Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 123–138 | Cite as

Chrysophyte cyst-inferred variability of warm season lake water chemistry and climate in northern Poland: training set and downcore reconstruction

  • I. Hernández-AlmeidaEmail author
  • M. Grosjean
  • W. Tylmann
  • A. Bonk
Original paper


Chrysophyte cyst assemblages from sediment trap and surface sediment samples of 50 lakes in northern Poland were related to environmental variables using multivariate numerical analyses (DCA, CCA). Water electric conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity, and cation and anion compositions (Ca2+, HCO3 ) accounted for significant and independent variations in the chrysophyte cyst assemblages. The first canonical axis was related to the gradient of Ca2+ while the second axis was correlated with total nitrogen. A quantitative transfer function was then developed to estimate Ca2+ (log10 transformed) from modern chrysophyte cyst assemblages using weighted-averaging regression with classical deshrinking. The bootstrapped regression coefficient (\( {\text{R}}_{\text{boot}}^{2} \)) was 0.68, with a root-mean square error of prediction of 0.143 (log10 units). The calibration model was applied to a varved sedimentary sequence (AD 1898–2010) from Lake Żabińskie, Masurian Lakeland (NE Poland). Observational data from this lake show that the Ca2+ variability in the epilimnion depends on the efficiency of Ca2+ scavenging by CaCO3 precipitation in early summer, which in turn is a function of water column stratification, temperature and the wind regime from late spring to early fall. The spring-fall wind regime drives the water column mixing. In Lake Żabińskie, cyst-inferred warm-season lake water Ca2+ concentrations are significantly negatively correlated with calcite precipitation (CaCO3 concentrations in sediments; R = − 0.49, padj < 0.001; AD 1898–2010; 3-year filtered), and cyst-inferred lake water Ca2+ concentrations are significantly correlated with zonal wind speed (m s−1) (R = 0.50; padj < 0.001; AD 1898–2010; 3-year filtered). This study demonstrates that chrysophyte cyst assemblages in Polish lakes respond to hydrochemical factors driven by climate variability.


Chrysophyte cyst Westerly winds Varves Transfer functions Poland 



This study was supported by the grant PSPB-086/2010 from the Polish-Swiss Research Programme. We thank C. Kamenik, R. de Jong and K. Saunders for their valuable comments and suggestions; and Samuel Hagnauer and Nicolas Greber for laboratory assistance. Special thanks are also due to the two anonymous reviewers of the original version of this manuscript for their very helpful suggestions, which resulted in a much improved presentation of the results.

Supplementary material

10933_2014_9812_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (404 kb)
Downcore stratigraphy of the 16 most abundant chrysophyte cysts identified at Lake Żabińskie. Chrysophyte cyst percentage diagram of the 16 most abundant species at Lake Żabińskie, spanning the AD 1898–2010 interval. Cyst types numbered with ‘Pearl’ code refers to Duff et al. (1995) and Wilkinson et al. (2002). New cysts identified at Lake Żabińskie are numbered with ‘ZAB’ code. (PDF 403 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Hernández-Almeida
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. Grosjean
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. Tylmann
    • 3
  • A. Bonk
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of GeographyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Oeschger Centre for Climate Change ResearchUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Geomorphology and Quaternary Geology, Institute of GeographyUniversity of GdanskGdańskPoland

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