Journal of Paleolimnology

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 113–137 | Cite as

A diverse scientific life

  • H. John B. BirksEmail author


I am very honoured to be awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award by the International Paleolimnological Association (IPA). I was delighted when two of my teachers and mentors, Frank Oldfield (2010) and Herb Wright (2010), were awarded Lifetime Achievement Awards in 2009 at the Guadalajara IPA symposium—I never thought I would be following them 3 years later in Glasgow.

In accepting this Award, I must first make a confession. Despite becoming a Quaternary pollen analyst and vegetation historian in 1961, I did not do any real palaeolimnology until 1986, although I had paddled a little in Crose Mere and Diss Mere and studied their fascinating palaeolimnology in 1976 and 1979. I have never counted a diatom, cladoceran, chironomid, or chrysophyte cyst in my life. I only know the taxa as eight-character codes (e.g. TA003A, Cory amb) for variables in computer programs such as CANOCO, C2, WACALIB, etc.

I have been very fortunate to have a wonderfully diverse and intellectually rich...


Partial Little Square Pollen Analysis Vegetation History Weighted Average Palaeoecological Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I am immensely grateful to Rick Battarbee, Ingemar Renberg, and John Smol who encouraged me to get involved in palaeolimnology in about 1987, to Cajo ter Braak, Steve Juggins, and John Line who together helped to develop quantitative palaeolimnology, to Rick Battarbee, Hilary Birks, Mark Brenner, John Smol, and Tom Whitmore for their helpful comments on this manuscript, to Cathy Jenks for her invaluable help in preparing this manuscript, to Cajo ter Braak for making the Scopus ‘wordle,’ and to Hilary Birks for her continual help and support and considerable tolerance of my diverse scientific activities.


  1. Acharya KP, Vetaas OR, Birks HJB (2011) Orchid species richness along Himalayan elevational gradients. J Biogeogr 38:1821–1833Google Scholar
  2. Ammann B (1985) Introduction and palynology: vegetational history and core-correlation at Lobsigensee (Swiss Plateau). In: Lang G (ed) Swiss lake and mire environments during the last 15,000 years. J Cramer, Vaduz, pp 127–134Google Scholar
  3. Ammann B (1989) Late-Quaternary palynology at Lobsigensee—regional vegetation history and local lake development. Dissertationes Botanicæ 137:1–157Google Scholar
  4. Ammann B, Chaix L, Eicher U, Elias SA, Gaillard M-J, Hofmann W, Siegenthaler U, Tobolski K, Wilkinson B (1983) Vegetation, insects, molluscs and stable isotopes from late Würm deposits at Lobsigensee (Swiss Plateau). Rev Paléobiol 2:221–227Google Scholar
  5. Ammann B, Birks HJB, Brooks SJ, Eicher U, von Grafenstein U, Hofmann W, Lemdahl G, Schwander J, Tobolski K, Wick L (2000) Quantification of biotic responses to rapid climatic changes around the Younger Dryas—a synthesis. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 159:313–347Google Scholar
  6. Anderson TW (1958) An introduction to multivariate statistical analysis. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Appleby PG (2004) Environmental change and atmospheric contamination on Svalbard: sediment chronology. J Paleolimnol 31:433–443Google Scholar
  8. Atherton I, Bosanquet S, Lawley M (2010) Mosses and liverworts of Britain and Ireland—a field guide. British Bryolgical Society, UK (
  9. Averis AM, Averis ABC, Birks HJB, Horsfield D, Thompson DBA, Yeo MJM (2004) An illlustrated guide to British upland vegetation. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  10. Battarbee RW (1973) Preliminary studies of Lough Neagh sediments. II. Diatoms from the uppermost sediment. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 279–289Google Scholar
  11. Battarbee RW (1984) Diatom analysis and the acidification of lakes. Philos Trans Royal Soc B 305:451–477Google Scholar
  12. Battarbee RW, Charles DF (1986) Diatom based pH reconstruction studies of acid lakes in Europe and North America: a synthesis. Water Air Soil Pollut 31:347–354Google Scholar
  13. Battarbee RW, Charles DF (1987) The use of diatom assemblages in lake sediments as a means of assessing the timing, trends, and causes of lake acidification. Proc Phys Geogr 11:552–580Google Scholar
  14. Battarbee RW, Renberg I (1990) The surface water acidification project (SWAP) palaeolimnology programme. Philos Trans Royal Soc B 327:227–232Google Scholar
  15. Battarbee RW, Mason J, Renberg I, Talling JF (eds) (1990) Palaeolimnology and lake acidification. The Royal Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Battarbee RW, Thompson R, Catalan J, Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB (2002a) Climate variability and ecosystem dynamics of remote alpine and arctic lakes: the MOLAR project. J Paleolimnol 28:1–6Google Scholar
  17. Battarbee RW, Grytnes J-A, Thompson R, Appleby PG, Catalan J, Korhola A, Birks HJB, Heegaard E, Lami A (2002b) Comparing palaeolimnological and instrumental evidence of climate change for remote mountain lakes over the last 200 years. J Paleolimnol 28:161–179Google Scholar
  18. Battarbee RW, Birks HJB, Barber KE, Thompson R, Dearing JA, Matthews JA (2008) Frank Oldfield and his contributions to environmental change research. Holocene 18:1–18Google Scholar
  19. Beales PW (1976) Palaeolimnological studies of a Shropshire mere. PhD Thesis, University of Cambridge, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  20. Betts-Piper AM, Zeeb BA, Smol JP (2004) Distribution and autecology of chrysophyte cysts from high Arctic Svalbard lakes: preliminary evidence of recent environmental change. J Paleolimnol 31:467–481Google Scholar
  21. Bhagwat SA, Nogué S, Willis KJ (2012) Resilience of an ancient tropical forest landscape to 7500 years of environmental change. Biol Conserv 153:108–117Google Scholar
  22. Bigler C, Larocque I, Peglar SM, Birks HJB, Hall RI (2002) Quantitative multiproxy assessment of long-term patterns of Holocene environmental change from a small lake near Abisko, northern Sweden. Holocene 12:481–496Google Scholar
  23. Birks HH, Ammann B (2000) Two terrestrial records of rapid climate change during the glacial-Holocene transition (14,000–9,000 calendar years BP) from Europe. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 97:1390–1394Google Scholar
  24. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2000a) Future uses of pollen analysis must include plant macrofossils. J Biogeogr 27:31–35Google Scholar
  25. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2000b) Searching for alpines in the wild. Quart Bull Alpine Garden Soc 68:48–53Google Scholar
  26. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2001) Recent ecosystem dynamics in nine North African lakes in the CASSARINA project. Aquat Ecol 35:461–478Google Scholar
  27. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2003) Reconstructing Holocene climates from pollen and plant macrofossils. In: Mackay AW, Battarbee RW, Birks HJB, Oldfield F (eds) Global change in the Holocene. Arnold, London, pp 342–357Google Scholar
  28. Birks HH, Birks HJB (2006) Multi-proxy studies in palaeolimnology. Veg Hist Archaeobot 15:235–251Google Scholar
  29. Birks HH, Wright HE (eds) (2000) Special Issue: palaeoecosystem reconstructions at Kråkenes Lake. J Paleolimnol 23:115Google Scholar
  30. Birks HH, Whiteside MC, Stark DM, Bright RC (1976) Recent paleolimnology of three lakes in northwestern Minnesota. Quat Res 6:249–272Google Scholar
  31. Birks HH, Battarbee RW, Beerling DJ, Birks HJB, Brooks SJ, Duigan CA, Gulliksen S, Haflidason H, Hauge F, Jones VJ, Jonsgard B, Kårevik M, Larsen E, Lemdahl G, Løvlie R, Mangerud J, Peglar SM, Possnert G, Smol JP, Solem JO, Solhøy I, Solhøy T, Sonstegaard E, Wright HE (1996) The Kråkenes late-glacial palaeoenvironmental project. J Paleolimnol 15:281–286Google Scholar
  32. Birks HH, Battarbee RW, Birks HJB (2000) The development of the aquatic ecosystem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late glacial and early Holocene—a synthesis. J Paleolimnol 23:91–114Google Scholar
  33. Birks HH, Jones VJ, Brooks SJ, Birks HJB, Telford RJ, Juggins S, Peglar SM (2012) From cold to cool in northernmost Norway: late-glacial and early-Holocene multi-proxy environmental and climate reconstructions from Jansvatnet, Hammerfest. Quat Sci Rev 33:100–120Google Scholar
  34. Birks HJB (1964) Chat Moss, Lancashire. Mem Proc Manch Lit Philos Soc 106:1–24Google Scholar
  35. Birks HJB (1965a) Late-Glacial deposits at Bagmere, Cheshire and Chat Moss, Lancashire. New Phytol 64:270–285Google Scholar
  36. Birks HJB (1965b) Pollen analytical investigations at Holcroft Moss, Lancashire, and Lindow Moss, Cheshire. J Ecol 53:299–314Google Scholar
  37. Birks HJB (1973) Past and present vegetation of the Isle of Skye—a palaeoecological study. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Birks HJB (1976a) The distribution of European Pteridophytes: a numerical analysis. New Phytol 77:257–287Google Scholar
  39. Birks HJB (1976b) Late-Wisconsinan vegetational history at Wolf Creek, central Minnesota. Ecol Monogr 46:395–429Google Scholar
  40. Birks HJB (1977) Modern pollen rain and vegetation of the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory. Can J Bot 55:2367–2382Google Scholar
  41. Birks HJB (1980a) The present flora and vegetation of the moraines of the Klutlan Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada—a study in plant succession. Quat Res 14:60–86Google Scholar
  42. Birks HJB (1980b) Modern pollen assemblages and vegetational history of the moraines of the Klutlan Glacier and its surroundings, Yukon Territory, Canada. Quat Res 14:101–129Google Scholar
  43. Birks HJB (1981a) Late Wisconsin vegetational and climatic history at Kylen Lake, Northeastern Minnesota. Quat Res 16:322–355Google Scholar
  44. Birks HJB (1981b) Long distance pollen in Late Wisconsin sediments of Minnesota, U.S.A.: a numerical analysis. New Phytol 87:631–661Google Scholar
  45. Birks HJB (1982) Mid-Flandrian forest history of Roudsea Wood National Nature Reserve, Cumbria. New Phytol 90:338–354Google Scholar
  46. Birks HJB (1984) TWINSPAN analysis. In: Andersen ST (ed) Forests at Løvenholm, Djursland, Denmark, at present and in the past. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Skrifter 24, pp 27–28Google Scholar
  47. Birks HJB (1985) Recent and possible future mathematical developments in quantitative palaeoecology. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 50(107):147Google Scholar
  48. Birks HJB (1987a) Recent methodological developments in quantitative descriptive biogeography. Ann Zool Fenn 24:165–178Google Scholar
  49. Birks HJB (1987b) Methods for pH calibration and reconstruction from palaeolimnological data: procedures, problems, potential techniques. Proceedings of the surface waters acidity programme (SWAP) mid-term review conference, Bergen, pp 370–380Google Scholar
  50. Birks HJB (1987c) Multivariate analysis of stratigraphical data in geology: a review. Chemometr Intell Lab Sys 2(109):126Google Scholar
  51. Birks HJB (1989) Holocene isochrone maps and patterns of tree-spreading in the British Isles. J Biogeogr 16:503–540Google Scholar
  52. Birks HJB (1992) Some reflections on the application of numerical methods in Quaternary palaeoecology, vol 102. Publication of Karelian Institute, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, pp 7–20Google Scholar
  53. Birks HJB (1993a) Is the hypothesis of survival on glacial nunataks necessary to explain the present-day distributions of Norwegian mountain plants? Phytocoenologia 23:399–426Google Scholar
  54. Birks HJB (1993b) Impact of computer-intensive procedures in testing palaeoecological hypotheses. INQUA—Commission for the Study of the Holocene—Working Group on Data-Handling Methods Newsletter 9:1–5Google Scholar
  55. Birks HJB (1993c) Quaternary palaeoecology and vegetation science—current contributions and possible future developments. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 79:153–177Google Scholar
  56. Birks HJB (1995) Quantitative palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. In: Maddy D, Brew JS (eds) Statistical modelling of Quaternary science data. Technical Guide 5. Quaternary Research Association, Cambridge, pp 161–254Google Scholar
  57. Birks HJB (1996a) Statistical approaches to interpreting diversity patterns in the Norwegian mountain flora. Ecography 19:332–340Google Scholar
  58. Birks HJB (1996b) Achievements, developments, and future challenges in quantitative Quaternary palaeoecology. INQUA-Commission for the Study of the Holocene Sub-Commission on Data-Handling Methods Newsletter 14:2–8Google Scholar
  59. Birks HJB (1996c) Contributions of Quaternary palaeoecology to nature conservation. J Veg Sci 7:89–98Google Scholar
  60. Birks HJB (1997) Is ecology still a sick science? An appraisal of Simberloff’s (1980) diagnosis of community ecology. In: Strand R, Bristow GA (eds) Naturvitere filosoferer. Senter for vitskapsteori, University of Bergen, Bergen, pp 59–76Google Scholar
  61. Birks HJB (1998) Numerical tools in palaeolimnology—progress, potentialities, and problems. J Paleolimnol 20:307–332Google Scholar
  62. Birks HJB (2001a) Spitsbergen plants. Alpine Gard 69:388–399Google Scholar
  63. Birks HJB (2001b) Maximum likelihood environmental calibration and the computer program WACALIB—a correction. J Paleolimnol 25:111–115Google Scholar
  64. Birks HJB (2002) Knut Fægri 1909–2001. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 121:157–161Google Scholar
  65. Birks HJB (2003) Quantitative palaeoenvironmental reconstructions from Holocene biological data. In: Mackay AW, Battarbee RW, Birks HJB, Oldfield F (eds) Global change in the Holocene. Arnold, London, pp 342–357Google Scholar
  66. Birks HJB (2005) Fifty years of Quaternary pollen analysis in Fennoscandia 1954–2004. Grana 44:1–22Google Scholar
  67. Birks HJB (2007) Estimating the amount of compositional change in late-Quaternary pollen-stratigraphical data. Veg Hist Archaeobot 16:197–202Google Scholar
  68. Birks HJB (2008a) Ordination—an ever-expanding tool-kit for ecologists? Bull British Ecol Soc 39:31–33Google Scholar
  69. Birks HJB (2008b) Palaeoecology. In: Jørgensen SE (ed) Encyclopedia of ecology. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 2623–2634Google Scholar
  70. Birks HJB (2008c) Holocene climate research—progress, paradigms, and problems. In: Battarbee RW, Binney H (eds) Natural climate variability and global warming: a Holocene perspective. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 7–57Google Scholar
  71. Birks HJB (2009) Svend Th. Andersen (1926–2009). Rev Palaeobot Palynol 157:189–191Google Scholar
  72. Birks HJB (2010) Numerical methods for the analysis of diatom assemblage data. In: Smol JP, Stoermer EF (eds) The diatoms: applications for the environmental and earth sciences, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 23–54Google Scholar
  73. Birks HJB (2012a) Overview of numerical methods in palaeolimnology. In: Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments, vol 5: Data handling and numerical techniques. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 19–92Google Scholar
  74. Birks HJB (2012b) Ecological palaeoecology and conservation biology—controversies, challenges, and compromises. Int J Biodivers Sci, Ecosys Serv Manag 8:292–304Google Scholar
  75. Birks HJB, Birks HH (1974a) Studies on bryophyte flora and vegetation of Isle of Skye.1. Flora (Hepatics and Sphagnum). J Bryol 8:19–64Google Scholar
  76. Birks HJB, Birks HH (1974b) Studies on bryophyte flora and vegetation of Isle of Skye.1. Flora (Mosses). J Bryol 8:197–294Google Scholar
  77. Birks HJB, Birks HH (1980) Quaternary palaeoecology. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Birks HJB, Birks HH (2007) Winifred Tutin (1915–2007). J Paleolimnol 38:601–605Google Scholar
  79. Birks HJB, Birks HH (2008) Biological responses to rapid climate changes at the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition at Kråkenes, western Norway. Holocene 18:19–30Google Scholar
  80. Birks HJB, Gordon AD (1985) Numerical methods in Quaternary pollen analysis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  81. Birks HJB, Peglar SM (1980) Identification of Picea pollen of late Quaternary age in eastern North America: a numerical approach. Can J Bot 58:2043–2058Google Scholar
  82. Birks HJB, Saarnisto M (1975) Isopollen maps and principal components analysis of Finnish pollen data for 4000, 6000, and 8000 years ago. Boreas 4:77–96Google Scholar
  83. Birks HJB, Seppä H (2004) Pollen-based reconstructions of late-Quaternary climate in Europe—progress, problems, and pitfalls. Acta Palaeobotanica 44:317–334Google Scholar
  84. Birks HJB, Seppä H (2010) Late-Quaternary palaeoclimatic research in Fennoscandia—a historical review. Boreas 39:655–673Google Scholar
  85. Birks HJB, Simpson GL (2013) ‘Diatoms and pH reconstruction (1990)’ revisited. J Paleolimnol 49:363–371Google Scholar
  86. Birks HJB, Smol JP (2013) Rick Battarbee and his many contributions to palaeolimnology. J Paleolimnol 49:313–332Google Scholar
  87. Birks HJB, West RG (eds) (1973) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  88. Birks HJB, Williams W (1983) The Late-Quaternary vegetational history of the Inner Hebrides. Proc R Soc Edinb 83B:269–292Google Scholar
  89. Birks HJB, Willis KJ (2008) Alpines, trees, and refugia in Europe. Plant Ecol Divers 1:147–160Google Scholar
  90. Birks HJB, Webb T, Berti AA (1975a) Numerical analysis of pollen samples from central Manitoba: a comparison of methods. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 20:133–169Google Scholar
  91. Birks HJB, Deacon J, Peglar SM (1975b) Pollen maps for the British Isles 5000 years ago. Proc Royal Soc Lond B 189:87–105Google Scholar
  92. Birks HJB, Berge F, Boyle JF, Cumming BF (1990a) A palaeoecological test of the land-use hypothesis for recent lake acidification in south west Norway using hill-top lakes. J Paleolimnol 4:69–85Google Scholar
  93. Birks HJB, Line JM, Juggins S, Stevenson AC, ter Braak CJF (1990b) Diatoms and pH reconstruction. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond B 327:263–278Google Scholar
  94. Birks HJB, Juggins S, Line JM (1990c) Lake surface-water chemistry reconstructions from palaeolimnological data. In: Mason BJ (ed) The surface waters acidification programme. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 301–313Google Scholar
  95. Birks HJB, Anderson NJ, Fritz SC (1995) Post-glacial changes in total phosphorus at Diss Mere, Norfolk, inferred from fossil diatom assemblages. Geological Survey of Denmark (DGU) Service. Report 7:48–49Google Scholar
  96. Birks HJB, Monteith D, Rose NL, Jones VJ, Peglar SM (2004a) Recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on Svalbard, as recorded in lake sediments—modern limnology, vegetation, and pollen deposition. J Paleolimnol 31:411–431Google Scholar
  97. Birks HJB, Jones VJ, Rose NL (eds) (2004b) Recent environmental change on Svalbard. J Paleolimnol 31(4):143Google Scholar
  98. Birks HJB, Jones VJ, Rose NL (2004c) Recent environmental change and atmospheric contamination on Svalbard, as recorded in lake sediments—synthesis and conclusions. J Paleolimnol 31:531–546Google Scholar
  99. Birks HJB, Birks HH, Everson J, Jans H, Thorne D, Thorne M (2007) The AGS in Tibet 2005. Alpine Gard 75:289–349Google Scholar
  100. Birks HJB, Heiri O, Seppä H, Bjune AE (2010) Strengths and weaknesses of quantitative climate reconstructions based on late-Quaternary biological proxies. Open Ecol J 3:68–110Google Scholar
  101. Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) (2012) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments, vol 5: Data handling and numerical techniques. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  102. Bjune AE, Birks HJB, Seppä H (2004) Holocene vegetation and climate history on a continental-oceanic transect in northern Fennoscandia based on pollen and plant macrofossils. Boreas 33:211–223Google Scholar
  103. Bjune AE, Bakke J, Nesje A, Birks HJB (2005) Holocene mean July temperature and winter precipitation in western Norway inferred from palynological and glaciological lake-sediment proxies. Holocene 15:177–189Google Scholar
  104. Bjune AE, Seppä H, Birks HJB (2009) Quantitative summer-temperature reconstructions for the last 2000 years based on pollen-stratigraphical data from northern Fennoscandia. J Paleolimnol 41:43–56Google Scholar
  105. Bjune AE, Birks HJB, Peglar SM, Odland A (2010) Developing a modern pollen-climate calibration data-set for Norway. Boreas 39:674–688Google Scholar
  106. Blackith RE, Reyment RA (1971) Multivariate morphometrics. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. Boyle JF, Rose NL, Appleby PG, Birks HJB (2004) Recent environmental change and human impact in Svalbard: the lake-sediment geochemical record. J Paleolimnol 31:515–530Google Scholar
  108. Bradbury JP, Waddington JCB (1973) The impact of European settlement on Shagawa Lake, northeastern Minnesota. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 289–307Google Scholar
  109. Breiman L (1996) Bagging predictors. Mach Learn 24:123–140Google Scholar
  110. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2000a) Chironomid-inferred late-glacial air temperatures at Whitrig Bog, southeast Scotland. J Quat Sci 15:759–764Google Scholar
  111. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2000b) Chironomid-inferred late-glacial and early-Holocene mean July air temperatures for Kråkenes Lake, western Norway. J Paleolimnol 23:77–89Google Scholar
  112. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2001) Chironomid-inferred air temperatures from Lateglacial and Holocene sites in north-west Europe: progress and problems. Quat Sci Rev 20:1723–1741Google Scholar
  113. Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2004) The dynamics of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) assemblages in response to environmental change during the past 700 years on Svalbard. J Paleolimnol 31:483–498Google Scholar
  114. Brooks SJ, Axford Y, Heiri O, Langdon PG, Larocque-Tobler I (2012) Chironomids can be reliable proxies for Holocene temperatures: a comment on Velle et al. (2010). Holocene 22:1495–1500Google Scholar
  115. Brown A, Birks HJB, Thompson DBA (1993) A new biogeographical classification of the Scottish Uplands. II. Vegetation-environment relationships. J Ecol 81:231–251Google Scholar
  116. Cameron NG, Birks HJB, Jones VJ, Berge F, Catalan J, Flower RJ, Garcia J, Kawecka B, Koinig KA, Marchetto A, Sanchez-Castillo P, Schmidt R, Sisko M, Solovieva N, Stefkova E, Toro M (1999) Surface-sediment and epilithic diatom-pH calibration sets for remote European mountain lakes (AL:PE Project) and their comparison with the Surface Waters Acidification Programme (SWAP) calibration set. J Paleolimnol 22:291–317Google Scholar
  117. Collini S (2012) What are universities for? Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  118. Cumming BF, Smol JP, Birks HJB (1991) The relationship between sedimentary chrysophyte scales (Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae) and limnological characteristics in 25 Norwegian lakes. Nordic J Bot 11:231–242Google Scholar
  119. Cumming BF, Smol JP, Birks HJB (1992a) Scaled chrysophytes (Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae) from Adirondack (N.Y., USA) drainage lakes and their relationship to measured environmental variables, with special reference to lake-water pH and labile monomeric aluminum. J Phycol 28:162–178Google Scholar
  120. Cumming BF, Smol JP, Kingston JC, Charles DF, Birks HJB, Camburn KE, Dixit SS, Uutala AJ, Selle AR (1992b) How much acidification has occurred in Adirondack (New York, USA) lakes since pre-industrial times? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:128–141Google Scholar
  121. Cumming BF, Davey KA, Smol JP, Birks HJB (1994) When did acid-sensitive Adirondack lakes (New York, USA) begin to acidify and are they still acidifying? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:1550–1568Google Scholar
  122. Cushing EJ, Wright HE (1967) Quaternary paleoecology. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  123. Dalton C, Birks HJB, Brooks SJ, Cameron NG, Evershed RP, Peglar SM, Scott JA, Thompson R (2005) A multi-proxy study of lake-development in response to catchment changes during the Holocene at Lochnagar, north-east Scotland. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 221:175–201Google Scholar
  124. Dearing JA (2006) Integration of the world and earth systems: heritage and foresight. In: Hornberg A, Crumley C (eds) The world system and the earth system. Left Coast Press, California, pp 29–37Google Scholar
  125. Dearing JA (2008) Landscape change and resilience theory: a palaeoenvironmental assessment from Yunnan, SW China. Holocene 18:117–127Google Scholar
  126. Dearing JA, Braimoh AK, Reenberg A, Turner BL, van der Leeuw S (2010) Complex land systems: the need for long-time perspectives to assess their future. Ecol and Soc 15:21Google Scholar
  127. Dearing JA, Bullock S, Costanza R, Dawson TP, Edwards ME, Poppy GM, Smith GM (2012a) Navigating the perfect storm: research strategies for socialecological systems in a rapidly evolving world. Environ Manag 49:767–775Google Scholar
  128. Dearing JA, Yang X, Dong X, Zhang E, Chen X, Langdon PG, Zhang K, Zhang W, Dawson TP (2012b) Extending the timescale and range of ecosystem services through paleoenvironmental analysis, exemplified in the lower Yangtze basin. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 109:E1111–E1120Google Scholar
  129. Deevey ES (1969) Coaxing history to conduct experiments. Bioscience 19:40–43Google Scholar
  130. Deevey ES (1984) Stress, strain and stability of lacustrine ecosystems. In: Haworth EY, Lund JWG (eds) Lake sediments and environmental history. Leicester University Press, Leicester, pp 203–229Google Scholar
  131. Dixit SS, Cumming BF, Birks HJB, Smol JP, Kingston JC, Uutala AJ, Charles DF, Camburn KE (1993) Diatom assemblages from Adirondack lakes (New York, U.S.A.) and the development of predictive models for retrospective environmental assessment. J Paleolimnol 8:27–47Google Scholar
  132. Eide W, Birks HH, Bigelow NH, Peglar SM, Birks HJB (2006) Holocene tree migrations in the Setesdal Valley, southern Norway, as reconstructed from macrofossil and pollen evidence. Veg Hist Archaeobot 15:65–85Google Scholar
  133. Fægri K, Iversen J (1950) Textbook of modern pollen analysis. Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  134. Feibelman PJ (2011) A PhD is not enough. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. Flenley J (2003) Some prospects for lake sediment analysis in the 21st century. Quat Int 105:77–80Google Scholar
  136. Fritz SC (1989) Lake development and limnological response to prehistoric and historic land-use in Diss, Norfolk, England. J Ecol 77:182–202Google Scholar
  137. Giesecke T, Bjune AE, Chiverrell RC, Seppä H, Ojala AEK, Birks HJB (2008) Exploring Holocene continentality changes in Fennoscandia using present and past tree distributions. Quat Sci Rev 27:1296–1308Google Scholar
  138. Ginsberg B (2011) The fall of the faculty. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  139. Godwin H (1956) The history of the British flora. A factual basis for phytogeography. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  140. Gordon AD, Birks HJB (1972) Numerical methods in Quaternary paleoecology. 1. Zonation of pollen diagrams. New Phytol 71:961–979Google Scholar
  141. Gordon AD, Birks HJB (1974) Numerical methods in Quaternary paleoecology. 2. Comparison of pollen diagrams. New Phytol 73:221–249Google Scholar
  142. Grau O, Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB (2007) A comparison of altitudinal species richness patterns of bryophytes with other plant groups in Nepal, Central Himalaya. J Biogeogr 34:1907–1915Google Scholar
  143. Grey-Wilson C (2006) A new Meconopsis from Tibet. Alpine Gard 74:212–225Google Scholar
  144. Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB, Peglar SM (1999a) Plant species richness in Fennoscandia: evaluating the relative importance of climate and history. Nord J Bot 19:489–503Google Scholar
  145. Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB, Peglar SM (1999b) The taxonomic distribution of rare and common species among families in the vascular plant flora of Fennoscandia. Divers Distrib 5:177–186Google Scholar
  146. Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB, Heegaard E, Peglar SM (2000) Geographical trends in the species-to-family ratio of vascular plants in Fennoscandia. Norsk Geogr Tidsskr 54:60–64Google Scholar
  147. Gunderson LH, Holling CS (eds) (2002) Panarchy. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  148. Gunderson LH, Pritchard L (eds) (2002) Resilience and the behaviour of large-scale systems. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  149. Heegaard E, Birks HJB, Telford RJ (2005) Relationships between calibrated ages and depth in stratigraphical sequences: an estimation procedure by mixed-effect regression. Holocene 15:612–618Google Scholar
  150. Heegaard E, Lotter AF, Birks HJB (2006) Aquatic biota and the detection of climate change: are there consistent aquatic ecotones? J Paleolimnol 35:507–518Google Scholar
  151. Heggen MP, Birks HH, Heiri O, Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB (2012) Are fossil assemblages in a single sediment core from a small lake representative of total deposition of mite, chironomid, and plant macrofossil remains? J Paleolimnol 48:669–691Google Scholar
  152. Heikkinen RK, Birks HJB (1996) Spatial and environmental components of variation in the distribution patterns of subarctic plant species at Kevo, N Finland—a case study at the meso-scale level. Ecography 19:341–351Google Scholar
  153. Heikkinen RK, Birks HJB, Kalliola RJ (1998) A numerical analysis of the mesoscale distribution patterns of vascular plants in the subarctic Kevo Nature Reserve, northern Finland. J Biogeogr 25:123–146Google Scholar
  154. Heiri O, Lotter AF (2005) Holocene and Late-glacial summer temperature reconstruction in the Swiss Alps based on fossil assemblages of aquatic organisms: a review. Boreas 34:506–516Google Scholar
  155. Heiri O, Lotter AF (2010) How does taxonomic resolution affect chironomid-based temperature reconstruction? J Paleolimnol 44:589–601Google Scholar
  156. Heiri O, Birks HJB, Brooks SJ, Velle G, Willassen E (2003) Effects of within-lake variability of fossil assemblages on quantitative chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 199:95–106Google Scholar
  157. Heiri O, Brooks SJ, Birks HJB, Lotter AF (2011) A 274-lake calibration data-set and inference model for chironomid-based summer air temperature reconstruction in Europe. Quat Sci Rev 30:3445–3456Google Scholar
  158. Helama S, Seppä H, Birks HJB, Bjune AE (2010) Reconciling pollen-stratigraphical and tree-ring evidence for high- and low-frequency temperature variability in the past millennium. Quat Sci Rev 29:905–918Google Scholar
  159. Helama S, Seppä H, Bjune AE, Birks HJB (2012) Fusing pollen-stratigraphic and dendroclimatic proxy data to reconstruct summer temperature variability during the last 7.5 ka in sub-arctic Fennoscandia. J Paleolimnol 48:275–286Google Scholar
  160. Herzschuh U, Birks HJB (2010) Evaluating the indicator value of Tibetan pollen taxa for modern vegetation and climate. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 160:197–208Google Scholar
  161. Herzschuh U, Birks HJB, Ni J, Zhao Y, Liu H, Liu X, Grosse G (2010a) Holocene land-cover changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Holocene 20:91–104Google Scholar
  162. Herzschuh U, Birks HJB, Mischke S, Liu X, Zhang C (2010b) A modern pollen-climate calibration set based on lake sediments from the Tibetan Plateau and its application to a late-Quaternary pollen record from the Qilian Mountains. J Biogeogr 37:752–766Google Scholar
  163. Herzschuh U, Ni J, Birks HJB, Böhner J (2011) Driving forces of mid-Holocene vegetation shifts on the upper Tibetan Plateau, with emphasis on changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Quat Sci Rev 30:1907–1917Google Scholar
  164. Hill MO (1973a) Diversity and evenness: a unifying notion and its consequences. Ecology 54:427–432Google Scholar
  165. Hill MO (1973b) Reciprocal averaging: an eigenvector method of ordination. J Ecol 61:237–249Google Scholar
  166. Hill MO (1974) Correspondence analysis: a neglected multivariate method. Appl Stats 23:340–354Google Scholar
  167. Hill MO (1979) DECORANA—A FORTRAN program for detrended correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. Cornell University, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  168. Hill MO, Gauch HG (1980) Detrended correspondence analysis, an improved ordination technique. Vegetatio 42:47–58Google Scholar
  169. Hobbs WO, Telford RJ, Birks HJB, Saros JE, Hazewinkel RRO, Perren BB, Saulnier-Talbot E, Wolfe AP (2010) Quantifying recent ecological changes in remote lakes of North America and Greenland using sediment diatom assemblages. PLoS ONE 5:e10026Google Scholar
  170. Holmes N, Langdon PG, Brooks SJ, Birks HJB (2011) Merging chironomid training sets: implications for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Quat Sci Rev 30:2793–2804Google Scholar
  171. Holt K, Allen G, Hodgson R, Marsland S, Flenley J (2011) Progress towards an automated trainable pollen location and classifier system for use in the palynology laboratory. Rev Palynol Palaeobot 167:175–183Google Scholar
  172. Huntley B, Birks HJB (1983) An atlas of past and present pollen maps for Europe: 0–13000 years ago. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  173. Imbrie J, Kipp NG (1971) A new micropaleontological method for quantitative paleoclimatology: application to a Late Pleistocene Caribbean core. In: Turekian KK (ed) The late Cenozoic glacial ages. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 71–181Google Scholar
  174. Jackson ST, Betancourt JL, Booth RK, Gray ST (2009) Ecology and the ratchet of events: climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106:19685–19692Google Scholar
  175. Jacobson GL, Birks HJB (1980) Soil development on recent end moraines of the Klutlan Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada. Quat Res 14:87–100Google Scholar
  176. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Brooks SJ, Willis KJ (2011a) Abrupt environmental changes drive shifts in tree–grass interaction outcomes. J Ecol 99:1063–1070Google Scholar
  177. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Willis KJ (2011b) Stability in ecosystem functioning across a climatic threshold and contrasting forest regimes. PLoS ONE 6:e16134Google Scholar
  178. Jeffers ES, Bonsall MB, Watson JE, Willis KJ (2012) Climate change impacts on ecosystem functioning: evidence from an Empetrum heathland. New Phytol 193:150–164Google Scholar
  179. Jenkins A, Whitehead PG, Cosby BJ, Birks HJB (1990) Modelling long-term acidification—a comparison with diatom reconstructions and the implications for reversibility. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond B 327:435–440Google Scholar
  180. Jones VJ, Birks HJB (2004) Lake-sediment records of recent environmental change on Svalbard: results of diatom analysis. J Paleolimnol 31:445–466Google Scholar
  181. Juggins S (1992) Diatoms in the Thames estuary, England: ecology, palaeoecology, and salinity transfer functions. Bibliotheca Diatomol 25:1–216Google Scholar
  182. Juggins S (2007) C2 Software for ecological and palaeoecological data analysis and visualisation. User Guide Version 1.5. University of Newcastle, Newcastle-upon-TyneGoogle Scholar
  183. Juggins S (2009) rioja: analysis of Quaternary science data.
  184. Kapfer J, Gunnarsson U, Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB (2011) Fine-scale changes in vegetation composition in a boreal mire over 50 years. J Ecol 99:1179–1189Google Scholar
  185. Kaufman DS et al. (2009) Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling. Science 325:1236–1239Google Scholar
  186. Kendall M (1975) Multivariate analysis. Charles Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  187. Kingston JC, Birks HJB (1990) Dissolved organic carbon reconstruction from diatom assemblages in PIRLA project lakes. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond B 327:279–288Google Scholar
  188. Kingston JC, Birks HJB, Uutala AJ, Cumming BF, Smol JP (1992) Assessing damaged fishery resources and lake water aluminum trends using paleolimnological analyses of siliceous algae. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:116–127Google Scholar
  189. Klanderud K, Birks HJB (2003) Recent increases in species richness and shifts in altitudinal distributions of Norwegian mountain plants. Holocene 13:1–6Google Scholar
  190. Korhola A, Birks HJB, Olander H, Blom T (2001) Chironomids, temperature, and numerical models: reply to Seppälä. Holocene 11:615–622Google Scholar
  191. La Duo (2008) Studies in the ecology and palaeoecology of the Lhasa Valley, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. PhD Thesis, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  192. La Qiong, Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB (2010) Alpine vegetation and species-richness patterns along two altitudinal gradients in the Gyama valley, south-central Tibet. Plant Ecol Divers 3:235–247Google Scholar
  193. Lang B, Brooks SJ, Bedford A, Jones RT, Birks HJB, Marshall J (2010a) Regional consistency in late-glacial chironomid-inferred temperature from five sites in north-west England. Quat Sci Rev 29:1528–1538Google Scholar
  194. Lang B, Bedford A, Brooks SJ, Jones RT, Richardson N, Marshall JD, Birks HJB (2010b) Early-Holocene temperature variability inferred from chironomid assemblages at Hawes Water, North-West England. Holocene 20:943–954Google Scholar
  195. Lenoir J et al. (2013) Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across northern Europe. Global Change Biol 19:1470–1481Google Scholar
  196. Line JM, Birks HJB (1990) WACALIB 2.1—a computer program to reconstruct environmental variables from fossil assemblages by weighted averaging. J Paleolimnol 3(170):173Google Scholar
  197. Line JM, ter Braak CJF, Birks HJB (1994) WACALIB version 3.3—a computer program to reconstruct environmental variables from fossil assemblages by weighted averaging and to derive sample-specific errors of prediction. J Paleolimnol 10:147–152Google Scholar
  198. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (1993) The impact of the Laacher See Tephra on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Black-Forest, Southern Germany. J Quat Sci 8:263–276Google Scholar
  199. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (1997) The separation of the influence of nutrients and climate on the varve time-series of Baldeggersee, Switzerland. Aquat Sci 59:362–375Google Scholar
  200. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (2003a) Holocene sediments of Sägistalsee, a small lake at the present-day tree-line in the Swiss Alps. J Paleolimnol 30:253–260Google Scholar
  201. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (2003b) The Holocene palaeolimnology of Sägistalsee and its environmental history—a synthesis. J Paleolimnol 30:333–342Google Scholar
  202. Lotter AF, Birks HJB, Zolitschka B (1995) Late-Glacial pollen and diatom changes in response to two different environmental perturbations—volcanic-eruption and Younger Dryas cooling. J Paleolimnol 14:23–47Google Scholar
  203. Lotter AF, Birks HJB, Hofmann W, Marchetto A (1997) Modern diatom, cladocera, chironomid, and chrysophyte cyst assemblages as quantitative indicators for the reconstruction of past environmental conditions in the Alps. 1. Climate. J Paleolimnol 18:395–420Google Scholar
  204. Lotter AF, Birks HJB, Hofmann W, Marchetto A (1998) Modern diatom, cladocera, chironomid, and chrysophyte cyst assemblages as quantitative indicators for the reconstruction of past environmental conditions in the Alps. 2. Nutrients. J Paleolimnol 19:443–463Google Scholar
  205. Lotter AF, Birks HJB, Eicher U, Hofmann W, Schwander J, Wick L (2000) Younger Dryas and Allerød summer temperatures at Gerzensee (Switzerland) inferred from fossil pollen and cladoceran assemblages. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 159:349–361Google Scholar
  206. Loureau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P (eds) (2009) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning—synthesis and perspectives. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  207. Lyford ME, Jackson ST, Betancourt JL, Gray ST (2003) Influence of landscape structure and climate variability on a late Holocene plant migration. Ecol Monogr 73:567–583Google Scholar
  208. Mason BJ, Seip H-M (1985) The current state of knowledge on acidification of surface waters and guidelines for further research. Ambio 14:45–51Google Scholar
  209. McAndrews JH (1966) Postglacial history of prairie, savanna, and forest in northwestern Minnesota. Mem Torrey Botanical Club 22:1–72Google Scholar
  210. Medawar PB (1979) Advice to a young scientist. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  211. Murray CW, Birks HJB (2005) The botanist in Skye and adjacent islands. University College London, LondonGoogle Scholar
  212. Nesje A, Bjune AE, Bakke J, Dahl SO, Lie Ø, Birks HJB (2006) Holocene palaeoclimate reconstructions at Vanndalsvatnet, western Norway, with particular reference to the 8200 cal yr BP event. Holocene 16:717–729Google Scholar
  213. Odland A, Birks HJB (1999) The altitudinal gradient of vascular plant richness in Aurland, western Norway. Ecography 22:548–566Google Scholar
  214. Odland A, Birks HJB, Line JM (1990) Quantitative vegetation-environment relationships in west Norwegian tall-fern vegetation. Nord J Bot 10:511–533Google Scholar
  215. Odland A, Birks HJB, Line JM (1995) Ecological optima and tolerances of Thelypteris limbosperma, Athyrium distentifolium and Matteuccia struthiopteris along environmental gradients in western Norway. Vegetatio 120:115–129Google Scholar
  216. Olander H, Birks HJB, Korhola A, Blom T (1999) An expanded calibration model for inferring lakewater and air temperatures from fossil chironomid assemblages in northern Fennoscandia. Holocene 9:279–294Google Scholar
  217. Oldfield F (2006) Toward developing synergistic linkages between the biophysical and the cultural: a palaeoenvironmental perspective. In: Hornberg A, Crumley C (eds) The world system and the earth system. Left Coast Press, California, pp 29–37Google Scholar
  218. Oldfield F (2010) Palaeolimnology: personal reflections and early UK contributions. J Paleolimnol 44:505–510Google Scholar
  219. O’Sullivan PE, Oldfield F, Battarbee RW (1973) Preliminary studies of Lough Neagh sediments. I. Stratigraphy, chronology and pollen analysis. In: Birks HJB, West RG (eds) Quaternary plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 267–278Google Scholar
  220. Panizzo VN, Jones VJ, Birks HJB, Boyle JF, Brooks SJ, Leng MJ (2008) A multiproxy palaeolimnological investigation of Holocene environmental change, between c. 10700 and 7200 years BP, at Holebudalen, southern Norway. Holocene 18:805–817Google Scholar
  221. Peglar SM (1992) The development of the cultural landscape of East Anglia, UK. PhD Thesis, University of Bergen, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  222. Peglar SM (1993a) The development of the cultural landscape around Diss Mere, Norfolk, UK, during the past 7000 years. Rev Palaeobot Palynol 76:1–47Google Scholar
  223. Peglar SM (1993b) The mid-Holocene Ulmus decline at Diss Mere, Norfolk, UK: a year-by-year pollen stratigraphy from annual laminations. Holocene 3:1–13Google Scholar
  224. Peglar SM, Birks HJB (1993) The mid-Holocene Ulmus fall at Diss Mere, south-east England—disease and human impact? Veg Hist Archaeobot 2:61–68Google Scholar
  225. Peglar SM, Fritz SC, Alapieti T, Saarnisto M, Birks HJB (1984) Composition and formation of laminated sediments in Diss Mere, Norfolk, England. Boreas 13:13–28Google Scholar
  226. Peglar SM, Fritz SC, Birks HJB (1989) Vegetation and land-use history at Diss, Norfolk, UK. J Ecol 77:203–222Google Scholar
  227. Peglar SM, Birks HH, Birks HJB (2001) Terrestrial pollen record of recent land-use changes around nine North African Lakes. Aquat Ecol 35:431–448Google Scholar
  228. Porley R, Hodgetts N (2005) Mosses and liverworts. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  229. Ratcliffe DA (2000) In search of nature. Peregrine Books, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  230. Ratcliffe DA, Birks HJB, Birks HH (1993) The ecology and conservation of the Killarney Fern Trichomanes speciosum Willd in Britain and Ireland. Biol Conserv 66:231–247Google Scholar
  231. Raven J, Walters SM (1956) Mountain flowers. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  232. Renberg I, Battarbee RW (1990) The SWAP palaeolimnology programme: a synthesis. In: Mason BJ (ed) The surface waters acidification programme. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 281–300Google Scholar
  233. Renberg I, Korsman T, Birks HJB (1993) Prehistoric increases in the pH of acid-sensitive Swedish lakes caused by land-use changes. Nature 362:824–827Google Scholar
  234. Reyment RA (1971) Introduction to quantitative palaeoecology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  235. Rodwell JS (ed) (1991–2000) British plant communities, vols 1–5. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  236. Rose NL, Rose CL, Boyle JF, Appleby PG (2004) Lake-sediment evidence for local and remote sources of atmospherically deposited pollutants on Svalbard. J Paleolimnol 31:499–513Google Scholar
  237. Rosén P, Segerstrom U, Eriksson L, Renberg I, Birks HJB (2001) Holocene climatic change reconstructed from diatoms, chironomids, pollen and near-infrared spectroscopy at an alpine lake (Sjuodjijaure) in northern Sweden. Holocene 11:551–562Google Scholar
  238. Rosenqvist IT (1977) Sur jord—surt vann (Acid soil–acid water). Ingeniörsforlaget A/S, OsloGoogle Scholar
  239. Rosenqvist IT (1978) Alternative sources for acidification of river water in Norway. Sci Total Environ 10:39–49Google Scholar
  240. Ross LC, Woodin SA, Hester AJ, Thompson DBA, Birks HJB (2012) Biotic homogenisation of upland vegetation: patterns and drivers at multiple spatial scales over five decades. J Veg Sci 23:755–770Google Scholar
  241. Sætersdal M, Birks HJB, Peglar SM (1998) Predicting changes in Fennoscandian vascular-plant species richness as a result of future climatic change. J Biogeogr 25:111–122Google Scholar
  242. Salonen JS, Seppä H, Luoto M, Bjune AE, Birks HJB (2012) A North European pollen-climate calibration set: analysing the climatic responses of a biological proxy using novel regression tree methods. J Quat Sci 45:95–110Google Scholar
  243. Salonen JS, Helmens KF, Seppä H, Birks HJB (2013a) Pollen-based palaeoclimate reconstructions over long glacial-interglacial timescales: methodological tests based on the Holocene and MIS 5d-c deposits at Sokli, northern Finland. J Quat Sci. doi: 10.1002/jqs.2611
  244. Salonen JS, Seppä H, Birks HJB (2013b) The effect of calibration data-set on quantitative palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Holocene (submitted)Google Scholar
  245. Seal H (1964) Multivariate statistical analysis for biologists. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  246. Seddon AWR, Mackay AW, Baker AG, Birks HJB, Breman E, Buck CE, Ellis EC, Froyd CA, Gill JL, Gillson L, Johnson EA, Jones VJ, Juggins S, Macias-Fauria M, Morris JL, Nogués-Bravo D, Punyaseana SW, Roland TP, Tanentzap AJ, Willis KJ, and the Palaeo50 working group. Looking forward through the past: identification of fifty priority research questions in palaeoecology. J Ecol (submitted)Google Scholar
  247. Self AE, Brooks SJ, Birks HJB, Nazarova L, Porinchu D, Odland A, Yang H, Jones VJ (2011) The distribution and abundance of chironomids in high-latitude Eurasian lakes with respect to temperature and continentality: development and application of new chironomid-based climate-inference models in northern Russia. Quat Sci Rev 30:1122–1141Google Scholar
  248. Seppä H, Birks HJB (2001) July mean temperature and annual precipitation trends during the Holocene in the Fennoscandian tree-line area: pollen-based climate reconstructions. Holocene 11:527–539Google Scholar
  249. Seppä H, Birks HJB (2002) Holocene climate reconstructions from the Fennoscandian tree-line area based on pollen data from Toskaljavri. Quat Res 57:191–199Google Scholar
  250. Seppä H, Birks HH, Birks HJB (2002) Rapid climatic changes during the Greenland stadial 1 (Younger Dryas) to early Holocene transition on the Norwegian Barents Sea coast. Boreas 31:215–225Google Scholar
  251. Seppä H, Birks HJB, Odland A, Poska A, Veski S (2004) A modern pollen-climate calibration set from northern Europe: developing and testing a tool for palaeoclimatological reconstructions. J Biogeogr 31:251–267Google Scholar
  252. Seppä H, Birks HJB, Giesecke T, Hammarlund D, Alenius T, Antonsson K, Bjune AE, Heikkilä M, MacDonald GM, Ojala AEK, Telford RJ, Veski S (2007) Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. Clim Past 3:165–195Google Scholar
  253. Seppä H, MacDonald GM, Birks HJB, Gervais BR, Snyder JA (2008) Late-Quaternary summer temperature changes in the North-European tree-line region. Quat Res 69:404–412Google Scholar
  254. Seppä H, Bjune AE, Telford RJ, Birks HJB, Veski S (2009) Last nine-thousand years of variability in northern Europe. Clim Past 5:523–535Google Scholar
  255. Sindermann CJ (1985) The joy of science. Plenum, LondonGoogle Scholar
  256. Smol JP, Battarbee RW, Davis RB, Meriläinen J (eds) (1986) Diatoms and lake acidity: the use of siliceous algal microfossils in reconstructing pH. Junk, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  257. Smol JP, Wolfe AP, Birks HJB et al. (2005) Climate-driven regime shifts in arctic lake ecosystems. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 102:4397–4402Google Scholar
  258. Smol JP, Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S (2012) The march towards the quantitative analysis of palaeolimnological data. In: Birks HJB, Lotter AF, Juggins S, Smol JP (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments, vol 5: Data handling and numerical techniques. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  259. Steffen W, Persson Å, Deutsch L et al. (2011) The Anthropocene: from global change to planetary stewardship. Ambio 40:739–761Google Scholar
  260. Sullivan TJ, Turner RS, Charles DF, Cumming BF, Smol JP, Schofield CL, Driscoll CT, Birks HJB, Uutala AJ, Kingston JC, Dixit SS, Bernert JA, Ryan PF (1992) Use of historical assessment for evaluation of process-based model predictions of future environmental change: lake acidification in the Adirondack mountains, New York. Environ Pollut 77:253–262Google Scholar
  261. Tallis JH, Birks HJB (1965) The past and present distribution of Scheuchzeria palustris L. in Europe. J Ecol 53:287–298Google Scholar
  262. Telford RJ (2006) Limitations of dinoflagellate cyst transfer functions. Quat Sci Rev 25:1375–1382Google Scholar
  263. Telford RJ, Birks HJB (2005) The secret assumption of transfer functions: problems with spatial autocorrelation in evaluating model performance. Quat Sci Rev 24:2173–2179Google Scholar
  264. Telford RJ, Birks HJB (2009) Evaluation of transfer functions in spatially structured environments. Quat Sci Rev 28:1309–1316Google Scholar
  265. Telford RJ, Birks HJB (2011a) Effect of uneven sampling along an environmental gradient on transfer function performance. J Paleolimnol 46:99–106Google Scholar
  266. Telford RJ, Birks HJB (2011b) QSR correspondence “Is spatial autocorrelation introducing biases in the apparent accuracy of palaeoclimatic reconstructions?” Quat Sci Rev 30:3210–3213Google Scholar
  267. Telford RJ, Birks HJB (2011c) A novel method for assessing the statistical significance of quantitative reconstructions inferred from biotic assemblages. Quat Sci Rev 30:1272–1278Google Scholar
  268. Telford RJ, Heegaard E, Birks HJB (2004a) All age-depth models are wrong: but how badly? Quat Sci Rev 23:1–5Google Scholar
  269. Telford RJ, Heegaard E, Birks HJB (2004b) The intercept is a poorly behaved estimate of a calibrated radiocarbon age. Holocene 14:296–298Google Scholar
  270. Telford RJ, Dahl CA, Birks HJB, Juggins S (2004c) Biases in the estimation of transfer function prediction errors. Paleoceanography 19: PA4014. doi: 10.1029/2004PA001072
  271. Telford RJ, Vandvik V, Birks HJB (2006) Dispersal limitations matter for microbial morphospecies. Science 312:1015Google Scholar
  272. ter Braak CJF (1983) Principal components biplots and alpha and beta diversity. Ecology 64:454–462Google Scholar
  273. ter Braak CJF (1985) Correspondence analysis of incidence and abundance data: properties in terms of a unimodal response model. Biometrics 41:859–873Google Scholar
  274. ter Braak CJF (1986) Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67:1167–1179Google Scholar
  275. ter Braak CJF (1987a) Unimodal models to relate species to environment. Agricultural Mathematics Group, University of Wageningen, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  276. ter Braak CJF (1987b) CANOCO—a FORTRAN program for CANOnical Community Ordination by [partial] [detrended] [canonical] correspondence analysis, principal coponents analysis and redundancy analysis (version 2.1). TNO Institute of Applied Computer Science, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  277. ter Braak CJF (1987c) Calibration. In: Jongman RHG, ter Braak CJF, van Tongeren WFR (eds) Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp 78–90Google Scholar
  278. ter Braak CJF, Juggins S (1993) Weighted averaging partial least-squares regression (WA-PLS)—an improved method for reconstructing environmental variables from species assemblages. Hydrobiologia 269(270):485–502Google Scholar
  279. ter Braak CJF, Prentice IC (1988) A theory of gradient analysis. Adv Ecol Res 18:271–317Google Scholar
  280. ter Braak CJF, van Dam H (1989) Inferring pH from diatoms—a comparison of old and new calibration methods. Hydrobiologia 178:209–223Google Scholar
  281. van der Leeuw S, Costanza R, Aulenbach S et al. (2011) Toward an integrated history to guide the future. Ecol Soc 16:2Google Scholar
  282. Vandvik V, Birks HJB (2002a) Pattern and process in Norwegian upland grasslands—a functional analysis. J Veg Sci 13:123–134Google Scholar
  283. Vandvik V, Birks HJB (2002b) Partitioning floristic variance in Norwegian upland grasslands into within-site and between-site components: are the patterns determined by environment or by land-use? Plant Ecol 162:233–245Google Scholar
  284. Vandvik V, Birks HJB (2004) Mountain summer farms in Røldal, western Norway—vegetation classification and patterns in species turnover and richness. Plant Ecol 170:203–222Google Scholar
  285. Velle G, Brodersen KP, Birks HJB, Willassen E (2010) Midges as quantitative temperature indicator species: lessons for palaeoecology. Holocene 20:989–1002Google Scholar
  286. Velle G, Brodersen KP, Birks HJB, Willassen E (2012a) Inconsistent results should not be overlooked: a reply to Brooks et al. (2012). Holocene 22:1501–1508Google Scholar
  287. Velle G, Telford RJ, Heiri O, Kurek J, Birks HJB (2012b) Testing intra-site transfer functions: an example using chironomids and water depth. J Paleolimnol 48:545–558Google Scholar
  288. Veloz SD, Williams JW, Blois JL, He F, Otto-Bliesner B, Liu S (2012) No-analog climate and shifting realized niches during the late Quaternary: implications for 21st-century predictions by species distribution models. Global Change Biol 18:1698–1713Google Scholar
  289. Virah-Sawmy M, Gillson L, Willis KJ (2009) How does spatial heterogeneity influence resilience to climatic changes? Ecological dynamics in southeast Madagascar. Ecol Monogr 79:557–574Google Scholar
  290. Virtanen R, Luoto M, Rämä T, Mikkoloa K, Hjort J, Grytnes J-A, Birks HJB (2010) Recent vegetation changes in the high-latitude tree-line ecotone are controlled by geomorphological disturbance, productivity, and diversity. Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:810–821Google Scholar
  291. Walker IR, Smol JP, Engstrom DR, Birks HJB (1991) An assessment of chironomidae as quantitative indicators of past climatic change. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:975–987Google Scholar
  292. Walker IR, Smol JP, Engstrom DR, Birks HJB (1992) Aquatic invertebrates, climate, scale, and statistical hypothesis-testing—a response. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:1276–1280Google Scholar
  293. Wang Y, Liu X, Herzschuh U, Yang X, Birks HJB, Zhang E, Tong G (2012) Temporally changing drivers for late-Holocene vegetation changes on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 353–355:10–20Google Scholar
  294. Watson JD (2007) Avoid boring people and other lessons from a life in science. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  295. Welsh KE, Dearing JA, Chiverrell RC, Coulthard TJ (2009) Testing a cellular modelling approach to simulating late-Holocene sediment and water transfer from catchment to lake in the French Alps since 1826. Holocene 19:785–798Google Scholar
  296. Willis KJ, Birks HJB (2006) What is natural? The need for a long-term perspective in biodiversity conservation. Science 314:1261–1265Google Scholar
  297. Willis KJ, Bennett KD, Birks HJB (2009) Variability in thermal and UV-B energy fluxes through time and their influence on plant diversity and speciation. J Biogeogr 36:1630–1644Google Scholar
  298. Willis KJ, Bennett KD, Bhagwat SA, Birks HJB (2010a) 4°C and beyond: what did this mean for biodiversity in the past? Systemat Biodivers 8:3–9Google Scholar
  299. Willis KJ, Bailey RM, Bhagwat SA, Birks HJB (2010b) Biodiversity baselines, thresholds, and resiliences: testing predictions and assumptions using palaeoecological data. Trends Ecol Evol 25:583–591Google Scholar
  300. Willis KJ, Feurdean A, Birks HJB, Breman E, Broekman R, Grytnes J-A, New M, Singarayer JS, Rozema J (2011) Quantification of UV-B flux through time using UV-B absorbing compounds contained in fossil Pinus sporopollenin. New Phytol 192:553–560Google Scholar
  301. Wright HE (1966) Stratigraphy of lake sediments and the precision of the paleoclimatic record. In: Sawyer JS (ed) World climate from 8000 to 0 BC. Royal Meteorological Society, London, pp 157–173Google Scholar
  302. Wright HE (2010) High points in paleolimnological studies as viewed by a convert. J Paleolimnol 44:497–503Google Scholar
  303. Zeeb BA, Christie CE, Smol JP, Findlay DL, Kling HJ, Birks HJB (1994) Responses of diatom and chrysophyte assemblages in Lake-227 sediments to experimental eutrophication. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:2300–2311Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Bjerknes Centre for Climate ResearchUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  3. 3.Environmental Change Research CentreUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.School of Geography and the EnvironmentUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations