Advertisement

Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 489–501 | Cite as

A Review of Occupational Knee Disorders

  • Christopher R. ReidEmail author
  • Pamela McCauley Bush
  • Nancy H. Cummings
  • Dianne L. McMullin
  • Samiullah K. Durrani
Article

Abstract

Introduction Lower extremity knee disorders, like other cumulative disorders of the body, build up over time through cumulative exposures. 2006 data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reveal that cumulative knee disorders account for 65% of lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders and 5% of total body musculoskeletal disorders. Methods The objective of the literature review was to find papers on work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) common to the knee region. From these, symptoms of the disorders, affected industries, and potential risk factors were assessed. Results A review of the literature divulges that knee disorders primarily consist of bursitis, meniscal lesions or tears, and osteoarthritis. Though kneeling and squatting are considered to be two of the primary risk factors correlated to these knee disorders, 12 other risk factors should also be contemplated. These 14 contributing risk factors include both occupational (extrinsic) and personal (intrinsic) variables that affect the labor industries. Example industries include mining, construction, manufacturing, and custodial services where knee bending postural activities exist as a commonality. Conclusion The understanding of the types of knee disorders, the affected occupations, and the job related risk factors will allow ergonomic practitioners and researchers to create and adjust work environments for the detection and lessening of knee work-related musculoskeletal risk. Further studies need to be conducted to (1) justify the presence of risk from certain risk factors and (2) enhance the understanding of risk factor dose–response levels and their temporal development.

Keywords

Lower extremity Occupational knee disorder Knee bursitis Knee meniscal lesion Knee osteoarthritis Work-related musculoskeletal disorders 

References

  1. 1.
    National Safety Council. Injury facts 2008 edition. Itasca: National Safety Council; 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bureau of Labor Statistics. Workplace injuries and illnesses in 2006. Annual Report. Washington D.C.: United States Department of Labor; 2007. Report No.: 07-1562.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morken T, Mehlum IS, Moen BE. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Norway’s offshore petroleum industry. Occup Med. 2007;57(2):112–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Safety Council. Injury facts. 2007 edition ed. Itasca: National Safety Council; 2007.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baker P, Reading I, Cooper C, Coggon D. Knee disorders in the general population and their relation to occupation. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:794–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kivimaki J, Riihimaki H, Hanninen K. Knee disorders in carpet and floor layers and painters: part II: knee symptoms and patellofemoral indices. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1994;26:97–101.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    National Research Council. Musculoskeletal disorders and the workplace: low back and upper extremities. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press; 2001.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Myllymaki T, Tikkakoski T, Typpo T, Kivimaki J, Suramo I. Carpet-layer’s knee: an ultrasonographic study. Acta Radiol. 1993;34:496–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moore SM, Steiner ME, Mayton AG, Fitzgerald GK, Hubert JP. Keeping knees healthy in restricted work spaces: applications in low-seam mining. CDC Information Circular 9504. Pittsburgh: Department of Health and Human Services (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health); 2008. Report No.: 2008-130.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sharrard WJW. In: Pressure effects on the knee in kneeling miners Joseph henry lecture May 15, 1964; Sheffield, UK.; 1965. p. 309–24.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thun M, Tanaka S, Smith AB, Halperin WE, Lee ST, Luggen ME, et al. Morbidity from repetitive knee trauma in carpet and floor layers. British J Ind Med. 1987;44:611–20.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Watkins JT, Hunt TA, Fernandez RHP, Edmonds OP. A clinical study of beat knee. British J Ind Med. 1958;15:105–9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jensen LK, Mikkelsen S, Loft IP, Eenberg W. Work-related knee disorders in floor layers and carpenters. J Occup Environ Med. 2000;42(8):835–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kivimaki J, Riihimaki H, Hanninen K. Knee disorders in carpet and floor layers and painters. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1992;18:310–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bruchal LC. Occupational knee disorders: an overview. In: Brittner AC, Champney PC, editors. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety. 7th ed. London: Taylor & Francis; 1995.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Torner M, Almstrom C, Karlsson R, Kadefors R. Working on a moving surface-a biomechanical analysis of musculoskeletal load due to ship motions in combination with work. Ergonomics. 1994;37(2):345–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bhattacharya A, Mueller M, Putz-Anderson V. Traumatogenic factors affecting the knees of carpet installers. Appl Ergon. 1985;16(4):243–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Village J, Morrison JB, Leyland A. Biomechanical comparison of carpet-stretching devices. Ergonomics. 1993;36(8):899–909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sharrard WJW, Liddell FDK. Injuries to the semilunar cartilages of the knee in miners. British J Ind Med. 1962;19:195–202.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Atkins JB. Internal derangement of knee joint in miners. British J Ind Med. 1957;14:121–6.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jensen LK, Eenberg W. Occupation as a risk factor for knee disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996;22:165–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kivimaki J. Occupationally related ultrasonic findings in carpet and floor layers’ knees. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1992;18(6):400–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McMillan G, Nichols L. Osteoarthritis and meniscus disorders of the knee as occupational diseases of miners. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:567–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baker P, Coggon D, Reading I, Barrett D, McLaren M, Cooper C. Sports injury, occupational physical activity, joint laxity, and meniscal damage. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(3):557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Felson DT. Osteoarthritis of the knee. New Engl J Med. 2006;354:841–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    What is osteoarthritis? [homepage on the Internet]. http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/osteoarthritis-basics. Accessed 14 Jan 2010.
  27. 27.
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS. Atlas of standard radiographs, vol 2: the epidemiology of chronic rheumatism. Oxford: Blackwells Scientific Publications; 1963.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jensen LK, Mikkelsen S, Loft IP, Eenberg W, Bergmann I, Logager V. Radiographic knee osteoarthritis in floorlayers and carpenters. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26:257–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sandmark H, Hogstedt C, Vingard E. Primary osteoarthritis of the knee in men and women as a result of lifelong physical load from work. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26(1):20–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vingard E, Alfredsson L, Goldie I, Hogstedt C. Occupation and osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: a register-based cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 1991;20(4):1025–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Partridge REH, Duthie JJR. Rheumatism in dockers and civil servants: a comparison of heavy manual and sedentary workers. Ann Rheum Dis. 1968;27:559–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Anderson JJ, Felson DT. Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the first national health and nutrition examination survey (hanes I). Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128(1):179–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coggon D, Croft P, Kellingray S, Barrett D, McLaren M, Cooper C. Occupational physical activities and osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43(7):1443–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cooper C, McAlindon T, Coggon D, Egger P, Dieppe P. Occupational activity and osteoarthritis of the knee. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994;53:90–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Felson DT, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Berkeley J, Gordon G, Wilson PWF, et al. Occupational physical demands, knee bending, and knee osteoarthritis: results from the framingham study. J Rheumatol. 1991;18(10):1587–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lau EC, Cooper C, Lam D, Chan VNH, Tsang KK, Sham A. Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in Hong Kong Chinese: obesity, joint injury and occupational activities. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:855–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    BMI—body mass index: BMI for adults [homepage on the Internet]. 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/adult_BMI/about_adult_BMI.htm. Accessed 27 July 2009.
  38. 38.
    Manninen P, Heliovaara M, Riihimaki H, Suomalainen O. Physical workload and the risk of severe knee osteoarthritis. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002;28(1):25–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    D’Souza JC, Werner RA, Keyserling WM, Gillespie B, Rabourn R, Ulin S, et al. Analysis of the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III) using expert ratings of job categories. Am J Ind Med. 2008;51:37–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    US Department of Labor. Dictionary of occupational titles (DOT). 4th ed. Washington: US Government Printing Office; 1977.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reid CR, Bush PM, Karwowski W, Durrani SK. Occupational postural activity and lower extremity discomfort: a review. Int J Ind Ergon. 2010;40(3):247–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sobti A, Cooper C, Inskip H, Searle S, Coggon D. Occupational physical activity and long-term risk of musculoskeletal symptoms: a national survey of post office pensioners. Am J Ind Med. 1997;32:76–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    D’Souza JC, Franzblau A, Werner RA. Review of epidemiologic studies on occupational factors and lower extremity musculoskeletal and vascular disorders and symptoms. J Occup Rehabil. 2005;15(2):129–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Euser AM, Zoccali C, Jager KJ, Dekker FW. Cohort studies: prospective versus retrospective. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;113(3):c214–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Noordzij M, Dekker FW, Zoccali C, Jager KJ. Study designs in clinical research. Nephron Clin Pract. 2009;113:c218–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jin S, McCulloch R, Mirka GA. Biomechanical evaluation of postures assumed when harvesting from bush crops. Int J Ind Ergon. 2009;39(2):347–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Air stretcher (AS-1000 rev. 1) [homepage on the Internet]. 2009. http://www.carpetairstretcher.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5&Itemid=13. Accessed 14 Apr 2010.
  48. 48.
    Honda—walk assist and mobility devices [homepage on the Internet]. 2009. http://corporate.honda.com/innovation/walk-assist/. Accessed 13 Jan 2010.
  49. 49.
    UC berkeley human engineering laboratory [homepage on the Internet]. http://bleex.me.berkeley.edu/bleex.htm. Accessed 13 Jan 2010.
  50. 50.
    HULC [homepage on the Internet]. 2010. http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/hulc/index.html. Accessed 13 Jan 2010.
  51. 51.
    What’s “HAL” (hybrid assistive limb®)? [homepage on the Internet]. 2009. http://www.cyberdyne.jp/english/robotsuithal/index.html. Accessed 13 Jan 2010.
  52. 52.
    Porter W, Mayton A, Moore S. Pressure distribution on the anatomic landmarks of the knee and the effect of kneepads. Appl Ergon. (Forthcoming) 2010.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reid CR, Bush PM, Karwowski W, McMullin DL. In: The need for a lower extremity risk assessment model. Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society 53rd annual meeting, San Antonio; 2009. p. 887–91.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chen JC, Dennerlein JT, Shih TS, Chen CJ, Cheng Y, Chang WP, et al. Knee pain and driving duration: a secondary analysis of taxi drivers’ health study. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(4):575–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rossignol M, Leclerc A, Allaert FA, Rozenberg S, Valat JP, Avouac B, et al. Primary osteoarthritis of hip, knee, and hand in relation to occupational exposure. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:772–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Standard occupational classification. London: HMSO; 1991.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Campbell L, Pannett B, Egger P, Cooper C, Coggon D. Validity of a questionnaire for assessing occupational activities. Am J Ind Med. 1997;31(4):422–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Croft P, Cooper C, Wickham C, Coggon D. Osteoarthritis of the hip and occupational activity. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1992;18(1):59–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher R. Reid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pamela McCauley Bush
    • 1
  • Nancy H. Cummings
    • 2
  • Dianne L. McMullin
    • 3
  • Samiullah K. Durrani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial Engineering & Management SystemsUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Athletic Training Education ProgramFlorida Southern CollegeLakelandUSA
  3. 3.Ergonomics ApplicationsSalemUSA

Personalised recommendations