A Comparison of Online Versus Workbook Delivery of a Self-Help Positive Parenting Program

An Erratum to this article was published on 15 August 2014


A noninferiority randomized trial design compared the efficacy of two self-help variants of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: an online version and a self-help workbook. We randomly assigned families of 193 children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties to the online (N = 97) or workbook (N = 96) interventions. Parents completed questionnaire measures of child behavior, parenting, child maltreatment risk, personal adjustment and relationship quality at pre- and post-intervention and again at 6-month follow up. The short-term intervention effects of the Triple P Online program were not inferior to the workbook on the primary outcomes of disruptive child behavior and dysfunctional parenting as reported by both mothers and fathers. Both interventions were associated with significant and clinically meaningful declines from pre- to post-intervention in levels of disruptive child behavior, dysfunctional parenting styles, risk of child maltreatment, and inter-parental conflict on both mother and father report measures. Intervention effects were largely maintained at 6-month follow up, thus supporting the use of self-help parenting programs within a comprehensive population-based system of parenting support to reduce child maltreatment and behavioral problems in children.

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Fig. 1


  1. 1.

    The median annual family income in New Zealand in 2010 was $NZ64,272 (Statistics New Zealand, 2010).


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Correspondence to Matthew R. Sanders.

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Sanders, M.R., Dittman, C.K., Farruggia, S.P. et al. A Comparison of Online Versus Workbook Delivery of a Self-Help Positive Parenting Program. J Primary Prevent 35, 125–133 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-014-0339-2

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  • Self-directed parent training
  • Online parent training
  • Noninferiority design