The Parents as Teachers Program and School Success: A Replication and Extension
- 974 Downloads
This study is a replication and extension of an earlier study, using a larger sample, a better measure of poverty status, and new longitudinal data. The study used path analysis to test hypothesized models of how the Parents as Teachers (PAT) program affects children’s school readiness and subsequent third-grade achievement. Participants were 5,721 kindergarten children who were chosen to be representative of all children beginning public school in the state of Missouri in the fall of 1998–2000. These children were subsequently located in the state’s third-grade test database 4–5 years later (82% of the original kindergarten sample). The causal models, which postulated both direct and indirect effects of PAT, were strongly supported by the data. Editors’ Strategic Implications: The findings add to the evidence that the PAT home visiting program holds promise as a primary prevention program. The authors demonstrate how parenting practices (including reading to children and enrolling them in preschool) promote both school readiness and subsequent academic achievement, but they also remind us of the pervasive effects of poverty.
KeywordsAchievement Intervention Home-visiting School readiness
- Administration for Children and Families. (2006). Preliminary findings from the Early Head Start pre-kindergarten follow-up. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved February 13, 2007 from: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/ehs/ehs_resrch/reports/prekindergarten_followup/prekindergarten_followup.pdf.
- Alexander, K. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1988). Achievement in the first 2 years of school: Patterns and processes. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2). Serial No. 218.Google Scholar
- Bornstein M. (Ed.). (1995). Handbook of parenting (Vols. 1–5). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Do you believe in magic? What we can expect from early childhood intervention programs. Social Policy Report, 17, 1–15.Google Scholar
- Bus, A. G., vanIJzendoorn, M. H., & Pellegrini, A. (1995). Joint book reading makes for success in learning to read: A meta-analysis on the intergenerational transmission of literacy. Review of Educational Research, 65, 1–21.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (Rev. ed.). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Duncan, G. J., & Magnusun, K. (2006). Costs and benefits from early investments to promote human capital and positive behavior. In N. F. Watt, C. Ayoub, R. H. Bradley, J. E. Puma, & W. A. LeBeouf (Eds.), The crisis in youth mental health. Vol. 4. Early intervention programs and policies (pp. 27–52). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Gomby, D. S. (2005). Home visitation in 2005: Outcomes for children and parents. Washington, DC: Committee for Economic Development Invest in Kids Working Group. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from: http://www.ced.org/docs/report/report_ivk_gomby_2005.pdf.
- Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
- Horvath, A. O. (1994). Empirical validation of Bordin’s pantheoretical model of the alliance: The working alliance inventory perspective. In A. O. Horvath & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research and practice (pp. 109–128). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Lally, J. R., Mangione, P. L, & Honig, A. S. (1988). Long-range impact of an early intervention with low-income children and their families. In D. Powell (Ed.), Parent education in early childhood intervention: Emerging directions in theory, research, and practice (pp. 79–104). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
- Levenstein, P., & Levenstein, S. (2008). Messages from home. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
- Nelson, G., Westhues, A., & MacLeod, J. (2003, December 18). A meta-analysis of longitudinal research on preschool prevention programs for children. Prevention & Treatment, 6, Article 31. Retrieved February 12, 2007 from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume6/pre0060031a.html.
- Olds, D. L. (2006). The nurse-family partnership. In N. F. Watt, C. Ayoub, R. H. Bradley, J. E. Puma, & W. A. LeBeouf (Eds.), The crisis in youth mental health: Vol. 4. Early intervention programs and policies (pp. 147–180). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R. Jr., Cole, R., Eckenrode, J., Kitzman, H., Luckey, D. et al. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1238–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parents as Teachers National Center. (1999). Born to Learn curriculum (prenatal to 3 years). St. Louis, MO: Author.Google Scholar
- Pfannenstiel, J. C. (1997). Kindergarten learning environments and student achievement: A study of constructivist and traditional teaching approaches. Overland Park, KS: Research and Training Associates.Google Scholar
- Pfannenstiel, J. C., Lambson, T., & Yarnell, V. (1991). Second wave study of the Parents as Teachers program. St. Louis, MO: Parents as Teachers National Center.Google Scholar
- Pfannenstiel, J. C., Lambson, T., & Yarnell, V. (1996). The Parents as Teachers program: Longitudinal follow-up to the second wave study. Overland Park, KS: Research and Training Associates.Google Scholar
- Pfannenstiel, J. C., Seitz, V., & Zigler, E. (2002). Promoting school readiness: The role of the Parents as Teachers program. NHSA Dialog, 6, 71–86.Google Scholar
- Rothstein, R. (2004). Class and schools: Using social, economic, and educational reform to close the Black-White achievement gap. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.Google Scholar
- Rowe, D. C. (1994). The limits of family influence: Genes, experience and behavior. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Santos, R. G. (2005). Effectiveness of early intervention for infants and their families: Relating the Working Alliance to program outcomes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba.Google Scholar
- Schweinhart, L. J., & Weikart, D. P. (1997). Lasting differences: The High/Scope Preschool Curriculum Comparison Study through age 23. Monographs of the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, No. 12. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope.Google Scholar
- Shonkoff J. P., & Phillips D. A. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- St. Pierre, R. G., & Layzer, J. I. (1998). Improving the life chances of children in poverty: Assumptions and what we have learned. Social Policy Report, 12(4), 1–25.Google Scholar
- U. S. Department of Education (1993, June 22). All children ready to learn: Toward the national education goals and high standards for all students. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved January 24, 2007 from: http://www.negp.gov/Reports/child-ea.html.
- Yando, R., Seitz, V., & Zigler, E. (1979). Intellectual and personality characteristics of children: Social class and ethnic group differences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Zigler, E., Gilliam, W., & Jones, S. M. (2006). A vision for universal preschool education. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Zigler, E., & Styfco, S. J. (2006). Epilogue. In N. F. Watt, C. Ayoub, R. H. Bradley, J. E. Puma, & W. A. LeBeouf (Eds.), The crisis in youth mental health. Vol. 4. Early intervention programs and policies (pp. 347–371). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar