Skip to main content

A Comparative Study on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Plywood Panels Prepared by Chitosan as Bio-Adhesive


This study aims to make environment-friendly plywood panels acceptable in terms of both mechanical and physical properties using chitosan as a natural binder. Five-layer poplar plywood specimens were prepared with two different commercial adhesives, namely urea-formaldehyde (UF) and methylene diphenyl isocyanate (MDI), and compared with chitosan (CH). For evaluation, mechanical properties such as modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), glue line shear strength, surface soundness, and physical properties such as thickness swelling (TS), water absorption (WA) of the samples were studied. Variable parameters were: adhesive type (UF, MDI, and CH), adhesive content (2, 4, and 6 wt%), and adhesive spread rate (150 and 180 g/m2). Other parameters such as pressing time (10 min), press pressure (30 kg/cm2) and press temperature (140 ºC) were held constant. Data analysis revealed that the mechanical properties differed significantly among the board types. Based on the findings of this study, the MOR properties of the panels slightly increased when the resin content increased from 150 to 180 g/m2. The results of shear strength and surface soundness showed that boards made with chitosan as a binder, had the same results as those made with UF resin. In general, WA and TS decreased (improved) with the increase of resin content. The test results showed that the lowest TS observed in chitosan boards was 4% chitosan with a 180 g/m2 spread rate, which is better than UF plywood and, close to the results of MDI specimens. According to the measured parameters, 4% chitosan with a spread rate of 180 g/m2 can be considered the optimal binder composition for plywood manufacturing. The overall results show that chitosan has potential as a replacement resin material for plywood manufacturing.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. Xi X, Pizzi A, Lei H, Zhang B, Chen X, Du G (2022) Environmentally friendly chitosan adhesives for plywood bonding. Int J Adhes Adhes 112:103027

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Norström E, Demircan D, Fogelström L, Khabbaz F, Malmström E (2018) Chap. 4: Green Binders for Wood Adhesives. Applied Adhesive Bonding in Science and Technology, pp 49–71

  3. Heinrich LA (2019) Future opportunities for bio-based adhesives –advantages beyond renewability. Green Chem 21:1866–1888

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anonymous (2012) Chemical agents and related occupations. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 100 A review of human carcinogens.

  5. Todorovic T, Norström E, Khabbaz F, Brücher J, Malmström E, Fogelström L (2021) A fully bio-based wood adhesive valorizing hemicellulose-rich sidestreams from the pulp industry. Green Chem 23:3322–3333

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Pichelin F, Nakatani M, Pizzi A, Wieland S, Despres A, Rigolet S (2006) Structural beams from thick wood panels bonded industrially with formaldehyde-free tannin adhesives. For Prod J 56:31–36

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Tabarsa T, Jahanshahi SH, Ashori A (2011) Mechanical and physical properties of wheat straw boards bonded with tannin modified phenol– formaldehyde adhesive. Compos Part B 42:176–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ghaffar SH, Fan M (2014) Lignin in straw and its applications as an adhesive. Int J Adhes Adhes 48:92–101

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Pizzi A (2006) Recent developments in eco-efficient bio-based adhesives for wood bonding: opportunities and issues. J Adhes Sci Technol 20:829–846

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Mo X, Sun XS (2013) Soy proteins as plywood adhesives: formulation and characterization. J Adhes Sci Technol 27:2014–2026

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Liu Y, Li K (2007) Development and characterization of adhesives from soy protein for bonding wood. Int J Adhes Adhes 27:59–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Umemura K, Kawai S (2007) Preparation and characterization of maillard reacted chitosan films with hemicellulose model compound. J Appl Polym Sci 108:2481–2487

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Umemura K, Kaiho K, Kawai S (2009) Characterization of bagasse-rind particleboard bonded with chitosan. J Appl Polym Sci 113:2103–2108

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Huang E, Cao Y, Duan X, Yan Y, Wang Z, Jin C (2021) Cross-linked chitosan as an eco-friendly binder for high-performance wood-based fiberboard. Int J Polm Sci 8671384:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  15. Mati-Baouche N, Elchinger PH, Baynast H, Pierre G, Delattre C, Michaud P(2014) () Chitosan as an adhesive. Eur Polym J 60:198–212

  16. Gorgij R, Tarmian A, Karimi AN (2014) Effect of chitosan on the mold resistance of wood and its surface properties. Int J Lignocel Prod 1(1):39–49

    Google Scholar 

  17. Silvestre J, Delattre C, Michaud P, Baynast H (2021) Optimization of chitosan properties with the aim of a water resistant adhesive development. Polymers 13:4031

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Kim U-J, Lee YR, Kang TH, Choi JW, Kimura S, Wada M (2017) Protein adsorption of dialdehyde cellulose-crosslinked chitosan with high amino group contents. Carbohyd Polym 163:34–42

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Jiang Y, Liu B, Xu J, Pan K, Hou H, Hu J, Yang J (2018) Cross-linked chitosan/β-cyclodextrin composite for selective removal of methyl orange: adsorption performance and mechanism. Carbohyd Polym 182:106–114

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Alam Md N, Christopher LP (2018) Natural cellulose-chitosan cross-linked superabsorbent Hydrogels with Superior Swelling Properties. ACS Sust Chem Eng 6(7):8736–8742

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Ji X, Dong Y, Yu R, Du W, Gu X, Guo M (2018) Simple production of medium density fiberboards (MDF) reinforced with chitosan. Holzforschung 72:275–281

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Basturk MA (2012) Heat applied chitosan treatment on hardwood chips to improve physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. BioResources 7(4):4858–4688

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alireza Ashori.

Ethics declarations

Financial Support

No financial support was received.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Disclosures & Disclaimer

This article does not contain any studies involving animals or human participants performed by any of the authors.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent


Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Talaei, A., Ashori, A. & Heydari, V. A Comparative Study on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Plywood Panels Prepared by Chitosan as Bio-Adhesive. J Polym Environ (2022).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Chitosan
  • Plywood
  • Mechanical properties
  • Dimensional stability