Journal of Polymers and the Environment

, Volume 26, Issue 7, pp 3097–3108 | Cite as

Functionalization of Extracellular Polymers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6 for Synthesis of CdS Nanoparticles and Cadmium Bioadsorption

  • Jaya Chakraborty
  • Sagarika Mallick
  • Ritu Raj
  • Surajit Das
Original Paper


Functionalization of the extracellular polymers (EPS) of a marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6 was carried out for cadmium (Cd) bioadsorption from an aqueous solution which led to the synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs). Characterization of pristine, functionalized and Cd-treated functionalized EPS was accomplished by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy which illustrated Cd binding with the sulfhydryl (–SH) group. The XRD pattern confirmed the presence of CdS NPs on the functionalized EPS with diffraction peaks at 2θ = 27.45° and 32.66° indexed to (111) and (220) planes of cubic phase CdS. Maximum Cd adsorption was observed by the functionalized EPS which removed 88.86 ± 0.65% of Cd at pH 6.6 in 48 h. However, pristine EPS and bacterial cell biomass removed 83.61 ± 0.50% and 29.75 ± 0.73% of Cd respectively from aqueous solution. The experimental data of Cd adsorption thermodynamics by functionalized EPS fitted in Langmuir isotherm model. CdS NPs synthesis by functionalized EPS was evident by UV–Vis spectrum with a characteristic peak at 462 nm and Transmission electron microscopy with an average diameter of 8–10 nm. This work delivers an environment-friendly approach for efficient Cd removal from aqueous solution in the form of CdS NPs synthesis.


Marine bacteria Extracellular polymers Functionalization Cadmium CdS NPs Bioadsorption 



Authors would like to acknowledge the authorities of NIT, Rourkela for providing facilities. S. D. thanks the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for research grants on marine bacterial biofilm-based enhanced bioremediation of PAHs and heavy metals. We would like to acknowledge Bose Institute, Kolkata for providing the AAS facility.

Supplementary material

10924_2018_1195_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 1151 KB)


  1. 1.
    Crea F, Foti C, Milea D, Silvio S (2013) Speciation of cadmium in the environment. In: Sigel A, Sigel H, Sigel RKO (eds) From toxicity to essentiality, 1st edn. Springer, Netherlands, pp 63–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Faroon O, Ashizawa A, Wright S, Tucker P, Jenkins K, Ingerman L, Rudisill C (2012) Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. In: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, GA, USA, pp 1–487Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manag 92:407–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hodson ME (2010) The need for sustainable soil remediation. Elements 6:363–368. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dash HR, Mangwani N, Chakraborty J, Kumari S, Das S (2013) Marine bacteria: potential candidates for enhanced bioremediation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:561–571. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freitas F, Alves VD, Reis MAM (2011) Advances in bacterial exopolysaccharides: from production to biotechnological applications. Trends Biotechnol 29:388–398. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flemming HC, Wingender J (2010) The biofilm matrix. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:623–633. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pal A, Paul AK (2008) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances: central elements in heavy metal bioremediation. Indian J Microbiol 48:49–64. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guibaud G, Bhatia D, d’Abzac P, Bourven I, Bordas F (2012) Cd(II) and Pb(II) sorption by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from anaerobic granular biofilms: evidence of a pH sorption-edge. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 43:444–449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    More TT, Yadav JSS, Yan S, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY (2014) Extracellular polymeric substances of bacteria and their potential environmental applications. J Environ Manag 144:1–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sutherland IW (2001) Microbial polysaccharides from gram-negative bacteria. Int Dairy J 11:663–674. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kurniawan TA, Chan GYS, Lo WH, Babel S (2006) Comparisons of low-cost adsorbents for treating wastewaters laden with heavy metals. Sci Total Environ 366:409–426. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barakat MA (2011) New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arab J Chem 4:361–377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gupta VK, Ali I, Saleh TA, Nayak A, Agrawal S (2012) Chemical treatment technologies for waste-water recycling—an overview. RSC Adv 2:6380. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patil SS, Shedbalkar UU, Truskewycz A, Chopade BA, Ball AS (2016) Nanoparticles for environmental clean-up: A review of potential risks and emerging solutions. Environ Technol Innov 5:10–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matlochová A, Plachá D, Rapantová N (2013) The application of nanoscale materials in groundwater remediation. Pol J Environ Stud 22:1401–1410Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Das SK, Shome I, Guha AK (2012) Surface functionalization of Aspergillus versicolor mycelia: in situ fabrication of cadmium sulphide nanoparticles and removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution. RSC Adv 2:3000. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Quintelas C, Tavares T (2001) Removal of chromium(VI) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solution by a bacterial biofilm supported on granular activated carbon. Biotechnol Lett 23:1349–1353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bai HJ, Zhang ZM, Guo Y, Yang GE (2009) Biosynthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles by photosynthetic bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Colloids Surf B 70:142–146. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anirudhan TS, Sreekumari SS (2011) Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons. J Environ Sci 23:1989–1998. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bian R, Joseph S, Cui L, Pan G, Li L, Liu X, Zhang A, Rutlidge H, Wong S, Chia C, Marjo C, Gong B, Munroe P, Donne C (2014) A three-year experiment confirms continuous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated paddy field with biochar amendment. J Hazard Mater 272:121–128. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fulekar MH, Pathak B, Kale RK (2014) Environment and sustainable development. Environ Sustain Dev 9788132211:1–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raj R, Dalei K, Chakraborty J, Das S (2016) Extracellular polymeric substances of a marine bacterium mediated synthesis of CdS nanoparticles for removal of cadmium from aqueous solution. J Colloid Interface Sci 462:166–175. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mangwani N, Kumari S, Das S (2015) Involvement of quorum sensing genes in biofilm development and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:10283–10297. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mangwani N, Shukla SK, Rao TS, Das S (2014) Calcium-mediated modulation of Pseudomonas mendocina NR802 biofilm influences the phenanthrene degradation. Colloids Surf B 114:301–309. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumari S, Mahapatra S, Das S (2017) Ca-alginate as a support matrix for Pb(II) biosorption with immobilized biofilm associated extracellular polymeric substances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6. Chem Eng J 328:556–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Panda GC, Das SK, Bandopadhyay TS, Guha AK (2007) Adsorption of nickel on husk of Lathyrus sativus: behavior and binding mechanism. Colloids Surf B 57:135–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Albalasmeh AA, Berhe AA, Ghezzehei TA (2013) A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry. Carbohydr Polym 97:253–261. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Silvério SC, Moreira S, Milagres AMF, Macedo EA, Teixeira JA, Mussatto SL (2012) Interference of some aqueous two-phase system phase-forming components in protein determination by the Bradford method. Anal Biochem 421:719–724. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li X, Wu Y, Zhang L, Cao Y, Li Y, Li J, Zhu L, Wu G (2014) Comparison of three common DNA concentration measurement methods. Anal Biochem 451:18–24. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chakravarty R, Banerjee PC (2012) Mechanism of cadmium binding on the cell wall of an acidophilic bacterium. Bioresour Technol 108:176–183. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wei X, Fang L, Cai P, Huang Q, Chen H, Liang W, Rong X (2011) Influence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on Cd adsorption by bacteria. Environ Pollut 159:1369–1374. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Omoike A, Chorover J (2006) Adsorption to goethite of extracellular polymeric substances from Bacillus subtilis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:827–838. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jiang W, Saxena A, Song B, Ward BB, Beveridge TJ, Myneni SCB (2004) Elucidation of functional groups on gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial surfaces using infrared spectroscopy. Langmuir 20:11433–11442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chakraborty J, Das S (2014) Characterization and cadmium-resistant gene expression of biofilm-forming marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa JP-11. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:14188–14201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lu X, Al-Qadiri HM, Lin M, Rasco BA (2011) Application of mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy to the study of bacteria. Food Bioprocess Technol 4:919–935. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schue M, Fekete A, Ortet P, Brutesco C, Heulin T, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Achouak W, Santaella C (2011) Modulation of metabolism and switching to biofilm prevail over exopolysaccharide production in the response of Rhizobium alamii to cadmium. PLoS ONE. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khiew PS, Huang NM, Radiman S, Ahmad MS (2004) Synthesis and characterization of conducting polyaniline-coated cadmium sulphide nanocomposites in reverse microemulsion. Mater Lett 58:516–521. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS, Vyvyan JA (2000) Introduction to spectroscopy, 4th edn. Cengage Learning, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cullity BD, Stock SR (2001) Elements of X-ray diffraction. Addison-Wesley publishing company, Inc, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deng X, Wang P (2012) Isolation of marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury and their bioaccumulation process. Bioresour Technol 121:342–347. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Poli A, Anzelmo G, Nicolaus B (2010) Bacterial exopolysaccharides from extreme marine habitats: production, characterization and biological activities. Mar Drugs 8:1779–1802. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kumar Meena A, Mishra GK, Kumar S, Rajagopal C, Nagar PN (2004) Adsorption of cadmium(II) Ions from aqueous solution using different adsorbents. J Sci Ind Res 63:410–416Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lopez A, Lazaro N, Priego JM, Marques AM (2000) Effect of pH on the biosorption of nickel and other heavy metals by Pseudomonas fluorescens 4F39. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 24:146–151. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cordero B, Lodeiro P, Herrero R, Sastre De Vicente ME (2004) Biosorption of cadmium by Fucus spiralis. Environ Chem 1:180–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kadirvelu K, Namasivayam C (2003) Activated carbon from coconut coirpith as metal adsorbent: adsorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Adv Environ Res 7:471–478. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Taty-Costodes VC, Fauduet H, Porte C, Delacroix A (2003) Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, from aqueous solutions, by adsorption onto sawdust of Pinus sylvestris. J Hazard Mater 105:121–142. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pearson RG (1989) Absolute electronegativity and hardness: applications to organic chemistry. J Org Chem 54:1423–1430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hameed B, Din A, Ahmad A (2007) Adsorption of methylene blue onto bamboo-based activated carbon: kinetics and equilibrium studies. J Hazard Mater 141:819–825. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Desta MB (2013) Batch sorption experiments: Langmuir and freundlich isotherm studies for the adsorption of textile metal ions onto teff straw (Eragrostis tef) agricultural waste. J Thermodyn. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kavita K, Mishra A, Jha B (2011) Isolation and physico-chemical characterisation of extracellular polymeric substances produced by the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Biofouling 27:309–317. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Singh RP, Shukla MK, Mishra A, Kumari P, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2011) Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides from seaweed associated bacteria Bacillus licheniformis. Carbohydr Polym 84:1019–1026. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Comte S, Guibaud G, Baudu M (2006) Biosorption properties of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) resulting from activated sludge according to their type: soluble or bound. Process Biochem 41:815–823. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hellström P, Öberg S, Fredriksson A, Holmgren A (2006) A theoretical and experimental study of vibrational properties of alkyl xanthates. Spectrochim Acta Part A 65:887–895. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kolari M, Schmidt U, Kuismanen E, Salonen MSS (2002) Firm but slippery attachement of Deinococcus geothermalis. J Bacteriol 184:2473–2480. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cho DH, Chae HJ, Kim EY (2001) Synthesis and characterization of a novel extracellular polysaccharide by Rhodotorula glutinis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 95:183–193. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chandran P, Kumari P, Sudheer Khan S (2014) Photocatalytic activation of CdS NPs under visible light for environmental cleanup and disinfection. Sol Energy 105:542–547. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Li X, Chen S, Hu W et al (2009) In situ synthesis of CdS nanoparticles on bacterial cellulose nanofibers. Carbohydr Polym 76:509–512. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mukherjee A, Satpati B, Bhattacharyya SR, Ghosh R, Mitra P (2015) Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin film by SILAR and their characterization. Phys E 65:51–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Otten MT (1991) High Angle annular darkfield imaging on a tem/stem system. J Electron Microsc Tech 17:221–230. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaya Chakraborty
    • 1
  • Sagarika Mallick
    • 1
  • Ritu Raj
    • 1
  • Surajit Das
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Ecology (LEnME), Department of Life ScienceNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia

Personalised recommendations