Structural and optical characterizations of (Cu, Ce) iso-co-doped ZnO aerogel structures grown in supercritical ethanol


Undoped, Ce-doped, Cu-doped and (Ce, Cu) co-doped ZnO aerogels were synthesized by sol–gel process in supercritical conditions of ethanol. [Cu]/[Zn] and [Ce]/[Zn] atomic ratios were fixed at 0.02 (2%). The aerogels were investigated without any additional treatments by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD results revealed that all the samples are well crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite structure. TGA and EDS measurements showed that highly pure aerogels are prepared. SEM analysis indicated that the morphology of the samples is dependent on Cu and Ce dopants. From UV–visible spectroscopy analyses, it was shown that the absorption and the band gap of the aerogels are strongly affected by Ce and Cu dopants. FTIR spectra demonstrated that co-doping induces a shift of Zn–O bond vibration band toward low wavenumbers. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra put into evidence that Ce and Cu doping influence the visible emission intensity. In particular, the iso-codoping leads to the appearance of a blue emission band at 443 nm.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    D.M. Bagnall, Y.F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, S. Koyama, M.Y. Shen, T. Goto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2230 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Y.S. Sonawane, K.G. Kanade, B.B. Kale, R.C. Aiyer, Mater. Res. Bull. 43, 2719 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Z.K. Tang, G.K.L. Wong, P. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    H. Cao, Y.G. Zhao, S.T. Ho, E.W. Seelig, Q.H. Wang, R.P.H. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    X.T. Zhang, Y.C. Liu, Z.Z. Zhi, J.Y. Zhang, Y.M. Lu, D.Z. Shen, W. Xu, X.W. Fan, X.G. Kong, J. Lumin. 99, 149 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    X. Peng, J. Xu, H. Zang, B. Wang, Z. Wang, J. Lumin. 128, 297 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    C. Xi, F. Wang, C. Hu, J. Alloys Compd. 589, 604 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    M. Fu, Y. Li, S. Wu, P. Lu, J. Liu, F. Dong, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258, 1587 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    K. Milenova, I. Stambolova, V. Blaskov, A. Eliyas, S. Vassilev, M. Shipochka, J. Chem. Technol. Metall. 48, 259–264 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    A. Samavati, A.F. Ismail, H. Nur, Z. Othaman, M.K. Mustafa, Chin. Phys. B 25, 077803 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    M. Meddouri, L. Hammiche, O. Slimi, D. Djouadi, A. Chelouche, Mater. Sci. Pol. 34, 659 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    N.R. Panda, B.S. Acharya, T.B. Singh, R.K. Garcia, J. Lumin. 136, 369 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    A.J. Reddy, M.K. Kokila, H. Nagabhshana, J.L. Rao, C. Shvakumara, B.M. Nagabhushana, R.P.S. Chakradhar, Spectrochim. Acta A 81, 53 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M.H.N. Assadi, Y.B. Zhang, R.K. Zheng, S.P. Ringer, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6, 357 (2011)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    A.E. Amiri, M. Abid, H. Lassri, E.K.J. Hlil, J. Supercond. Novel Magn. 25, 2529 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    J. Arul Mary, J. Judith Vijaya, M. Bououdina, L. John Kennedy, J.H. Dai, Y. Song, Physica E 66, 209 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    G. Avgouropoulos, T. Ioannides, Appl. Catal. A 244, 155 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Y.G. Zhang, G.B. Zhang, Y.X. Wang, ‎J. Appl. Phys. 109, 063510 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    S. López-Romero, M.J. Quiroz Jiménez, M. García-Hipólito, World J. Condens. Matter Phys. 6, 300 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    K. Pemartin-Biernath, A.V. Vela-González, M.B. Moreno-Trejo, C. Leyva-Porras, I.E. Castañeda-Reyna, I. Juárez-Ramírez, C. Solans, M. Sánchez-Domínguez, Materials 9, 480 (2016)

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    M. Meddouri, L. Hammiche, D. Djouadi, A. Chelouche, T. Touam, B. Boudine, J. Sol-Gel. Sci. Technol. 80, 642 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    D. Djouadi, M. Meddouri, A. Chelouche, Opt. Mater. 37, 567 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M. Meddouri, D. Djouadi, A. Chelouche, T. Touam, A. Chergui, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 66, 10402 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    D. Li, D. Yang, X. Yang, Y. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Xia, S. Sun, S. Guo, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55, 15925 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Y. Gu, S. Chen, J. Ren, Y.A. Jia, C. Chen, S. Komarneni, D. Yang, X. Yao, ACS Nano 12, 245 (2018)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    N. Ma, Y.A. Jia, X. Yang, X. She, L. Zhang, Z. Peng, X. Yao, D. Yang, J. Mater. Chem. A 4, 6376 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    D. Djouadi, A. Aksas, A. Chelouche, Ann. Chim. Sci. Mater. 35, 255 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    A. Iribarren, E. Hernández-Rodríguez, L. Maqueira, J. Alloys Compd. 60, 376 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Y. Chen, X.L. Xu, G.H. Zhang, H. Xue, S.Y. Ma, Phys. B 404, 3645 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    K.J. Chen, T.H. Fang, F.Y. Hung, L.W. Ji, S.J. .Chang, S.J. Young, Y.J. Hsiao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 5791 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    F. Ren, R. Xin, X. Ge, Y. Leng, Acta Biomater. 5, 3141 (2009)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    C.S. Barret, T.B. Massalski, Structures of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles and Data (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980)

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    V.N. Thaweesaeng, S. Supankit, W. Techidheera, W. Pecharapa, Energy Procedia 34, 682 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    H. Mohseni, H. Shokrollahi, I. Sharifi, K. Gheisari, ‎J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 324, 3741 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    J.H. Yang, J.H. Lang, L.L. Yang, Y.J. Zhang, D.D. Wang, H.G. Fan, H.L. Liu, Y.X. Wang, M. Gao, J. Alloys Compd. 450, 521 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    J. Arul Mary, J. Judith Vijaya, L. John Kennedy, M. Bououdina, Optik 127, 2360 (2016)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    B. Kulyk, B. Sahraoui, V. Figà, B. Turko, V. Rudyk, V. Kapustianyk, J. Alloys Compd. 481, 819 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    S. Gayathri, O.S.N. Ghosh, S. Sathishkumar, P. Sudhakara, J. Jayaramudu, S.S. Rayand, A.K. Viswanath, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 8 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    B.L. Wang, L. L.Hu, L.Y. Zhang, S.L. Zhao, Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 2799 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    S. Bai, J. Hu, D. Li, R. Luo, A. Chen, C.C. Liu, J. Mater. Chem. 21, 12288 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    N.A. Jadhav, P.K. Singh, H.W. Rhee, B. Bhattacharya, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9, 575 (2014)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    D. Raoufi, Renew. Energy 50, 932 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    I.A.M. Jawad, A.A. Al-Hamdani, R.M.A. Hassan, Int. J. Enhance. Res. Sci. Technol. Eng. 5, 130 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    S. Muthukumaran, R. Gopalakrishnan, Opt. Mater. 34, 1946 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    N.F. Djaja, R. Saleh, Mater. Sci. Appl. 4, 145 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    D. Sahu, B.S. Acharya, N.R. Panda, Int. Conf. Cond. Mat. Appl. Phys. (ICC 2015) AIP Conf. Proc. 1728, 020165 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    D. Sahu, N.R. Panda, B.S. Acharya, A.K. Panda, Ceram. Int. 40 B, 11041 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    W. Li, Z. Bin, C.L. Xian, Z.W. Jun, Sci. China Chem. B 50, 224 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    A. Chelouche, T. Touam, M. Tazerout, F. Boudjouan, D. Djouadi, A. Doghmane, J. Lumin. 181, 448 (2017)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    A.F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, C.G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 61, 15019 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    J. El Ghoul, M. Kraini, L.El Mir, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 26, 2555 (2015)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    A. Wang, T. Chen, S. Lu, Z. Wu, Y. Li, H. Chen, Y. Wang, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10, 75 (2015)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    G.R. Li, X.H. Lu, W.X. Zhao, C.Y. Su, Y.X. Tong, C.Y. Su, Y.X. Tong, Cryst. Growth Des. 8, 1276 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    A. Chelouche, T. Touam, D. Djouadi, A. Aksas, Optik 125, 5626 (2014)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Y.J. Zhu, X.R. Zhao, L.B. Duan, X.J. Bai, H.N. Sun, W.F. Duan, J. Sol-Gel. Sci. Technol. 67, 155 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    G.Y. Chen, H.C. Liu, G. Somesfalean, Y.Q. Sheng, H.J. Liang, Z.G. Zhang, Q. Sun, F.P. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113114 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. Djouadi.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Djouadi, D., Slimi, O., Hammiche, L. et al. Structural and optical characterizations of (Cu, Ce) iso-co-doped ZnO aerogel structures grown in supercritical ethanol. J Porous Mater 26, 755–763 (2019).

Download citation


  • ZnO aerogels
  • Supercritical drying
  • Copper
  • Cerium
  • Iso-codoping