Journal of Porous Materials

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 499–509 | Cite as

Utilization of ZSM-5/MCM-41 composite as FCC catalyst additive for enhancing propylene yield from VGO cracking

  • B. R. Jermy
  • M. A. B. Siddiqui
  • A. M. Aitani
  • M. R. Saeed
  • S. Al-Khattaf
Article

Abstract

A micro-mesoporous ZSM-5/MCM-41 composite molecular sieve (ZM13) was synthesized and tested as an FCC catalyst additive to enhance the yield of propylene from catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO). The catalytic performance of the additive was assessed using a commercial equilibrium USY FCC catalyst (E-Cat) in a fixed-bed micro-activity test unit (MAT) at 520 °C and various catalyst/oil ratios. MCM-41, ZSM-5 and two ZSM-5/MCM-41 composites were systematically characterized by complementary techniques such as XRD, BET, FTIR and SEM. The characterization results showed that the composites contained secondary building unit with different textural properties compared to pure ZSM-5 and MCM-41. MAT results showed that the VGO cracking activity of E-Cat did not decrease by using these additives. The highest propylene yield of 12.2 wt% was achieved over steamed ZSM-5/MCM-41 composite additive (ZM13) compared with 8.6 wt% over conventional ZSM-5 additive at similar gasoline yield penalty. The enhanced production of propylene over composite additive was attributed to its mesopores that suppressed secondary and hydrogen transfer reactions and offered easier transport and accessibility to active sites. Gasoline quality was improved by the use of all additives except MCM-41, as octane rating increased by 6–12 numbers.

Keywords

FCC additive Catalytic cracking Gasoline Propylene Light olefins ZSM-5 Composite molecular sieve MCM-41 

References

  1. 1.
    J. Yim, Presented at the 11th Asia Petrochemical Industry Conference (APIC), May 2011, Fukuoka, JapanGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Hamayel, A. Aitani, M.R. Saeed, Chem. Eng. Technol. 28, 923 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Lappas, C.S. Triantafillidis, Z. Tsagrasouli, V. Tsiatouras, I.A. Vasalos, N. Evmiridi, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal. 142, 807 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Aitani, T. Yoshikawa, T. Ino, Catal. Today 60, 111 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.F. Degnan, G.K. Chitnis, P.H. Schipper, Microporus Mesoporous Mater. 35–36, 245 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Wallenstein, R.H. Harding, Appl. Catal. A: General 214, 11 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Arandes, I. Torre, M.J. Azkoiti, J. Erena, M. Olazar, J. Bilbao, Energy Fuels 23, 4215 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Gao, Z. Tang, H. Zhang, D. Ji, G. Lu, Z. Wang, Z. Tan, J. Mol, A. Catal, General 325, 36 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Wenbin, C. Beiyan, S. Ningyuan, S. Haitao, Z. Yuxia, China Pet. Proc. Petrochem. Tech. 12, 13 (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Corma, J. Martinez-Triguero, J. Catal. 165, 102 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Corma, J. Martinez-Triguero, C. Martinez, J. Catal. 197, 151 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Z. Liu, J. Fu, M. He, M. Li, Prepr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Fuel Chem. 48, 712 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.F. Costa, H.S. Cerqueira, J.M. Ferreira, N.M. Ruiz, M.C. Menezes, Appl. Catal. A: General 319, 137 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Inagaki, K. Takechi, Y. Kubota, Chemical Comm. 46, 2662 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    X. Xu, X. Ran, Q. Cui, C. Li, H. Shan, Energy Fuels 24, 3754 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.A.B. Siddiqui, A. Aitani, M.R. Saeed, N. Al-Yassir, S. Al-Khattaf, Fuel 90, 459 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. van Donk, A.H. Janssen, J.H. Bitter, K. de Jong, Catal. Rev. 45, 297 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Abelló, A. Bonilla, J. Pérez-Ramírez, Appl. Catal. A: General 364, 191 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.C. Groen, W. Zhu, S. Brouwer, S. Huynink, F. Kapteijn, J.A. Moulijn, J. Perez-Ramirez, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 355 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.C. Groen, L.A. Peffer, J.A. Moulijn, J. Perez-Ramirez, Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 241, 53 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.L. Goncalves, L.D. Dimitrov, M.H. Jordao, M. Wallau, E. Urquieta-Gonzalez, Catal. Today 133–135, 69 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Song, Z. Yan, Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng. 3, 275 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. He, P. Li, J. Cheng, H. Wang, J. Li, Q. Li, Z. Hao, Appl. Catal. A: General 382, 167 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    X. Niua, Y. Songa, S. Xiea, S. Liua, Q. Wanga, L. Xu, Catal. Lett. 103, 211 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Qi, T. Zhao, X. Xu, F. Li, G. Sun, J. Porous. Mater. 18, 69 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.S. Beck, J.C. Vartuli, W.J. Roth, M.E. Leonowicz, C.T. Kresge, K.D. Schmitt, C.T. Chu, D.H. Olson, E.W. Sheppard, S.B. McCuller, J.B. Higgins, J.L. Schlenker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 10834 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C.A. Emeis, J. Catal. 141, 347 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C.T. Kresge, M.E. Leonowicz, W.J. Roth, J.C. Vartuli, J.S. Beck, Nature, London 359, 710 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.B. Borade, A. Clearfield, Catal. Lett. 31, 267 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Inagaki, M. Ogura, T. Inami, Y. Sasaki, E. Kikuchi, M. Matsukata, Microporus Mesoporous. Mat. 74, 163 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Pérez-Ramírez, C.H. Christensen, K. Egeblad, C.H. Christensen, J.C. Groen, Chem. Soc. Rev. 37, 2530 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K.H. Schnabel, G. Finger, J. Kornatowski, E. Loffler, C. Peuker, W. Pilz, Microporous Mater. 11, 293 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Selvaraj, A. Pandurangan, K.S. Seshadri, P.K. Sinha, K.B. Lal, App. Catal. A: General 242, 347 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Liu, W. Zhang, T.J. Pinnavaia, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40, 1255 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Palani, N. Gokulakrishnan, M. Palanichamy, A. Pandurangan, Appl. Catal A: General 304, 152 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Al-Khattaf, H.I. de Lasa, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 79, 341 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K.A. Mahgoub, S. Al-Khattaf, Energy Fuels 19, 329 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.A. den Hollander, M. Wissink, M. Makkee, J. Moulijn, Appl. Catal. A: General 223, 85 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    X. Zhu, S. Liu, Y. Song, L. Xu, Appl. Catal. A: General 288, 134 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.F. Wielers, M. Vaarkamp, M.F. Post, J. Catal. 127, 51 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Dekun, L. Shuyuan, D. Fuchen, C. Yaoling, China Petroleum Proc. Petrochem. Tech. 11, 10 (2009)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. Scherzer, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 31, 215 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. R. Jermy
    • 1
  • M. A. B. Siddiqui
    • 1
  • A. M. Aitani
    • 1
  • M. R. Saeed
    • 1
  • S. Al-Khattaf
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Research Excellence in Petroleum Refining and PetrochemicalsKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations