–203 | Cite as

The Association of Point-of-Sale E-cigarette Advertising with Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Neighborhoods

  • Neng Wan
  • Mohammad Siahpush
  • Raees A. Shaikh
  • Molly McCarthy
  • Athena Ramos
  • Antonia Correa
Original Paper


Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area. We used Geographic Information Systems to map POS e-cigarette advertisement density for the entire study area. Linear regression was used to examine the association between socio-demographic factors and POS e-cigarette advertising density. E-cigarette advertising density exhibited an obviously uneven geographic pattern in Omaha. Higher level of POS e-cigarette advertising was significantly related to lower median household income, higher percentage of Hispanics, and higher percentage of young adults. However, after adjusting for covariates, only median household income remained significantly associated with POS e-cigarette advertising. We found geographic, socioeconomic, and racial and ethnic disparities in exposure to POS e-cigarette advertising in Omaha, Nebraska. Future studies are needed to understand how these disparities influence e-cigarette adoption by different social groups and how to use such information to inform e-cigarette prevention strategies.


Electronic cigarette Point-of-sale advertising GIS Race and ethnicity Socioeconomic status Kernel density 


Author’s Contribution

We assure that all authors included on a paper fulfill the criteria of authorship. All have contributed in the conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the article and revising it critically for important intellectual content, and final approval of the version to be published. In addition we also assure that there is no one else who fulfills the criteria but has not been included as an author.


This work was funded through the National Institute of Health Grant # R01CA166156.

Compliance With Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors declare that there was no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work, neither did we have other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Ethical Approval

This study did not involve any direct contact between researchers and participants. Institutional Review Board at University of Nebraska Medical Center provided the ethical approval for this study.

Informed Consent

This study did not required any direct contact with human subjects and so informed consent was not required for this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neng Wan
    • 1
  • Mohammad Siahpush
    • 2
  • Raees A. Shaikh
    • 3
  • Molly McCarthy
    • 2
  • Athena Ramos
    • 2
  • Antonia Correa
    • 2
  1. 1.University of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.University of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  3. 3.University of Oklahoma Health Science CenterOklahoma CityUSA

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