Sporting events in the U.S., particularly college football games, provide an opportunity for high-risk alcohol consumption that can result in alcohol-related consequences and associated public safety issues. Policy implication and predicting alcohol-related misconduct at college football games has become a concern for university administrators. To address this issue, we explored the extent to which the profile of a game or opponent—whether that be operationalized by classification (e.g., in-state opponent, conference opponent) or opponent quality (e.g., top-25 status, ranking average)—influences the reported stadium ejections of a college football venue, and whether these associations existed beyond the influence of several noteworthy covariates (e.g., time of kickoff, attendance, temperature). We suggest that time of kickoff and opponent quality measures predicted increases of ejections from college football stadiums. We conclude by discussing policy implications for college athletic departments and university stakeholders.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
For an entire listing of the 124 ranking systems, see http://www.masseyratings.com/cf/arch/.
Barry, A. E., Howell, S., Bopp, T., Stellefson, M., Chaney, E., Piazza-Gardner, A., et al. (2014). A field-based community assessment of intoxication levels across college football weekends: Does it matter who’s playing? Journal of Primary Prevention, 35(6), 409–416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-014-0369-9.
Barry, A. E., Stellefson, M. L., Piazza-Gardner, A. K., Chaney, B. H., & Dodd, V. J. (2013). The impact of pregaming on subsequent blood alcohol concentrations: An event-level analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 38(8), 2374–2377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.03.014.
Bormann, C. A., & Stone, H. (2001). The effects of eliminating alcohol in a college stadium: The Folsom Field beer ban. Journal of American College Health, 50(2), 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448480109596011.
Boyes, W. J., & Faith, R. L. (1993). Temporal regulation and intertemporal substitution: The effect of banning alcohol at college football games. Public Choice, 77(3), 585–609. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01047862.
Champion, H., Blocker, J. N., Buettner, C. K., Martin, B. A., Parries, M., McCoy, T. P., et al. (2009). High-risk versus low-risk football game weekends: Differences in problem drinking and alcohol-related consequences on college campuses in the United States. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 21(2), 249–262. https://doi.org/10.1515/IJAMH.2009.21.2.249.
Glassman, T., Werch, C. E., Jobli, E., & Bian, H. (2007). Alcohol-related fan behavior on college football game day. Journal of American College Health, 56(3), 255–260. https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.56.3.255-260.
Johannessen, K., Glider, P., Collins, C., Hueston, H., & DeJong, W. (2001). Preventing alcohol related problems at the University of Arizona’s homecoming: An environmental management case study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(3), 587–597. https://doi.org/10.1081/ADA-100104520.
Massey Ratings. (2014). College football ranking comparison [Data file]. Available from http://www.masseyratings.com/cf/arch/.
Menaker, B. E., & Chaney, B. H. (2014). College football game day stadium incidents: Policy and environmental effects on alcohol-related ejections and crime. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 6(2), 119–134. https://doi.org/10.1080/19407963.2014.895286.
Menaker, B. E., Chaney, B. H., & Sheptak, R. D., Jr. (2016). Administrative perspectives of stadium alcohol policy: Alcohol-related public safety measures in college football stadia. Journal of Sport Safety and Security, 1(1), 1–21.
Merlo, L. J., Hong, J., & Cottler, L. B. (2010). The association between alcohol-related arrests and college football game days. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 106(1), 69–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.07.012.
Neal, D. J., & Fromme, K. (2007). Hook ‘em horns and heavy drinking: Alcohol use and collegiate sports. Addictive Behaviors, 32(11), 2681–2693. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.06.020.
Neal, D. J., Sugarman, D. E., Hustad, J. T. P., Caska, C. M., & Carey, K. B. (2005). It’s all fun and games…or is it? Collegiate sporting events and celebratory drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(2), 291–294. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsa.2005.66.291.
Neighbors, C., Foster, D., Fossos, N., & Lewis, M. (2012). Windows of risk: Events and contexts associated with extreme drinking. In C. J. Correia, J. G. Murphy, & N. P. Barnett (Eds.), College student alcohol abuse: A guide to assessment, intervention, and prevention (pp. 53–80). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Rees, D. I., & Schnepel, K. T. (2009). College football games and crime. Journal of Sport Economics, 10(1), 68–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/1527002508327389.
Sperber, M. (2001). Beer and Circus: How big-time college sports is crippling undergraduate education. New York, NY: Holt Paperbacks.
Thombs, D. L., O’Mara, R., Dodd, V. J., Hou, W., Merves, M. L., Weiler, R. M., et al. (2009). A field study of bar-sponsored drink specials and their associations with patron intoxication. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(2), 206–214. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2009.70.206.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Menaker, B.E., Barry, A.E. & Howell, S.M. Identifying the Influence of Opponent Ranking and Game Characteristics on Alcohol-Related Stadium Ejections. J Primary Prevent 39, 117–128 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-018-0504-0
- Alcohol consumption
- High-risk drinking
- Alcohol policy
- Sporting events
- College football