The Journal of Primary Prevention

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 279–291 | Cite as

Dentists as Oral Physicians: The Overlooked Primary Health Care Resource

  • Donald B. Giddon
  • Brian Swann
  • R. Bruce Donoff
  • Ruth Hertzman-Miller
Report From The Field


The United States is currently experiencing a primary care shortage. One solution to improving health care is to increase the utilization of existing health care providers, particularly dentists, an opportunity that has been largely ignored. By employing mid-level providers for less complex procedures to deliver more accessible dental care at lower cost, dentists can redistribute tasks to their office workforce. They can then serve as oral physicians who can provide limited preventive primary care, including screening for chronic diseases, while continuing to oversee all dental care, whether provided by dentists or non-dentists. Thus, they could improve the health of the US population as well as increase access to dental care at lower cost, while partially alleviating the primary care shortage by filling a need for the screening aspects of primary care.


Health care delivery Primary care Oral physician Dentistry 


  1. Abrose, E., Hord, A., & Simpson, W. (1976). A quality evaluation of specific dental services provided by the Saskatchewan dental plan. Regina: Province of Saskatchewan Department of Health.Google Scholar
  2. AMA Advocacy Research Center. (2010). Truth in advertising campaign. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from
  3. American Academy of Periodontology. (2000a). Parameter on periodontitis associated with systemic conditions. Journal of Periodontology, 71(5 Suppl), 876–879.Google Scholar
  4. American Academy of Periodontology. (2000b). Parameter on systemic conditions affected by periodontal diseases. Journal of Periodontology, 71(5 Suppl), 880–883.Google Scholar
  5. American Dental Association. (2007). Dentistry definitions. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from
  6. American Dental Association. (n.d.). State dental licensure for U.S. dentists. Retrieved April 6, 2012, from
  7. American Dental Hygienists’ Association. (n.d.). The history of introducing a new provider in Minnesota: A chronicle of legislative efforts 20082009. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from
  8. Anderson, N. K., Zionic, A., & Giddon, D. B. (2002). Regional similarities in attitudes of dentists toward eating disorders and expanded dental roles. Paper presented at the American Public Health Association 130th annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  9. Anon. (2010). ADA Statement on the Kellogg Study of Alaska Dental Health Aide Therapist Program. Retrieved November 5, 2010, from
  10. Armstrong, M. J., Mottershead, T. A., Ronksley, P. E., Sigal, R. J., Campbell, T. S., & Hemmelgarn, B. R. (2011). Motivational interviewing to improve weight loss in overweight and/or obese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 12(9), 709–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Assael, L. (2012). Medical school-based education in dentistry: An exciting history and an opportune future. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 114(6), 669–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Averill, R. F., Mullin, R. L., Steinbeck, B. A., Goldfield, N. I., Grant, T. M., & Butler, R. R. (2009). Development of the ICD-10 procedure coding system. 3M HIS Research Report 1-09. Retrieved from
  13. Barbara Aved Associates. (2006). Challenging the dental profession: Recognizing and responding to family violence. Final report of the Dental Professionals Against Violence Program. April 2006. Retrieved from
  14. Beazoglou, T., Brown, L. J., Ray, S., Chen, L., & Lazar, V. (2009). An economic study of expanded duties of dental auxiliaries in Colorado. Dental Health Policy Analysis Series. Retrieved from
  15. Berry, J. (2012). Science forum explores question of medical tests: Should dentists screen for medical conditions in their offices? Retrieved December 31, 2012, from
  16. Blackstock, O. J., King, J. R., Mason, R. D., Lee, C. C., & Mannheimer, S. B. (2010). Evaluation of a rapid HIV testing initiative in an urban, hospital-based dental clinic. Aids Patient Care and STDS, 24(12), 781–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolin, K. A. (2008). Assessment of treatment provided by dental health aide therapists in Alaska: A pilot study. Journal of the American Dental Association, 139(11), 1530–1535. (discussion 1536–1539).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Occupational outlook handbook. Retrieved from
  19. Campbell, H. S., Sletten, M., & Petty, T. (1999). Patient perceptions of tobacco cessation services in dental offices. Journal of the American Dental Association, 130(2), 219–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Campo, J., Cano, J., Del Romero, J., Hernando, V., Del Amo, J., & Moreno, S. (2011). Role of the dental surgeon in the early detection of adults with underlying HIV infection/AIDS. Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal.Google Scholar
  21. Caralis, P. V., & Musialowski, R. (1997). Women’s experiences with domestic violence and their attitudes and expectations regarding medical care of abuse victims. Southern Medical Journal, 90(11), 1075–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Health, United States, 2011. Table 98. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Health, United States, 2011. Table 97. Retrieved from
  24. Children’s Dental Health Project. (2010). House passes historic health care package. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from
  25. Children’s Dental Health Project, 2010. Oral Health Provisions in the House Passed Health Reform Package (2011) Retrieved June 30, 2011, from
  26. Compilation of the Social Security Laws. (2013). Part E—Miscellaneous Provisions. DEFINITIONS OF SERVICES, INSTITUTIONS, ETC. [442].Sec. 1861. [42 U.S.C. 1395x].Google Scholar
  27. Cronholm, P. F., Fogarty, C. T., Ambuel, B., & Harrison, S. L. (2011). Intimate partner violence. American Family Physician, 83(10), 1165–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. da Fonseca, M. A., Feigal, R. J., & ten Bensel, R. W. (1992). Dental aspects of 1,248 cases of child maltreatment on file at a major county hospital. Pediatric Dentistry, 14(3), 152–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Debate, R. D., & Tedesco, L. A. (2006). Increasing dentists’ capacity for secondary prevention of eating disorders: Identification of training, network, and professional contingencies. Journal of Dental Education, 70(10), 1066–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Delta Dental of New Jersey. The PANDA Program. Retrieved May 23, 2013, from
  31. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). CMS Panual System: Pub 100-04 Medicare Claims Processing; Transmittal 2462. Retrieved December 7, 2012, from
  32. Drobnik, A., Judd, C., Banach, D., Egger, J., Konty, K., & Rude, E. (2011). Public health implications of rapid hepatitis C screening with an oral swab for community-based organizations serving high-risk populations. American Journal of Public Health, 101(11), 2151–2155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Emmerling, H., & Standley, E. (2011). The midlevel: Alternative workforce models continue to develop in dentistry. RDH: The national magazine for dental hygiene professionals, 31(6). Retrieved from
  34. Explaining Health Care Reform: Questions About Health Insurance Subsidies (2010). (7962-02). Retrieved from
  35. EZ Dental Codes Terminology Conference. (2012). EZ dental codes terminology conference. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from
  36. FDA/NIH. (n.d.). Focus area 19: Nutrition and overweight. Final review of healthy people 2010. Retrieved from
  37. Feder, G. S., Hutson, M., Ramsay, J., & Taket, A. R. (2006). Women exposed to intimate partner violence: Expectations and experiences when they encounter health care professionals: A meta-analysis of qualitative studies. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(1), 22–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ferguson, F. (2006). Interactive Web technology provides significant advantages in oral health education. School Nurse News, 23(5), 22–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ferguson, F. (2010). MySmileGuide™: An oral health management technology Retrieved December 31, 2012, from
  40. Ferris, A. H., McAndrew, T. M., Shearer, D., Donnelly, G. F., & Miller, H. A. (2010). Embracing the convenient care concept. Postgraduate Medicine, 122(1), 7–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Formicola, A., Valachovic, R. W., Chmar, J. E., Mouradian, W., Bertolami, C. N., Tedesco, L., et al. (2008). Curriculum and clinical training in oral health for physicians and dentists: Report of panel 2 of the Macy study. Journal of Dental Education, 72(2 Suppl), 73–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fox, K. (2013). Who calls the shots? Illinois dentists advocate to administer flu and other vaccines. ADA News, April 1, 2013, 1, 8.Google Scholar
  43. Gaidos, S. (2011). A spitting image of health: How saliva can help doctors diagnose disease. Science News, 180(11), 26–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gallagher, J., Patel, R., Donaldson, N., & Wilson, N. (2007). The emerging dental workforce: Why dentistry? A quantitative study of final year dental students’ views on their professional career. BMC Oral Health, 7, 7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gary, C. J., & Glick, M. (2012). Medical clearance: An issue of professional autonomy, not a crutch. Journal of the American Dental Association, 143(11), 1180–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Giddon, D. B. (2009). Re: Primary health care assessment and intervention in the dental office. Lamster IB, Wolf DL. (J Periodontol 2008;79:1825–1832). Primary care provided by periodontists/oral physicians. Journal of Periodontology, 80(2), 173–174.Google Scholar
  47. Giddon, D. B., Hertzman-Miller, R., Outlaw, J., Jayaratne, N., & Swann, B. (2012a). Evaluating training of oral physicians. Journal of Dental Research, 91[(Spec Iss A) abstract no. 623 (].
  48. Giddon, D. B., & Howell, T. H, Jr. (2011). Dental specialists need to lead the way to becoming superordinate oral physicians. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics, 112(4), 414–415.Google Scholar
  49. Giddon, D. B., Seymour, B. A., Swann, B., Anderson, N. K., Jayaratne, Y. S., Outlaw, J., et al. (2012b). Innovative primary care training: The Cambridge Health Alliance oral physician program. American Journal of Public Health, 102(11), e48–e49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Giddon, D. B., Swann, B., Krupat, E., Outlaw, J., Jayaratne, N., & Anderson, N. K. (2013). Patient attitudes toward dentists/oral physicians providing limited preventive primary care (oral presentation), International Association of Dental Research, Seattle, WA, March 21, 2013 International Association for Dental Research. Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  51. Giglio, J. A., & Laskin, D. M. (2010). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a group of adult patients seeking general dental care. Quintessence International, 41(5), 433–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gironda, M. W., Lefever, K. H., & Anderson, E. A. (2010). Dental students’ knowledge about elder abuse and neglect and the reporting responsibilities of dentists. Journal of Dental Education, 74(8), 824–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Glick, M., & Greenberg, B. L. (2005). The potential role of dentists in identifying patients’ risk of experiencing coronary heart disease events. Journal of the American Dental Association, 136(11), 1541–1546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Glurich, I., Acharya, A., Shukla, S., Nycz, G., & Brilliant, M. (2013). The oral-systemic personalized medicine model at Marshfield Clinic. Oral Diseases, 19(1), 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Greenberg, B. L., Glick, M., Frantsve, J., Kantor, M. L., Tricia, Q., Mark, M., et al. (2009). Patient attitudes on screening/monitoring of medical conditions by dentists. Journal of Dental Research, 88(Spec Iss A) (abstract number 2761) (
  56. Greenberg, B. L., Glick, M., Frantsve-Hawley, J., & Kantor, M. L. (2010). Dentists’ attitudes toward chairside screening for medical conditions. Journal of the American Dental Association, 141(1), 52–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Greenberg, B. L., Glick, M., Goodchild, J., Duda, P. W., Conte, N. R., & Conte, M. (2007). Screening for cardiovascular risk factors in a dental setting. Journal of the American Dental Association, 138(6), 798–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Greenberg, B. L., Kantor, M. L., Jiang, S. S., & Glick, M. (2010). Physicians’ attitudes toward medical screening in a dental setting. Journal of Dental Research, 89(Spec Iss B) [abstract number 4931 (].
  59. Greenberg, B. L., Kantor, M. L., Jiang, S. S., & Glick, M. (2012). Patients’ attitudes toward screening for medical conditions in a dental setting. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 72(1), 28–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Guideline on oral and dental aspects of child abuse and neglect. (2008). Pediatric Dentistry, 30(7 Suppl), 86–89.Google Scholar
  61. Gurav, A. N. (2012). Periodontal therapy—An adjuvant for glycemic control. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, 6(4), 218–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hancocks, S. (2012). Sawbones no longer? British Dental Journal, 212(8), 353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Harrison, L. (2011). Primary care enters the dentist’s office: An expert interview with Ira B. Lamster, DDS, MMSc. Retrieved July 12, 2011, from
  64. IOM (Institute of Medicine) and NRC (National Research Council). (2011). Improving access to oral health care for vulnerable and underserved populations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  65. Jessee, S. A. (1995). Orofacial manifestations of child abuse and neglect. American Family Physician, 52(6), 1829–1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kalenderian, E., Ramoni, R. L., White, J. M., Schoonheim-Klein, M. E., Stark, P. C., Kimmes, N. S., et al. (2011). The development of a dental diagnostic terminology. Journal of Dental Education, 75(1), 68–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kaner, E. F., Beyer, F., Dickinson, H. O., Pienaar, E., Campbell, F., Schlesinger, C., et al. (2007). Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions in primary care populations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2), CD004148.Google Scholar
  68. Kitchener, M., & Mertz, E. (2012). Professional projects and institutional change in healthcare: The case of American dentistry. Social Science and Medicine, 74(3), 372–380. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.10.005.Google Scholar
  69. Lalla, E., Kunzel, C., Burkett, S., Cheng, B., & Lamster, I. (2011). Identification of unrecognized diabetes and pre-diabetes in a dental setting. Journal of Dental Research, 90(7), 855–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lalumandier, J. A., Pyle, M. A., & Sawyer, D. R. (1999). Public perception of DDS versus DMD degrees. Journal of the American College of Dentists, 66(3), 29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lamster, I. B., & Wolf, D. L. (2008). Primary health care assessment and intervention in the dental office. Journal of Periodontology, 79(10), 1825–1832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Le, B. T., Dierks, E. J., Ueeck, B. A., Homer, L. D., & Potter, B. F. (2001). Maxillofacial injuries associated with domestic violence. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 59(11), 1277–1283. (discussion 1283–1274).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee, J. M., Garon, E., & Wong, D. T. (2009). Salivary diagnostics. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, 12(3), 206–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lee, Y. H., & Wong, D. T. (2009). Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases. American Journal of Dentistry, 22(4), 241–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Long, R. G., Hlousek, L., & Doyle, J. L. (1998). Oral manifestations of systemic diseases. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 65(5–6), 309–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Loochtan, R. M., & Cole, R. M. (1991). Adolescent suicide in orthodontics: Results of a survey. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 100(2), 180–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Love, C., Gerbert, B., Caspers, N., Bronstone, A., Perry, D., & Bird, W. (2001). Dentists’ attitudes and behaviors regarding domestic violence. The need for an effective response. Journal of the American Dental Association, 132(1), 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Makino, M., Tusboi, J., & Dennerstein, L. (2004). Prevalence of eating disorders: A comparison of Western and non-Western countries. Medscape General Medicine, 6(3). Retrieved from
  79. Marciani, R. D., Raezer, B. F., & Marciani, H. L. (2004). Obesity and the practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics, 98(1), 10–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Martin, V. (2012). Get ready for the 2013 coding changes. Medical Economics (Dec 10), 31–43.Google Scholar
  81. McMenamin, S. B., Halpin, H. A., & Shade, S. B. (2008). Trends in employer-sponsored health insurance coverage for tobacco-dependence treatments. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(4), 321–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miller, P. M., Ravenel, M. C., Shealy, A. E., & Thomas, S. (2006). Alcohol screening in dental patients: The prevalence of hazardous drinking and patients’ attitudes about screening and advice. Journal of the American Dental Association, 137(12), 1692–1698. (quiz 1730–1691).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mouden, L. D. (1998). The role for dental professionals in preventing child abuse and neglect. JournalCalifornia Dental Association, 26(10), 737–739, 741–733.Google Scholar
  84. Nash, D. A. (2012). Envisioning an oral healthcare workforce for the future. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 40(Suppl 2), 141–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nassry, D. D., Phelan, J. A., Ghookasian, M., Barber, C. A., Norman, R. G., Lloyd, M. M., et al. (2012). Patient and provider acceptance of oral HIV screening in a dental school setting. Journal of Dental Education, 76, 1150–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Neeley, W. W, 2nd, Kluemper, G. T., & Hays, L. R. (2006). Psychiatry in orthodontics. Part 1: Typical adolescent psychiatric disorders and their relevance to orthodontic practice. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 129(2), 176–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nelms, A. P., Gutmann, M. E., Solomon, E. S., Dewald, J. P., & Campbell, P. R. (2009). What victims of domestic violence need from the dental profession. Journal of Dental Education, 73(4), 490–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Peterson, J. A. (2007). Get moving! Physical activity counseling in primary care. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19(7), 349–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pontikas, J., DeMaria, A., Jr., & Carrow, G. (2009). Request for Emergency Promulgation of Proposed Amendments to. Retrieved 08/14/2009, from
  90. Raphael, S. L. (2010). General health screening as part of a periodontal examination. J Oral Microbiol, 2. doi:10.3402/jom.v2i0.5783.
  91. Reid, F., Murray, P., & Storrie, M. (2005). Implementation of a pharmacist-led clinic for hypertensive patients in primary care–a pilot study. Pharmacy World & Science, 27(3), 202–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Reilly, V., & Cavanagh, M. (2003). The clinical and economic impact of a secondary heart disease prevention clinic jointly implemented by a practice nurse and pharmacist. Pharmacy World & Science, 25(6), 294–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ross Health Actuarial. (2005). The idea: Structural inferences from actuarial models. Retrieved from
  94. Sanz, M., Treasure, E., van Dijk, W., Feldman, C., Groeneveld, H., Kellett, M., et al. (2008). Profile of the dentist in the oral healthcare team in countries with developed economies. European Journal of Dental Education, 12(Suppl 1), 101–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Spielman, A. I., Fulmer, T., Eisenberg, E. S., & Alfano, M. C. (2005). Dentistry, nursing, and medicine: A comparison of core competencies. Journal of Dental Education, 69(11), 1257–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Starfield, B., Shi, L., & Macinko, J. (2005). Contribution of primary care to health systems and health. Milbank Quarterly, 83(3), 457–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stead, L. F., Bergson, G., & Lancaster, T. (2008). Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (2), CD000165.Google Scholar
  98. Steinbrook, R. (2009). Easing the shortage in adult primary care–is it all about money? New England Journal of Medicine, 360(26), 2696–2699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sullivan, L. W. (2012). April 9. Dental insurance, but no dentists (p. A21). New York Times: Op-ed piece.Google Scholar
  100. Taxin, C. (n.d.). Links2Success Dental Management & Consulting Service. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from
  101. The Art of Practice Management. (n.d.). Retrieved December 27, 2012, from
  102. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (1998). Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Research in Brief. Retrieved from
  103. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2010). Key features of the Affordable Care Act, by year. Retrieved May 6, 2013, from
  104. Victoroff, K. Z., Lewis, R., Ellis, E., & Ntragatakis, M. (2006). Patient receptivity to tobacco cessation counseling in an academic dental clinic: A patient survey. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 66(3), 209–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ward, R. E., Jamison, P. L., & Allanson, J. E. (2000). Quantitative approach to identifying abnormal variation in the human face exemplified by a study of 278 individuals with five craniofacial syndromes. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 91(1), 8–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wilder, R. S., O’Donnell, J. A., Barry, J. M., Galli, D. M., Hakim, F. F., Holyfield, L. J., et al. (2008). Is dentistry at risk? A case for interprofessional education. Journal of Dental Education, 72(11), 1231–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Willumsen, T., & Graugaard, P. K. (2005). Dental fear, regularity of dental attendance and subjective evaluation of dental erosion in women with eating disorders. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 113(4), 297–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yeh, C. K., Christodoulides, N. J., Floriano, P. N., Miller, C. S., Ebersole, J. L., Weigum, S. E., et al. (2010). Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics. Texas Dental Journal, 127(7), 651–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Zheng, J. W., Zhang, S. Y., Yang, C., Guo, L., Shen, G. F., Feng, X. P., et al. (2013). Current undergraduate and postgraduate dental education in China. Journal of Dental Education, 77(1), 72–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald B. Giddon
    • 1
  • Brian Swann
    • 2
    • 3
  • R. Bruce Donoff
    • 3
  • Ruth Hertzman-Miller
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Developmental BiologyHarvard School of Dental MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Cambridge Health AllianceCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Harvard School of Dental MedicineBostonUSA
  4. 4.Joslin Diabetes CenterHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations