Job Crafting Among American Workers with Disabilities

Abstract

Purpose Job crafting is an informal, employee-initiated approach to job re-design that has not been tested among people with disabilities, thus far. The purpose of this study is to examine crafting behaviors of workers with disabilities and individual factors associated with crafting behaviors. Methods We conducted a survey of employees with disabilities who were 18–64 years old and had at least 1 year of work experience. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to: (1) compare the use of job crafting behaviors between our sample and published results from a sample of the general population; (2) identify individual characteristics associated with job crafting for workers with disabilities. Results Persons with disabilities engage in job crafting behaviors, albeit at lower levels than that reported in a broader sample (Int J Wellbeing, https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v3i2.1, 2013). Education, and disability type (visual and mobility impairment) were associated with certain types of crafting behaviors. Conclusions As job crafting can be associated with higher levels of engagement and career growth among persons without disabilities, findings from this research can be utilized to design programs and policies that support the career goals of people with disabilities beyond labor force participation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Lauer E, Houtenville A. Annual disability statistics compendium. 2017. https://disabilitycompendium.org/compendium/2017-annual-disability-statistics-compendium. Accessed 15 Dec 2019.

  2. 2.

    Sevak P, Houtenville A, Brucker DL, O’Neill J, Ben-Shalom Y. Individual characteristics and the disability employment gap. J Disabil Policy Stud. 2015;26(2):80–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/1044207315585823.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Sundar V, O’Neill J, Houtenville AJ, Phillips KG, Keirns T, Smith A, Katz EE. Striving to work and overcoming barriers: employment strategies and successes of people with disabilities. J Vocat Rehabil. 2018;48(1):93–109. https://doi.org/10.3233/JVR-170918.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    McLaughlin ME, Bell MP, Stringer DY. Stigma and acceptance of persons with disabilities: understudies aspects of workforce diversity. Disabil Health J. 2004;29(3):302–333. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601103257410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Schur L, Nishi L, Adya M, Kruse D, Bruyere SM, Blanck P. Accommodating employees with and without disabilities. Hum Resour Manage. 2014;53(4):593–621. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Soklaridis S, Cassidy JD, Van Der Gelde G, Tompa E, Hogg-Johnson S. The economic cost of return to work: an employer’s perspective. Work. 2012;43(3):255–262. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-1415.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Solovieva TI, Walls RT, Hendricks DJ, Dowler DL. Cost of workplace accommodations for individuals with disabilities: With or without personal assistance services. Disabil Health J. 2009;2(4):196–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2009.04.002.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    U.S. Department of Education. In: WIOA statewide and local performance report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. 2019. https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/rsa/wioa/vr-annual-reports/national-summary.pdf. Accessed 3 Oct 2019.

  9. 9.

    Wrzesniewski A, Dutton JE. Crafting a job: revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Acad Manage Rev. 2001;26(2):179–201. https://doi.org/10.2307/259118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Niessen C, Weseler D, Kostova P. When and why do individuals craft their jobs? The role of individual motivation and work characteristics for job crafting. Hum Relat. 2016;69(6):1287–1313. https://doi.org/10.1177/00187267156110642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Walk M, Handy F. Job crafting as reaction to organizational change. J Appl Behav Sci. 2018;54(3):349–370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886318777227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Berg JM, Dutton JE, Wrzesniewski A. Job crafting and meaningful work. In: Dik BJ, Byrne ZS, Steger MF, editors. Purpose and meaning in the workplace. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2013. p. 81–104.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Bakker AB, Rodriquez-Munoz A, Vergel AIS. Modelling job crafting behaviours: implications for work engagement. Hum Relat. 2015;69(1):169–189. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726715581690.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Petrou P, Demerouti E, Peeters MCW. Crafting a job on a daily basis: contextual correlates and the link to work engagement. J Organ Behav. 2012;33:1120–1141. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1783.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tims M, Bakker AB, Derks D. The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. J Occup Health Psychol. 2013;18(2):230–240. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032141.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Bakker AB, Tims M, Derks D. Proactive personality and job performance: the role of job crafting and work engagement. Hum Relat. 2013;65:1359–1378. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712453471.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Stajkovia AD, Luthans F. Self-efficacy and work related performance: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 1998;124(2):240–261. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bandura A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1986.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman; 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Wrzesmiewski A. Finding positive meaning in work. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE, editors. Positive organization scholarship: foundations of a new discipline. San Fransisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler; 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Lazazzara A, Tims M, de Gennaro D. The process of reinventing a job: a meta-synthesis of qualitative job crafting research. J Vocat Behav. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.01.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Demerouti E, Peeters MC. Transmission of reduction-oriented crafting among colleagues: a diary study on the moderating role of working conditions. J Occup Organ Psychol. 2018;91(2):209–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Allaire SH, Li W, LaValley M. Reduction of job loss in persons with rheumatic diseases receiving vocational rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48(11):3212–3218. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.11256.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Brzykcy AZ, Boehm SA, Baldridge DC. Fostering sustainable careers across the lifespan: the role of disability, idiosyncratic deals and perceived work ability. J Vocat Behav. 2019;112:185–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.02.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Dong S, Geyer P, Hinton T, Chin A. Accommodation request strategies among employees with disabilities: Impacts and associated factors. Rehabil Couns Bull. 2019;63(3):168–178. https://doi.org/10.1177/0034355219834630.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Markel KS, Barclay LA. Professionals with disabilities: crafting a meaningful career. Acad Manag Proc. 2015;2015(1):11938. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp2015.11938abstract.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Antao L, Shaw L, Ollson K, Reen K, To F, Bossers A, Cooper L. Chronic pain in episodic illness and its influence on work occupations: a scoping review. Work. 2013;44(1):11–36. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-01559.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Mehnert A, Koch U. Predictors of employment among cancer survivors after medical rehabilitation: a prospective study. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013;39(1):76–87. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Tait RC. Presenteesim and pain: Psychosocial and demographic correlates of employment and disabiltiy. Pain Med. 2013;14(11):1617–1618. https://doi.org/10.1111/pme.12256.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Qualtrics. 2020. www.qualtrics.com.

  32. 32.

    Slemp GR, Vella-Brodrick DA. The job crafting questionnaire: a new scale to measure the extent to which employees engage in job crafting. Int J Wellbeing. 2013;3(2):126–146. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v3i2.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs.

  34. 34.

    Kulkarni M, Lengnick-Hall ML. Socialization of people with disabilities in the workplace. Resour Manag Hum. 2011;50(4):521–540. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20436.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Colella A, Varma A. The impact of subordinate disability on leader-member exchange relationships. Acad Manag. 2001;44(2):304–315.

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Galvão MF, Lemos AH, Cavazotte FD. Revisiting the mainstream: The meaning of work for people with acquired disabilities. RAM Rev Adm Mackenzie. 2018;19(spe):eRAMD180079. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-6971/eramd180079.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    King Z. Career self-management: Its nature, causes and consequences. J Voc Behav. 2004;65(1):112–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00052-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Kossek EE, Roberts K, Fisher S, Demarr B. Career self-management: A quasi-experimental assessment of the effects of a training intervention. Pers Psychol. 1998;51(4):935–960.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Kulkarni M, Gopakumar KV. Career management strategies of people with disabilities. Hum Resour Manage. 2014;53(3):445–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Van den Heuvel M, Demerouti E, Peeters MC. The job crafting intervention: effects on job resources, self-efficacy, and affective well-being. J Occup Organ Psychol. 2015;88(2):1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Rudolph CW, Katz IM, Lavigne KN, Zacher H. Job crafting: a meta-analysis of relationships with individual differences, job characteristics, and work outcomes. J Vocat Behav. 2017;102:112–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.05.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Brucker DL, Henly M. American full-time workers with activity limitations are less likely to hold good quality jobs. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire; 2019.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This project was funded by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) under cooperative agreement number 90IFFE0008-02. The findings and conclusions are those of the authors and do not represent the views of NIDILRR. The authors retain sole responsibility for any errors or omissions.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Debra L. Brucker.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Debra L. Brucker and Vidya Sundar declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Brucker, D.L., Sundar, V. Job Crafting Among American Workers with Disabilities. J Occup Rehabil 30, 575–587 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-020-09889-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Job crafting
  • Disability
  • Work
  • Employment